Abstract

The unusual dependence of femtosecond laser writing on the light polarization and direction of raster scanning is demonstrated in silica and chalcogenide glasses. Two different mechanisms contributing to the observed anisotropy are identified: the chevron-shaped stress induced by the sample movement and the pulse front tilt of ultrashort light pulse. Control of anisotropies associated with the spatio-temporal asymmetry of an ultrashort pulse beam and scanning geometry is crucial in the ultrafast laser machining of transparent materials.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. E. N. Glezer, M. Milosavljevic, L. Huang, R. J. Finlay, T. H. Her, J. P. Callan, and E. Mazur, “Three-dimensional optical storage inside transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.21(24), 2023–2025 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 119–121 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  10. L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).
  13. M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  14. Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express18(24), 24673–24678 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. S. Akturk, X. Gu, E. Zeek, and R. Trebino, “Pulse-front tilt caused by spatial and temporal chirp,” Opt. Express12(19), 4399–4410 (2004).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 789–798 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  20. W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys.30(5), 779–788 (1959).
    [CrossRef]
  21. W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  22. P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 789–798 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

2010

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. N. Vitek, E. Block, Y. Bellouard, D. E. Adams, S. Backus, D. Kleinfeld, C. G. Durfee, and J. A. Squier, “Spatio-temporally focused femtosecond laser pulses for nonreciprocal writing in optically transparent materials,” Opt. Express18(24), 24673–24678 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

2005

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

2003

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1997

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

1987

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1959

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys.30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. E.

Akturk, S.

Arai, A.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Arai, A. Y.

Backus, S.

Bellouard, Y.

Beresna, M.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bhardwaj, V. R.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Birrngruber, R.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Block, E.

Bovatsek, J.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bricchi, E.

Callan, J. P.

Champion, A.

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

A. Champion and Y. Bellouard, “Direct volume variation measurements in fused silica specimens exposed to femtosecond laser,” Opt. Mater. Express2(6), 789–798 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Corbari, C.

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

Corkum, P. B.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Davis, K. M.

Dreisow, F.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Durfee, C. G.

Finlay, R. J.

Fujimoto, J.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gawande, A.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Gecevicius, M.

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gertus, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Glezer, E. N.

Gu, X.

Heinrich, M.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Her, T. H.

Hirao, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hnatovsky, C.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, L.

Kavokin, A. V.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kazansky, P. G.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Corbari, A. Champion, M. Gecevičius, M. Beresna, Y. Bellouard, and P. G. Kazansky, “Femtosecond versus picosecond laser machining of nano-gratings and micro-channels in silica glass,” Opt. Express in press (2012).

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Beresna and P. G. Kazansky, “Polarization diffraction grating produced by femtosecond laser nanostructuring in glass,” Opt. Lett.35(10), 1662–1664 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Bricchi, B. G. Klappauf, and P. G. Kazansky, “Form birefringence and negative index change created by femtosecond direct writing in transparent materials,” Opt. Lett.29(1), 119–121 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Keil, R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Klappauf, B. G.

Kleinfeld, D.

Korovin, A. V.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Milosavljevic, M.

Miura, K.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Davis, K. Miura, N. Sugimoto, and K. Hirao, “Writing waveguides in glass with a femtosecond laser,” Opt. Lett.21(21), 1729–1731 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nesterov, A. V.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Niziev, V. G.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, U.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Post, D.

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys.30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Primak, W.

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys.30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

Puliafito, C.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rajeev, P. P.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ramirez, L. P. R.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rayner, D. M.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Richter, S.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoenlein, R.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Shimotsuma, Y.

P. G. Kazansky, Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, Y. Svirko, S. Akturk, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Photosensitivity control of an isotropic medium through polarization of light pulses with tilted intensity front,” Opt. Express19(21), 20657–20664 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simova, E.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sivakumar, N. R.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Squier, J. A.

Stanley, P.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Sugimoto, N.

Svirko, Y.

Svirko, Y. P.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tan, B.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. S.

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, T.

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Trebino, R.

Tünnermann, A.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Venkatakrishnan, K.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vitek, D. N.

Yang, W.

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Yang, E. Bricchi, P. G. Kazansky, J. Bovatsek, and A. Y. Arai, “Self-assembled periodic sub-wavelength structures by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Opt. Express14(21), 10117–10124 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeek, E.

