Abstract

We present a theoretical model that describes the resolution and linearity of a novel transparent X-ray beam imaging and position measurement method. Using a pinhole or coded aperture camera with pixelated area sensors to image a small fraction of radiation scattered by a thin foil placed at oblique angles with respect to the beam, a very precise measurement of the beam position is made. We show that the resolution of the method is determined by incident beam intensity, beam size, camera parameters, sensor pixel size and noise. The model is verified experimentally showing a sub-micrometer resolution over a large linear range.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  3. E. D. Johnson and T. Oversluizen, “Compact high flux photon beam position monitor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(7), 1947–1950 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. R. van Silfhout, A. Kachatkou, N. Kyele, P. Scott, T. Martin, and S. Nikitenko, “High-resolution transparent x-ray beam location and imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 570–572 (2011).
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    [CrossRef]
  10. M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett.33(2), 156–158 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Y. Feng, J. Goree, and B. Liu, “Accurate particle position measurement from images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053704–053710 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  12. Q. Tian and M. N. Huhns, “Algorithms for subpixel registration,” Comput. Vision Graph.35(2), 220–233 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, “Comparison of some techniques for the subpixel location of discrete target images,” Proc. SPIE 2350, VideometricsIII, 239–250 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  15. N. Bobroff, “Position measurement with a resolution and noise-limited instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.57(6), 1152–1157 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in X-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J.208, 177–190 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  17. F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
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  20. F. Zontone, European Synchrotron Radiat Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble, France (personal communication, 2012). Kapton scattering cross section coefficients: a0 = 6.21567 × 10−7, a1 = −9.62581 × 10−8, a2 = 7.86926 × 10−9, a3 = −2.85194 × 10−10, a4 = 3.78401 × 10−12, b0 = −6.33669 × 10−8, c0 = 0.629331, d0 = 3.25478, k0 = 0.110262, l0 = 2.72988, b1 = 7.8529 × 10−9, c1 = 1.07227, d1 = −294.699, k1 = 0.0543647, l1 = 18.5207, C = 21175.44.
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    [CrossRef]
  22. K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. E. E. Fenimore, “Coded aperture imaging: predicted performance of uniformly redundant arrays,” Appl. Opt.17(22), 3562–3570 (1978).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  26. K. A. Nugent and B. Luther-Davies, “The use of a regular array of apertures in penumbral imaging,” Opt. Commun.52(4), 287–291 (1984).
    [CrossRef]

2011

R. van Silfhout, A. Kachatkou, N. Kyele, P. Scott, T. Martin, and S. Nikitenko, “High-resolution transparent x-ray beam location and imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 570–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Revesz, A. B. Temnykh, and A. K. Pauling, “New X-ray scattering-based beam position monitor for high power synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A621(1-3), 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Guizar-Sicairos, S. T. Thurman, and J. R. Fienup, “Efficient subpixel image registration algorithms,” Opt. Lett.33(2), 156–158 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

Y. Feng, J. Goree, and B. Liu, “Accurate particle position measurement from images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053704–053710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1994

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, “Comparison of some techniques for the subpixel location of discrete target images,” Proc. SPIE 2350, VideometricsIII, 239–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Allinson, “Development of Non-intensified charge-coupled device area X-ray detectors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.1(1), 54–62 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989

E. D. Johnson and T. Oversluizen, “Compact high flux photon beam position monitor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(7), 1947–1950 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

A. Oed, “Position-sensitive detector with microstrip anode for electron multiplication with gases,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A263(2-3), 351–359 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986

Q. Tian and M. N. Huhns, “Algorithms for subpixel registration,” Comput. Vision Graph.35(2), 220–233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. Bobroff, “Position measurement with a resolution and noise-limited instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.57(6), 1152–1157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1984

K. A. Nugent and B. Luther-Davies, “The use of a regular array of apertures in penumbral imaging,” Opt. Commun.52(4), 287–291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1978

1976

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in X-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J.208, 177–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Alianelli, L.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alkire, R. W.

R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allinson, N. M.

N. M. Allinson, “Development of Non-intensified charge-coupled device area X-ray detectors,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.1(1), 54–62 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballabriga, R.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Baret, G.

T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Benner, B.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bergamaschi, A.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bobroff, N.

N. Bobroff, “Position measurement with a resolution and noise-limited instrument,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.57(6), 1152–1157 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Bowyer, S.

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in X-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J.208, 177–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Clarke, T. A.

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, “Comparison of some techniques for the subpixel location of discrete target images,” Proc. SPIE 2350, VideometricsIII, 239–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Degenhardt, M.

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinapoli, R.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dolbnya, I. P.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Drakopoulos, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Evans, G.

R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, J. Goree, and B. Liu, “Accurate particle position measurement from images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053704–053710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fenimore, E. E.

Fienup, J. R.

Fuchs, M. R.

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Garrett, R.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Gentle, I.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goree, J.

