Abstract

In this paper, we will introduce THz graphene antennas that strongly enhance the emission rate of quantum systems at specific frequencies. The tunability of these antennas can be used to selectively enhance individual spectral features. We will show as an example that any weak transition in the spectrum of coronene can become the dominant contribution. This selective and tunable enhancement establishes a new class of graphene-based THz devices, which will find applications in sensors, novel light sources, spectroscopy, and quantum communication devices.

© 2013 OSA

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  28. C. X. Cong, T. Yu, Z. H. Ni, L. Liu, Z. X. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” JPCC113, 6529–6532 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Filter, J. Qi, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Circular optical nanoantennas: an analytical theory,” Phys. Rev. B85, 125429 (2012).
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  30. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. (J. Wiley, New York, 2005).
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    [CrossRef]
  32. P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 438–483 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Steglich, C. Jäger, G. Rouillé, F. Huisken, H. Mutschke, and T. Henning, “Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for the carriers of the 2175 Å uv bump,” ApJ712, L16 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  36. P. Würfel, S. Finkbeiner, and E. Daub, “Generalized planck’s radiation law for luminescence via indirect transitions,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process.60, 67–70 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. M. Barnett and R. Loudon, “Sum rule for modified spontaneous emission rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 2444–2446 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  38. K. Joulain, J. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  39. A. Jones and M. Raschke, “Thermal infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.12, 1475–1481 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  40. A. L. Mattioda, A. Ricca, J. Tucker, C. W. Bauschlicher, and L. J. Allamandola, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of neutral coronene, ovalene, and dicoronylene,” AJ137, 4054 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  41. C. Rockstuhl and W. Zhang, “Terahertz optics: terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3, 130–131 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  42. A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science332, 1291–1294 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11, 2396–2399 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. G. Y. Slepyan, S. A. Maksimenko, A. Lakhtakia, O. Yevtushenko, and A. V. Gusakov, “Electrodynamics of carbon nanotubes: Dynamic conductivity, impedance boundary conditions, and surface wave propagation,” Phys. Rev. B60, 17136–17149 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  45. V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter19, 026222 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  46. P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano5, 5855–5863 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

R. Filter, S. Mühlig, T. Eichelkraut, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Controlling the dynamics of quantum mechanical systems sustaining dipole-forbidden transitions via optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B86, 035404 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamagnone, J. Gomez-Diaz, J. Mosig, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Analysis and design of terahertz antennas based on plasmonic resonant graphene sheets,” J. Appl. Phys.112, 114915–114915 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Tamagnone, J. S. Gomez-Diaz, J. R. Mosig, and J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Reconfigurable terahertz plasmonic antenna concept using a graphene stack,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101, 214102 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Alaee, C. Menzel, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Perfect absorbers on curved surfaces and their potential applications,” Opt. Express20, 18370–18376 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Filter, J. Qi, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Circular optical nanoantennas: an analytical theory,” Phys. Rev. B85, 125429 (2012).
[CrossRef]

W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” PNAS109, 9281–9286 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Jones and M. Raschke, “Thermal infrared near-field spectroscopy,” Nano Lett.12, 1475–1481 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

A. Vakil and N. Engheta, “Transformation optics using graphene,” Science332, 1291–1294 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11, 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanot.6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. Schumacher, M. Kühnert, P. Rösch, and J. Popp, “Identification and classification of organic and inorganic components of particulate matter via raman spectroscopy and chemometric approaches,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42, 383–392 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Hasan, R. Filter, A. Ahmed, R. Vogelgesang, R. Gordon, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Relating localized nanoparticle resonances to an associated antenna problem,” Phys. Rev. B84, 195405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett.11, 3370–3377 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Karaveli and R. Zia, “Spectral tuning by selective enhancement of electric and magnetic dipole emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett.106, 193004 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

J.-J. Greffet, M. Laroche, and F. Marquier, “Impedance of a nanoantenna and a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 117701 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Steglich, C. Jäger, G. Rouillé, F. Huisken, H. Mutschke, and T. Henning, “Electronic spectroscopy of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: implications for the carriers of the 2175 Å uv bump,” ApJ712, L16 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

R. Esteban, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on upconversion processes,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 033107 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-J. Yu, Y. Zhao, S. Ryu, L. E. Brus, K. S. Kim, and P. Kim, “Tuning the graphene work function by electric field effect,” Nano Lett.9, 3430–3434 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245435 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “The electronic properties of graphene,” Rev. Mod. Phys.81, 109–162 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. L. Mattioda, A. Ricca, J. Tucker, C. W. Bauschlicher, and L. J. Allamandola, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of neutral coronene, ovalene, and dicoronylene,” AJ137, 4054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Rockstuhl and W. Zhang, “Terahertz optics: terahertz phase modulator,” Nat. Photonics3, 130–131 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. X. Cong, T. Yu, Z. H. Ni, L. Liu, Z. X. Shen, and W. Huang, “Fabrication of graphene nanodisk arrays using nanosphere lithography,” JPCC113, 6529–6532 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

G. W. Hanson, “Dyadic greens functions and guided surface waves for a surface conductivity model of graphene,” J. Appl. Phys.103, 064302 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