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)

Y. Shimotsuma, M. Sakakura, P. G. Kazansky, M. Beresna, J. Qiu, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ultrafast manipulation of self-assembled form birefringence in glass,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)22(36), 4039–4043 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

P. G. Kazansky, W. Yang, E. Bricchi, J. Bovatsek, A. Arai, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, ““Quill” writing with ultrashort light pulses in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(15), 151120 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. Hnatovsky, R. S. Taylor, P. P. Rajeev, E. Simova, V. R. Bhardwaj, D. M. Rayner, and P. B. Corkum, “Pulse duration dependence of femtosecond-laser-fabricated nanogratings in fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(1), 014104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

E. N. Glezer and E. Mazur, “Ultrafast-laser driven micro-explosions in transparent materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett.71(7), 882–884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, and T. Gertus, “Radially polarized optical vortex converter created by femtosecond laser nanostructuring of glass,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(20), 201101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Beresna, M. Gecevičius, P. G. Kazansky, T. Taylor, and A. V. Kavokin, “Exciton mediated self-organization in glass driven by ultrashort light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(5), 053120 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.

L. P. R. Ramirez, M. Heinrich, S. Richter, F. Dreisow, R. Keil, A. V. Korovin, U. Peschel, S. Nolte, and A. Tünnermann, “Tuning the structural properties of femtosecond-laser-induced nanogratings,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.100(1), 1–6 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

R. Birrngruber, C. Puliafito, A. Gawande, R. Schoenlein, and J. Fujimoto, “Femtosecond laser-tissue interactions: Retinal injury studies,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(10), 1836–1844 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Venkatakrishnan, B. Tan, P. Stanley, and N. R. Sivakumar, “The effect of polarization on ultrashort pulsed laser ablation of thin metal films,” J. Appl. Phys.92(3), 1604–1607 (2002).
[CrossRef]

W. Primak and D. Post, “Photoelastic constants of vitreous silica and its elastic coefficient of refractive index,” J. Appl. Phys.30(5), 779–788 (1959).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.

V. G. Niziev and A. V. Nesterov, “Influence of beam polarization on laser cutting efficiency,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.32(13), 1455–1461 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics

W. Yang, P. G. Kazansky, and Y. P. Svirko, “Non-reciprocal ultrafast laser writing,” Nat. Photonics2(2), 99–104 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

Y. Shimotsuma, P. G. Kazansky, J. Qiu, and K. Hirao, “Self-organized nanogratings in glass irradiated by ultrashort light pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett.91(24), 247405 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Supplementary Material (1)

» Media 1: MOV (6983 KB)     

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The dependence of retardance on pulse energy for four different polarizations of laser. Strongest difference is between 45° and −45° polarization. Writing speed of structures was 200 μm/s.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscopic retardance images of the structures written with various combinations of the polarization plane direction (blue), track writing direction (black) and raster scanning direction (dashed blue).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Microscope images of the femtosecond laser written tracks in chalcogenide, borate and phosphate glasses respectively. On the left images are taken without polarizers and the right with crossed polarizers. The highest birefringence is induced in glass with the highest photoelastic coefficient.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Laser induced stress birefringence in chalcogenide glass for two perpendicular linear polarizations. Grayscale images indicate the strength of the retardance and pseudo colors represent the orientation of birefringence slow axis (see legend). The sides of the induced tracks exhibit chevron-shaped slow axis orientation directed opposite to the writing direction (dashed lines). The width of the track is 30 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic drawing describing stress and polarization geometry. The first laser written track produces chevron-shape stress (a). Grey chevrons indicate the drag of material as a result of light irradiation as sample is translated. Depending on where the next track will be written (top or bottom), polarization can be parallel or perpendicular to stress (c). Stress and polarization interaction should disappear when the distance between tracks is increased (b, d).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The influence of stress on the front of the laser modification. The modification front is perpendicular to the writing direction when distance between tracks is higher (a). When tracks are close to each other the modification front is tilted (b). Images were taken during laser modification.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fabrication of the polarization converter (Media 1).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

The dependence of retardance on the separation distance between tracks for two polarizations. For the structure fabrication algorithm see the structures number 2 (left) and 3 (right) in Fig. 2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Retardance variation for two polarizations when the structure was written at different angles. The difference in the strength of birefringence is defined by the angle between the pulse front tilt and the writing direction. Separation between tracks was 3 μm, fabrication algorithm as in the structure number 2 in Fig. 2. Arrows indicate laser writing direction (black) and the polarization plane direction (blue).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Schematics explaining observed polarization dependence. For the left image, the writing direction is at 45° with respect to the pulse front tilt; whereas an electric field is oriented perpendicular or parallel to the pulse front tilt. The stronger modification is induced for the polarization parallel to the pulse front tilt. For the right image, the writing direction is perpendicular the pulse front tilt and an electric field is always at 45 to it. As a result the structures are equivalent for both polarizations.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

R= C pe σd,
p = p ad + p sc+τc = k 0 β + φ ( 2 ) ν,

Metrics