Y. Feng, J. Goree, and B. Liu, “Accurate particle position measurement from images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053704–053710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guizar-Sicairos, M.

Hahn, U.

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heijne, E.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Henrich, B.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holldack, K.

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horisberger, R.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Huhns, M. N.

Q. Tian and M. N. Huhns, “Algorithms for subpixel registration,” Comput. Vision Graph.35(2), 220–233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ilinski, P.

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jobert, P. P.

T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, E. D.

E. D. Johnson and T. Oversluizen, “Compact high flux photon beam position monitor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(7), 1947–1950 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, I.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kachatkou, A.

Kachatkou, A. S.

P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Konovalov, O.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kyele, N.

Kyele, N. R.

P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lampton, M.

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in X-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J.208, 177–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lengeler, B.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lesimple, F.

T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Y. Feng, J. Goree, and B. Liu, “Accurate particle position measurement from images,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.78(5), 053704–053710 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llopart, X.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

K. A. Nugent and B. Luther-Davies, “The use of a regular array of apertures in penumbral imaging,” Opt. Commun.52(4), 287–291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, A.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Margon, B.

M. Lampton, B. Margon, and S. Bowyer, “Parameter-estimation in X-ray astronomy,” Astrophys. J.208, 177–190 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Martin, T.

R. van Silfhout, A. Kachatkou, N. Kyele, P. Scott, T. Martin, and S. Nikitenko, “High-resolution transparent x-ray beam location and imaging,” Opt. Lett.36(4), 570–572 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mozzanica, A.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, U.

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nikitenko, S.

Nugent, K.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent and B. Luther-Davies, “The use of a regular array of apertures in penumbral imaging,” Opt. Commun.52(4), 287–291 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Oed, A.

A. Oed, “Position-sensitive detector with microstrip anode for electron multiplication with gases,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A263(2-3), 351–359 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Oversluizen, T.

E. D. Johnson and T. Oversluizen, “Compact high flux photon beam position monitor,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.60(7), 1947–1950 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Pauling, A. K.

P. Revesz, A. B. Temnykh, and A. K. Pauling, “New X-ray scattering-based beam position monitor for high power synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A621(1-3), 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pedersen, U. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Preece, G. M.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, G.

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Revesz, P.

P. Revesz, A. B. Temnykh, and A. K. Pauling, “New X-ray scattering-based beam position monitor for high power synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A621(1-3), 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Richwin, M.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rosenbaum, G.

R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sawhney, K. J. S.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmid, E.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schmitt, B.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schreiber, A.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Schroer, C.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Schulte-Schrepping, H.

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Scott, P.

Scott, P. F. I.

P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shi, X.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
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[CrossRef]

Shortis, M. R.

M. R. Shortis, T. A. Clarke, and T. Short, “Comparison of some techniques for the subpixel location of discrete target images,” Proc. SPIE 2350, VideometricsIII, 239–250 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Snigirev, A.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Snigireva, I.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Temnykh, A. B.

P. Revesz, A. B. Temnykh, and A. K. Pauling, “New X-ray scattering-based beam position monitor for high power synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A621(1-3), 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Theidel, G.

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Thurman, S. T.

Tian, Q.

Q. Tian and M. N. Huhns, “Algorithms for subpixel registration,” Comput. Vision Graph.35(2), 220–233 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Tiwari, M. K.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tlustos, L.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tummler, J.

B. Lengeler, C. Schroer, J. Tummler, B. Benner, M. Richwin, A. Snigirev, I. Snigireva, and M. Drakopoulos, “Imaging by parabolic refractive lenses in the hard X-ray range,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.6(6), 1153–1167 (1999).
[CrossRef]

van Silfhout, R.

van Silfhout, R. G.

P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Walton, R. D.

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wilkins, S.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.

R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Medipix3: A 64 k pixel detector readout chip working in single photon counting mode with improved spectrometric performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A633(Supplement 1), S15–S18 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Zontone, F.

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc.

M. R. Fuchs, K. Holldack, G. Reichardt, and U. Mueller, “Transmissive imaging X-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) for protein crystallography (PX) beamlines,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 1006–1009 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ilinski, U. Hahn, H. Schulte-Schrepping, and M. Degenhardt, “Residual gas X-ray beam position monitor development for PETRA III,” AIP Conf. Proc.879, 782–785 (2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Zontone, A. Madsen, O. Konovalov, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Measuring the source brilliance at an undulator beamline,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 603–606 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. J. S. Sawhney, I. P. Dolbnya, M. K. Tiwari, L. Alianelli, S. M. Scott, G. M. Preece, U. K. Pedersen, R. D. Walton, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “A test beamline on diamond light source,” AIP Conf. Proc.1234, 387–390 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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T. Martin, G. Baret, F. Lesimple, and P. P. Jobert, “‘Semi-transparent’ X-ray beam monitor based on nanometric phosphor powder deposited on thin carbon plate,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.55(3), 1527–1531 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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R. W. Alkire, G. Rosenbaum, and G. Evans, “Design of a vacuum-compatible high-precision monochromatic beam-position monitor for use with synchrotron radiation from 5 to 25 keV,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.7(2), 61–68 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