L. Rogobete, F. Kaminski, M. Agio, and V. Sandoghdar, “Design of plasmonic nanoantennae for enhancing spontaneous emission,” Opt. Lett.32, 1623–1625 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Gusynin, S. G. Sharapov, and J. P. Carbotte, “Magneto-optical conductivity in graphene,” J. Phys.: Condens. Matter19, 026222 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mat.4, 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. Mühlschlegel, H.-J. Eisler, O. J. F. Martin, B. Hecht, and D. W. Pohl, “Resonant optical antennas,” Science308, 1607–1609 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Joulain, J. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004

K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

G. Y. Slepyan, S. A. Maksimenko, A. Lakhtakia, O. Yevtushenko, and A. V. Gusakov, “Electrodynamics of carbon nanotubes: Dynamic conductivity, impedance boundary conditions, and surface wave propagation,” Phys. Rev. B60, 17136–17149 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1996

S. M. Barnett and R. Loudon, “Sum rule for modified spontaneous emission rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 2444–2446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Langhoff, “Theoretical infrared spectra for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon neutrals, cations, and anions,” J. Phys. Chem.100, 2819–2841 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

P. Würfel, S. Finkbeiner, and E. Daub, “Generalized planck’s radiation law for luminescence via indirect transitions,” Appl. Phys. A-Mater. Sci. Process.60, 67–70 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1991

A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 437–440 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1962

H. Boehm, A. Clauss, U. Hofmann, and G. Fischer, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforsch. B17, 150–153 (1962).

Agio, M.

Ahmed, A.

S. Hasan, R. Filter, A. Ahmed, R. Vogelgesang, R. Gordon, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Relating localized nanoparticle resonances to an associated antenna problem,” Phys. Rev. B84, 195405 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mat.4, 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Alaee, R.

Allamandola, L. J.

A. L. Mattioda, A. Ricca, J. Tucker, C. W. Bauschlicher, and L. J. Allamandola, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of neutral coronene, ovalene, and dicoronylene,” AJ137, 4054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Alonso-González, P.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature (2012).
[CrossRef]

Alu, A.

P.-Y. Chen and A. Alu, “Atomically thin surface cloak using graphene monolayers,” ACS Nano5, 5855–5863 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Andreev, G. O.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Anger, P.

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

B. S. Song, S. Noda, T. Asano, and Y. Akahane, “Ultra-high-q photonic double-heterostructure nanocavity,” Nat. Mat.4, 207–210 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Avouris, P.

H. Yan, X. Li, B. Chandra, G. Tulevski, Y. Wu, M. Freitag, W. Zhu, P. Avouris, and F. Xia, “Tunable infrared plasmonic devices using graphene/insulator stacks,” Nat. Nanotechnol.7, 330–334 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Badioli, M.

J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balanis, C. A.

C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory: Analysis and Design, 3rd ed. (J. Wiley, New York, 2005).

Bao, W.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barnett, S. M.

S. M. Barnett and R. Loudon, “Sum rule for modified spontaneous emission rates,” Phys. Rev. Lett.77, 2444–2446 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Basov, D. N.

Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bauschlicher, C. W.

A. L. Mattioda, A. Ricca, J. Tucker, C. W. Bauschlicher, and L. J. Allamandola, “Far-infrared spectroscopy of neutral coronene, ovalene, and dicoronylene,” AJ137, 4054 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bechtel, H.

L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanot.6, 630–634 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bharadwaj, P.

P. Bharadwaj, B. Deutsch, and L. Novotny, “Optical antennas,” Adv. Opt. Photon.1, 438–483 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Anger, P. Bharadwaj, and L. Novotny, “Enhancement and quenching of single-molecule fluorescence,” Phys. Rev. Lett.96, 113002 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11, 2396–2399 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boehm, H.

