Abstract

We present measurements of the nonlinear distortions of a traveling-wave silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator based on the carrier depletion effect. Spurious free dynamic range for second harmonic distortion of 82 dB·Hz1/2 is seen, and 97 dB·Hz2/3 is measured for intermodulation distortion. This measurement represents an improvement of 20 dB over the previous best result in silicon. We also show that the linearity of a silicon traveling wave Mach-Zehnder modulator can be improved by differentially driving it. These results suggest silicon may be a suitable platform for analog optical applications.

© 2013 OSA

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2012

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2010

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
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T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008

2007

2006

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 832–846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003

2002

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(5), 886–891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998

1997

E. I. Ackerman and A. S. Daryoush, “Broad-band external modulation fiber-optic links for antenna-remoting applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.45(8), 1436–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995

W. B. Bridges and J. H. Schaffner, “Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.43(9), 2184–2197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, E. I.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. I. Ackerman and A. S. Daryoush, “Broad-band external modulation fiber-optic links for antenna-remoting applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.45(8), 1436–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ayazi, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Ayazi, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, and M. Hochberg, “Linearity of silicon ring modulators for analog optical links,” Opt. Express20(12), 13115–13122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ayazi, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, and M. Hochberg, “Linearity of silicon ring modulators for analog optical links,” Opt. Express20(12), 13115–13122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Betts, G. E.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J.E.

Bridges, W. B.

W. B. Bridges and J. H. Schaffner, “Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.43(9), 2184–2197 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brimont, A.

Chiu, Y.-J.

Cohen, O.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cox, C. H.

C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Daryoush, A. S.

E. I. Ackerman and A. S. Daryoush, “Broad-band external modulation fiber-optic links for antenna-remoting applications,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.45(8), 1436–1442 (1997).
[CrossRef]

De Dobbelaere, P.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Devenport, J.

A. Karim and J. Devenport, “Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(5), 312–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, R.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dubovitsky, S.

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(5), 886–891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Esman, R. D.

Eu-Jin Lim, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fang, Q.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fathpour, S.

Fédéli, J.-M.

Foster, M. A.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaeta, A. L.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gan, F.

Geis, M. W.

George, J.

Gould, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grein, M. E.

Gutierrez, A. M.

Harris, N.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Harris, N. C.

He, L.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hill, C.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ayazi, T. Baehr-Jones, Y. Liu, A. E.-J. Lim, and M. Hochberg, “Linearity of silicon ring modulators for analog optical links,” Opt. Express20(12), 13115–13122 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ippen, E. P.

Ismail, T.

Jalali, B.

B. Jalali and S. Fathpour, “Silicon photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.24(12), 4600–4615 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(5), 886–891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karim, A.

A. Karim and J. Devenport, “Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(5), 312–314 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kärtner, F. Z.

Keating, A.

Khilo, A.

Kobyakov, A.

Kwong, D.-L.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, P.

Lennon, D. M.

Li, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liao, L.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lim, A. E.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Liow, T. Y.

Liow, T.-Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, B.

Liu, C.-P.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G. Q.

Lo, G.-Q.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lyszczarz, T. M.

Marris-Morini, D.

Marti, J.

Mekis, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Minasian, R. A.

R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 832–846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Mirshafiei, M.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, J. E.

Nichols, L. T.

Nicolaescu, R.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ocheltree, S.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pinguet, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

Pomerene, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
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Rasigade, G.

Rubin, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusch, L. A.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchis, P.

Sauer, M.

Schaffner, J. H.

W. B. Bridges and J. H. Schaffner, “Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.43(9), 2184–2197 (1995).
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Schmidt, B. S.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seeds, A. J.

Sharping, J. E.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shim, J.

Song, J.-F.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sorace, C. M.

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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Spector, S. J.

Steier, W. H.

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(5), 886–891 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Streshinsky, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Teo, S. H. G.

Teo, S. H.-G.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Turner, A. C.

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vacondio, F.

F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

Williams, K. J.

Xiong, Y.-Z.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

S. Dubovitsky, W. H. Steier, S. Yegnanarayanan, and B. Jalali, “Analysis and improvement of Mach-Zehnder modulator linearity performance for chirped and tunable optical carriers,” J. Lightwave Technol.20(5), 886–891 (2002).
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Yoon, J. U.