R. Dinapoli, A. Bergamaschi, B. Henrich, R. Horisberger, I. Johnson, A. Mozzanica, E. Schmid, B. Schmitt, A. Schreiber, X. Shi, and G. Theidel, “EIGER: Next generation single photon counting detector for X-ray applications,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A650(1), 79–83 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Revesz, A. B. Temnykh, and A. K. Pauling, “New X-ray scattering-based beam position monitor for high power synchrotron radiation,” Nucl. Instrum. Meth. A621(1-3), 656–661 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. F. I. Scott, A. S. Kachatkou, N. R. Kyele, and R. G. van Silfhout, “Real-time photon beam localization methods using high-resolution imagers and parallel processing using a reconfigurable system,” Opt. Eng.48(7), 073601–073614 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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F. Zontone, European Synchrotron Radiat Facility, BP 220, F-38043 Grenoble, France (personal communication, 2012). Kapton scattering cross section coefficients: a0 = 6.21567 × 10−7, a1 = −9.62581 × 10−8, a2 = 7.86926 × 10−9, a3 = −2.85194 × 10−10, a4 = 3.78401 × 10−12, b0 = −6.33669 × 10−8, c0 = 0.629331, d0 = 3.25478, k0 = 0.110262, l0 = 2.72988, b1 = 7.8529 × 10−9, c1 = 1.07227, d1 = −294.699, k1 = 0.0543647, l1 = 18.5207, C = 21175.44.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Beam view and side view of the beam position monitor (not to scale) showing key parameters of the setup used in our model. A pinhole camera collects the X-ray radiation scattered from the highlighted area of the foil (footprint of the beam) and forms a magnified image at the sensor. A measurement of (uc, vc) is representative of the beam position (x0, z0).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Resolution factor (solid line) and resolution of image position measurements σv (dashed line) as a function of camera magnification for the CMOS indirect detection X-ray area sensor used in our experiments. Their combined effect determines the resolution of beam displacement measurements (solid line in the inset). Model parameters: α = 29°, Iint = 107 arbitrary digital units (adu), D = 5 mm, d = 125 μm, 200 × 200 μm2 beam size (as defined by slits), pinhole diameter 500 μm. The dashed line in the inset shows the effect of a “noiseless” detector (see the discussion section).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Difference between measured and actual beam displacements, εx and εz, at various beam positions in X- (a) and Z- (b) directions respectively. Beam displacement is derived from image displacement using Eq. (2). The error bars in (a) are comparable or less than the size of the markers. The insets show the near-zero region for both directions. Kapton foil thickness d = 125 µm, tilt angle α = 21°, cross aperture with slit width 100 μm, other XBPM parameters are as defined in the text.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Resolution of horizontal beam displacement measurements for our instrument as measured at bending magnet beamline B16. Circles correspond to the measured data points, whereas the solid line represents our model for this beamline. XBPM and beam parameters: scatter foil 25 µm thick Kapton tilted at α = 29°, photon flux 3 × 1010 photon/s at 15 keV, 11.8 × 11.8 μm2 FWHM beam focused with Be CRL, cross aperture with slit width 200 μm, detector integration time 1 sec.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Comparison of XBPM resolution for two different types of aperture. The XBPM model parameters are the same as in Table 1.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of calculated and measured resolution of horizontal beam displacement measurements for different aperture shapes and sizesa

Tables Icon

Table 2 Empirically obtained beam size multiplier values that describe the difference between the measured Gaussian standard deviation of the image profiles and beam image size predicted by Eq. (11)

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

u c = L z 0 x 0 v c = L tanα ( D+ d 2cosα z 0 1 ) .
Δx= D+ d 2cosα L Δu Δz= tanα( D+ d 2cosα ) L Δv .
σ Δx = 2 D+ d 2cosα L σ u σ Δz = 2 tanα D+ d 2cosα L σ v .
R( v )=MB+ A v e ( v v c ) 2 2 Γ v 2 ,
σ v = Γ v ( Δ χ 2 A v 2 N Γ v t F v ( t ) ) 1 2 ,
t F v ( t )= t t ξ 2 e ξ 2 M( B+ σ r 2 )+ A v e ξ 2 2 dξ .
A v = I int 2π N Γ v .
σ v = Γ v I int ( 2π Δ χ 2 N Γ v t F v ( t ) ) 1 2 .
I int =Φ σ scat d sinα ΔΩ DEQ K ADC T int .
σ scat =C( n=0 4 a n E n + n=0 1 b n cos( E c n d n ) e ( k n E ) l n ),
w u =a+ L z 0 ( w+a ) w v =b+ bL z 0 + L z 0 2 tanα ( d cosα ( z 0 + h 2 )+hD ) .
Γ u = w u K w ( ς ) Γ v = w v K h ( ς )

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