H. Boehm, A. Clauss, U. Hofmann, and G. Fischer, “Dünnste kohlenstoff-folien,” Z. Naturforsch. B17, 150–153 (1962).

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A. J. Campillo, J. D. Eversole, and H.-B. Lin, “Cavity quantum electrodynamic enhancement of stimulated emission in microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett.67, 437–440 (1991).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature (2012).
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S. Hasan, R. Filter, A. Ahmed, R. Vogelgesang, R. Gordon, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Relating localized nanoparticle resonances to an associated antenna problem,” Phys. Rev. B84, 195405 (2011).
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K. Joulain, J. Mulet, F. Marquier, R. Carminati, and J. Greffet, “Surface electromagnetic waves thermally excited: Radiative heat transfer, coherence properties and casimir forces revisited in the near field,” Surf. Sci. Rep.57, 59–112 (2005).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
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S. Hasan, R. Filter, A. Ahmed, R. Vogelgesang, R. Gordon, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Relating localized nanoparticle resonances to an associated antenna problem,” Phys. Rev. B84, 195405 (2011).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanot.6, 630–634 (2011).
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M. Jablan, H. Buljan, and M. Soljačić, “Plasmonics in graphene at infrared frequencies,” Phys. Rev. B80, 245435 (2009).
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A. S. Mayorov, R. V. Gorbachev, S. V. Morozov, L. Britnell, R. Jalil, L. A. Ponomarenko, P. Blake, K. S. Novoselov, K. Watanabe, T. Taniguchi, and A. K. Geim, “Micrometer-scale ballistic transport in encapsulated graphene at room temperature,” Nano Lett.11, 2396–2399 (2011).
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K. S. Novoselov, A. K. Geim, S. V. Morozov, D. Jiang, Y. Zhang, S. V. Dubonos, I. V. Grigorieva, and A. A. Firsov, “Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films,” Science306, 666–669 (2004).
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L. Ju, B. Geng, J. Horng, C. Girit, M. Martin, Z. Hao, H. Bechtel, X. Liang, A. Zettl, Y. Shen, and F. Wang, “Graphene plasmonics for tunable terahertz metamaterials,” Nat. Nanot.6, 630–634 (2011).
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W. Xu, X. Ling, J. Xiao, M. Dresselhaus, J. Kong, H. Xu, Z. Liu, and J. Zhang, “Surface enhanced raman spectroscopy on a flat graphene surface,” PNAS109, 9281–9286 (2012).
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J. Chen, M. Badioli, P. Alonso-González, S. Thongrattanasiri, F. Huth, J. Osmond, M. Spasenović, A. Centeno, A. Pesquera, P. Godignon, A. Z. Elorza, N. Camara, F. J. García de Abajo, R. Hillenbrand, and F. H. Koppens, “Optical nano-imaging of gate-tunable graphene plasmons,” Nature (2012).
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F. H. L. Koppens, D. E. Chang, and F. J. Garcia de Abajo, “Graphene plasmonics: a platform for strong light-matter interactions,” Nano Lett.11, 3370–3377 (2011).
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A. G. Curto, G. Volpe, T. H. Taminiau, M. P. Kreuzer, R. Quidant, and N. F. van Hulst, “Unidirectional emission of a quantum dot coupled to a nanoantenna,” Science329, 930 (2010).
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J.-J. Greffet, M. Laroche, and F. Marquier, “Impedance of a nanoantenna and a single quantum emitter,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105, 117701 (2010).
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R. Esteban, M. Laroche, and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of metallic nanoparticles on upconversion processes,” J. Appl. Phys.105, 033107 (2009).
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Z. Fei, G. O. Andreev, W. Bao, L. M. Zhang, A. McLeod, C. Wang, M. K. Stewart, Z. Zhao, G. Dominguez, M. Thiemens, M. M. Fogler, M. J. Tauber, A. H. Castro-Neto, C. N. Lau, F. Keilmann, and D. N. Basov, “Infrared nanoscopy of dirac plasmons at the graphene–sio2 interface,” Nano Lett.11, 4701–4705 (2011).
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R. Filter, S. Mühlig, T. Eichelkraut, C. Rockstuhl, and F. Lederer, “Controlling the dynamics of quantum mechanical systems sustaining dipole-forbidden transitions via optical nanoantennas,” Phys. Rev. B86, 035404 (2012).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

A graphene antenna to selectively enhance THz emissions: A molecule gets excited in the visible/UV. Subsequentially, it strongly emits at a single frequency in the THz regime. The emission frequency can be tuned by adjusting the chemical potential μc.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) & (c) Two circular graphene elements cause a strong enhancement of the total emission rate Ftot for a dark antenna mode at λ ≈ 7.9 μm (ν ≈ 38 THz). To visualize the field outside the antenna, the colormap has been truncated (white regions). (b) & (c) The antenna with two elliptical elements exhibits by far the strongest Ftot for the desired dipolar mode at λ ≈ 12 μm (ν ≈ 26.6 THz). The scale shown in (b) applies for all field plots with order-of magnitude rescalings.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) A plane wave with amplitude E0 excites the dipolar resonance λ ≈ 12μm of the antenna. (b) & (c): Distribution of |E(r)/E0| in the plane of the graphene ellipses (x–y-plane) and in-between at x = 0 (y–z-plane). The region with strong enhancement is approximately 30×100×20nm3 (blue region). For a dipole situated here, the Purcell effect is comparable to a placement in the center.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The modified emission spectrum of coronene in the vicinity of the graphene antenna as a function of the chemical potential μc. For reference, the green curve displays the emission spectrum of the bare molecule exhibiting several peaks with different strengths. When tuning the chemical potential by taking advantage of the electric field effect, the antenna may strongly and selectively enhance only a single emission line, so that most of the energy leaves the molecule via this transition.

Equations (2)

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rad ( ω i ) = η ( ω i ) F tot ( ω i ) k h ¯ ω k γ tot fs ( ω k ) B ( ω k ; T m ) k h ¯ ω k F tot ( ω k ) γ tot fs ( ω k ) B ( ω k ; T m ) .
σ s ( ω ) = i 1 π h ¯ 2 e 2 k B T ω + i 2 Γ { μ c k B T + 2 ln [ exp ( μ c k B T ) + 1 ] } + i e 2 4 π h ¯ ln [ 2 | μ c | h ¯ ( ω + i 2 Γ ) 2 | μ c | + h ¯ ( ω + i 2 Γ ) ]

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