Abstract

We present the direct measurement of the refractive index distribution (spectral dispersion) arising from an intersubband transition in GaN/AlN multi quantum wells structure. The measurement is carried out through a novel interferometric technique. The measured interferogram yields a change in the refractive index varying from −5 × 10−3 to 6 × 10−3 as a function of the wavelength, introduced by the intersubband resonance at 1.5 µm. These results compare well with those derived using Kramers-Kronig transform of the measured absorption spectrum.

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  1. N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  5. N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition,” Opt. Express13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  9. L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  15. L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Lupu, M. Tchernycheva, Y. Kotsar, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Electroabsorption and refractive index modulation induced by intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express20(11), 12541–12549 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  19. H. C. Liu and F. Capasso, Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications (Academic, 1999).
  20. C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997).
  22. D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2010 (1)

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2000 (2)

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1962 (1)

Albrecht, M.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Almogy, G.

G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ambacher, O.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Angerer, H.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Bahir, G.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bar-Joseph, I.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Baumann, E.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bellet-Amalric, E.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharyya, A.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bougerol, C.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, D.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bustarret, E.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cen, L. B.

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cho, A. Y.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Crozat, P.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dawlaty, J.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Delacourt, D.

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrov, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Doyennette, L.

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E. B.

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Eastman, L. F.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faist, J.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Freudenberg, F.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

George, P. A.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

George Chu, S.-N.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Giorgetta, F. R.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gmachl, C.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Golka, S.

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guillot, F.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hofstetter, D.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Höpler, R.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Iizuka, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition,” Opt. Express13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Julien, F. H.

A. Lupu, M. Tchernycheva, Y. Kotsar, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Electroabsorption and refractive index modulation induced by intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express20(11), 12541–12549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kandaswamy, P.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kandaswamy, P. K.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kaneko, K.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition,” Opt. Express13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kheirodin, N.

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Koren, U.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kotsar, Y.

Leconte, S.

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, Y.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lupu, A.

A. Lupu, M. Tchernycheva, Y. Kotsar, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Electroabsorption and refractive index modulation induced by intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express20(11), 12541–12549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Machhadani, H.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Maliston, I. H.

Meignien, L.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miller, B. I.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Monroy, E.

A. Lupu, M. Tchernycheva, Y. Kotsar, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Electroabsorption and refractive index modulation induced by intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express20(11), 12541–12549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Moustakas, T. D.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevou, L.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Paiella, R.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Papuchon, M.

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Pozzovivo, G.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rana, F.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Remmele, T.

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sakr, S.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scandolo, S.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schacham, S.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schacham, S. E.

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schaff, W. J.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shakouri, A.

G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, B.

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sirtori, C.

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strasser, G.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stutzmann, M.

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, N.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, and N. Suzuki, “Sub-picosecond all-optical gate utilizing an intersubband transition,” Opt. Express13(10), 3835–3840 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tchernycheva, M.

A. Lupu, M. Tchernycheva, Y. Kotsar, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “Electroabsorption and refractive index modulation induced by intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN multiple quantum wells,” Opt. Express20(11), 12541–12549 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Théron, R.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Thomidis, C.

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Ultrafast all-optical switching with low saturation energy via intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” Opt. Express15(26), 17922–17927 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vardi, A.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wada, O.

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Warde, E.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wirtmüller, A.

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wu, H.

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zucker, J. E.

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. Gmachl, H. M. Ng, S.-N. George Chu, and A. Y. Cho, “Intersubband absorption at λ ∼ 1.55 μm in well- and modulation-doped GaN/AlGaN multiple quantum wells with superlattice barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(23), 3722–3724 (2000).
[CrossRef]

N. Iizuka, K. Kaneko, N. Suzuki, T. Asano, S. Noda, and O. Wada, “Ultrafast intersubband relaxation (⩽150 fs) in AlGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.77(5), 648–650 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Vardi, G. Bahir, F. Guillot, C. Bougerol, E. Monroy, S. E. Schacham, M. Tchernycheva, and F. H. Julien, “Near infrared quantum cascade detector in GaN/AlGaN/AlN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(1), 011112 (2008).
[CrossRef]

E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, D. Hofstetter, S. Leconte, F. Guillot, E. Bellet-Amalric, and E. Monroy, “Electrically adjustable intersubband absorption of a GaN/AlN superlattice grown on a transistorlike structure,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(10), 101121 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Nevou, N. Kheirodin, M. Tchernycheva, L. Meignien, P. Crozat, A. Lupu, E. Warde, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Short-wavelength intersubband electroabsorption modulation based on electron tunneling between GaN/AlN coupled quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(22), 223511 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Almogy, A. Shakouri, and A. Yariv, “Observation of birefringence induced by intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett.63(20), 2720–2722 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Zucker, I. Bar‐Joseph, B. I. Miller, U. Koren, and D. S. Chemla, “Quaternary quantum wells for electro‐optic intensity and phase modulation at 1.3 and 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.54(1), 10–12 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. B. Dupont, D. Delacourt, and M. Papuchon, “Mid-infrared phase modulation via Stark effect on intersubband transitions in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.29(8), 2313–2318 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

N. Kheirodin, L. Nevou, H. Machhadani, P. Crozat, L. Vivien, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, F. H. Julien, G. Pozzovivo, S. Golka, G. Strasser, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Electrooptical modulator at telecommunication wavelengths based on GaN-AlN coupled quantum wells,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(9), 724–726 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