Yu, M.-B.

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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Zhang, Y.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, S. H. G. Teo, G. Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
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Zhou, G.-R.

Ziebell, M.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

R. Soref, “The past, present and future of silicon photonics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.12(6), 1678–1687 (2006).
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F. Vacondio, M. Mirshafiei, J. Basak, A. Liu, L. Liao, M. Paniccia, and L. A. Rusch, “A silicon modulator enabling RF over fiber for 802.11 OFDM signals,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 141–148 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T.-Y. Liow, K.-W. Ang, Q. Fang, J.-F. Song, Y.-Z. Xiong, M.-B. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Silicon modulators and germanium photodetectors on SOI: monolithic integration, compatibility, and performance optimization,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(1), 307–315 (2010).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

A. Karim and J. Devenport, “Noise figure reduction in externally modulated analog fiber-optic links,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(5), 312–314 (2007).
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IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.

W. B. Bridges and J. H. Schaffner, “Distortion in linearized electrooptic modulators,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.43(9), 2184–2197 (1995).
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C. H. Cox, E. I. Ackerman, G. E. Betts, and J. L. Prince, “Limits on the performance of RF-over-fiber links and their impact on device design,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 906–920 (2006).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Minasian, “Photonic signal processing of microwave signals,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.54(2), 832–846 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Nature

M. A. Foster, A. C. Turner, J. E. Sharping, B. S. Schmidt, M. Lipson, and A. L. Gaeta, “Broad-band optical parametric gain on a silicon photonic chip,” Nature441(7096), 960–963 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Liu, R. Jones, L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, D. Rubin, O. Cohen, R. Nicolaescu, and M. Paniccia, “A high-speed silicon optical modulator based on a metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor,” Nature427(6975), 615–618 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Proc. SPIE

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, M. Streshinsky, N. Harris, J. Li, L. He, M. Gould, Y. Zhang, A. Eu-Jin Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, S. Ocheltree, C. Hill, A. Pomerene, P. De Dobbelaere, A. Mekis, and M. Hochberg, “Shared shuttles for integrated silicon optoelectronics,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520G, 82520G-11 (2012).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Device structure and fabrication. (a) Optical Micrograph of the traveling wave device, with the inset showing the detailed junction geometry. The inset at highest magnification is a rendering of the layout file used in fabrication. (b) A cross-section of the fabricated device is shown, with the two metal layers indicated, as well as the rib waveguide structure and the lateral pn junction. (c) Top-view schematic layout of the traveling wave device.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical transmission versus wavelength at 0 V and 6 V reverse bias conditions of the bottom arm of the device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured phase shift versus reverse bias voltage of each arm of the MZM. The dashed lines are polynomial fits of each data series.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experiment block diagram. When driving the MZM in the single arm configuration, the RF input is applied only to the bottom arm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electro-optic S21 for each arm of the MZM. Driven differentially, the device has 15.5 GHz bandwidth.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

RF spectra of the fundamental tones at 1.02951 and 1.12951 GHz and the intermodulation distortion at 1.22951 GHz. These measurements are taken at a 10 Hz resolution bandwidth. The full range of 1 GHz to 1.3 GHz is not swept at this resolution bandwidth due to the slow sampling time, and a reconstructed spectrum is shown instead. The RF noise in this regime was observed to be uniformly around the noise floor of −165 dBm/Hz during test.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Output power vs. input power of the second harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion for an MZM driven by a single arm. Spur-free dynamic ranges of 72 dB·Hz1/2 and 92 dB·Hz2/3 are measured for SFDRSHD and SFDRIMD, respectively.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Output power vs. input power of the second harmonic distortion and intermodulation distortion for a differentially driven MZM. Spur-free dynamic ranges of 82 dB·Hz1/2 and 97 dB·Hz2/3 are measured for SFDRSHD and SFDRIMD, respectively.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fit Parameters for Phase Shift of MZM Versus Reverse Bias

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I out = I in 2 ( 1+sin(φ(V) )
SHD= 1 2 V 0 2 cos(2ωt) [ 1 2! d 2 I out d V 2 ] V=0
IMD= 3 4 V 0 3 cos((2 ω 1 ω 2 )t) [ 1 3! d 3 I out d V 3 ] V=0
φ=bV+c V 2 +d V 3

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