L. B. Cen, B. Shen, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Influence of polarization induced electric fields on the wavelength and the refractive index of intersubband transitions in AlN/GaN coupled double quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys.105(9), 093109 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, A. Bhattacharyya, C. Thomidis, Y. Liao, T. D. Moustakas, and R. Paiella, “Refractive-index nonlinearities of intersubband transitions in GaN/AlN quantum-well waveguides,” J. Appl. Phys.104(8), 083101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. Brunner, H. Angerer, E. Bustarret, F. Freudenberg, R. Höpler, R. Dimitrov, O. Ambacher, and M. Stutzmann, “Optical constants of epitaxial AlGaN films and their temperature dependence,” J. Appl. Phys.82(10), 5090–5096 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Suzuki and N. Iizuka, “Feasibility study on ultrafast nonlinear optical properties of 1.55-μm intersubband transition in AlGaN/GaN quantum wells,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.36(Part 2, No. 8A), L1006–L1008 (1997).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys. (1)

H. Machhadani, P. Kandaswamy, S. Sakr, A. Vardi, A. Wirtmüller, L. Nevou, F. Guillot, G. Pozzovivo, M. Tchernycheva, A. Lupu, L. Vivien, P. Crozat, E. Warde, C. Bougerol, S. Schacham, G. Strasser, G. Bahir, E. Monroy, and F. H. Julien, “GaN/AlGaN intersubband optoelectronic devices,” New J. Phys.11(12), 125023 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (3)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

M. Tchernycheva, L. Nevou, L. Doyennette, F. H. Julien, E. Warde, F. Guillot, E. Monroy, E. Bellet-Amalric, T. Remmele, and M. Albrecht, “Systematic experimental and theoretical investigation of intersubband absorption in GaN/AlN quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B73(12), 125347 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (1)

C. Sirtori, F. Capasso, J. Faist, and S. Scandolo, “Nonparabolicity and a sum rule associated with bound-to-bound and bound-to-continuum intersubband transitions in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter50(12), 8663–8674 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. Hofstetter, E. Baumann, F. R. Giorgetta, R. Théron, H. Wu, W. J. Schaff, J. Dawlaty, P. A. George, L. F. Eastman, F. Rana, P. K. Kandaswamy, F. Guillot, and E. Monroy, “Intersubband transition-based processes and devices in AlN/GaN-based heterostructures,” Proc. IEEE98(7), 1234–1248 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

H. C. Liu and F. Capasso, Intersubband Transitions in Quantum Wells: Physics and Device Applications (Academic, 1999).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications, 5th ed. (Oxford University Press, 1997).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Free space Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup. The sample is in multi-pass waveguide configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized transmittance of the 100 periods GaN/AlN QWs in the multipass waveguide configuration. The dashed lines mark the FWHM of 260-meV. The inset shows schematically the multipass waveguide configuration.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured extinction coefficient and (b) associated ΔnISBT calculated from the absorption spectrum via the K-K relations. The black dotted vertical lines show the limits of the spectral range of our Mach-Zehnder setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured interference pattern (blue dashed line) and the fitting curve (red solid line) for a small section of our spectral window.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured dispersion of the reference sample, Δn=ñRef∙(ω−ω0), in s and p polarizations. The small difference between the two curves is due to birefringence in the sapphire and the AlN materials in the reference sample.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured spectral variation of the contribution of the intersubband transition to the refractive index in the GaN/AlN MQWs interaction layer (solid red line), the corresponding dispersion curve computed via the K-K relations, from the FTIR absorption measurements of Fig. 3 (green dashed line), and the measured dispersion in the reference sample (blue dotted-dashed line) which is an order of magnitude smaller (of the order of 10−4).

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Values of parameters a and b, extracted by fitting cos(aω2 + bω) to the experimental data. While a is positive for the reference sample, it is smaller and negative for the active sample.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Measured linear dispersion coefficients ñ, in units of 1/ω, and refractive indices at the resonance center, n0,Ref, n0,int, for the reference sample and interaction layer

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I tot = | E 1 + E 2 | 2 = | E 1 ˜ ( ω ) | 2 + | E 2 ˜ ( ω ) | 2 +2 E 1 ˜ ( ω ) E 2 ˜ ( ω ) cos{ ω c [ n 1 ( ω ) z 1 n 2 ( ω ) z 2 ] } Λ
Λ= I tot I Samplearm I Refarm 2 I Samplearm I Refarm =cos{ ω c [ ( n( ω )1 ) L b( int ) +ΔY L glass ( n g 1 ) ] }
n( ω )= n 0,Ref ( ω 0 )+ n ˜ Ref ( ω ω 0 ) Reference Sample n( ω )= n 0,int ( ω 0 )+ n ˜ int ( ω ω 0 ) Interaction Layer
a Ref = n ˜ Ref L b c ; b Ref = L b ( n 0 ,Ref n ˜ Ref ω 0 1 )+ΔY L glass ( n g 1 ) c
a int+Ref = n ˜ Ref ( L b L int )+ n ˜ int L int c b int+Ref = ( L b L int )( n 0 ,Ref n ˜ Ref ω 0 1 )+ L int ( n 0,int n ˜ int ω 0 1 )+ΔY L glass ( n g 1 ) c
b int+Ref b Ref a int+Ref a Ref = n 0,int n 0,Ref ω 0 ( n ˜ int n ˜ Ref ) n ˜ int n ˜ Ref = ξ int
X int = Δ n 0,int ξ int + ω 0

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