Abstract

In this work, we reported the fabrication of nitride-based hexagonal pyramids array (HPA) vertical-injection light emitting diodes (V-LEDs) by N-polar wet etching. The performance of HPA V-LEDs devices was significantly improved with 30% higher internal quantum efficiency compared with conventional roughened broad area V-LEDs. The simulated extraction efficiency by finite difference time domain method was 20% higher than typical roughened V-LEDs. The reversed leakage current of HPA V-LEDs was reduced due to better crystal quality, which was confirmed by conductive atomic force microscopy measurement. Furthermore, the efficiency droop for HPA V-LEDs were substantially alleviated.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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  24. T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  25. Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  26. F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The mechanism of the luminescence of solids,” J. Chem. Phys.15(5), 289–304 (1947).
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  27. P. J. Dean, “Absorption and luminescence of excitons at neutral donors in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev.157(3), 655–667 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  28. J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
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  29. P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Investigation of the nonthermal mechanism of efficiency rolloff in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.55(7), 1771–1775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (4)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B273–274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

P. J. Dean, “Absorption and luminescence of excitons at neutral donors in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev.157(3), 655–667 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1947 (1)

F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The mechanism of the luminescence of solids,” J. Chem. Phys.15(5), 289–304 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Badcock, T. J.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bernardini, F.

F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bhattacharya, P.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Botton, G. A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, X. A.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Investigation of the nonthermal mechanism of efficiency rolloff in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.55(7), 1771–1775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z. Z.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H.-C.

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cho, Y.-H.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Choi, H. W.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chowdhury, A.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, C.-F.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Chu, Ch.-F.

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

Chu, J.-T.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

Chung, K. S.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cui, K.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, Q.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, M. D.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dawson, P.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P. J.

P. J. Dean, “Absorption and luminescence of excitons at neutral donors in gallium phosphide,” Phys. Rev.157(3), 655–667 (1967).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Deng, J. J.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Djavid, M.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edwards, P. R.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eyring, H.

F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The mechanism of the luminescence of solids,” J. Chem. Phys.15(5), 289–304 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Fang, H.

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Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
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T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
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Fujito, K.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
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Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
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Hao, R.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
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M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
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O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
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Horng, R. H.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Huang, H.-W.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Humphreys, C. J.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ibbetson, J. P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, M.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jin, S. X.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kang, T. W.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kao, C.-C.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kappers, M. J.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Keller, S.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B. J.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, D. Y.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.-M.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. U.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, J.-H.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. H.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. I.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ko, S.-M.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ko, Y.-H.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Korinek, A.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kozodoy, P.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kuo, H.-C.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

Lai, F.-I.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

Lee, C. E.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J.-L.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, S. M.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Li, J. Z.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Liang, W.-D.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C.-F.

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lin, W. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ling, D.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Marchand, H.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Margalith, T.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. S.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Martin, R. W.

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Mi, Z.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mishra, U. K.

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monemar, B.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Moram, M. A.

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Munkholm, A.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ng, H. M.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. P. T.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oh, C.-S.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pan, K. F.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, K.-Y.

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Piprek, J.

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Qi, S. L.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Qin, Z. X.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosner, S. J.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B273–274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Ryu, C. J.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ryu, S. R.

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakong, T.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sang, L. W.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sernelius, B. E.

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. C.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Singh, J.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Son, J. H.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sone, C.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. H.

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Speck, J. S.

J. S. Speck and S. J. Rosner, “The role of threading dislocations in the physical properties of GaN and its alloys,” Physica B273–274, 24–32 (1999).
[CrossRef]

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Steigerwald, D. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y. Y.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, Y. J.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y. B.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tian, P. F.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trottier, T. A.

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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F. Bernardini, V. Fiorentini, and D. Vanderbilt, “Spontaneous polarization and piezoelectric constants of III-V nitrides,” Phys. Rev. B56(16), R10024–R10027 (1997).
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Wang, S. C.

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

Wang, S.-C.

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W. K.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, S.

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Weimann, N. G.

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Williams, F. E.

F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The mechanism of the luminescence of solids,” J. Chem. Phys.15(5), 289–304 (1947).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Xu, J.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, C. H.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Investigation of the nonthermal mechanism of efficiency rolloff in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.55(7), 1771–1775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, X. L.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Investigation of the nonthermal mechanism of efficiency rolloff in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.55(7), 1771–1775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. J.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z. Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, S.

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yu, C.-C.

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T. J.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, G. Y.

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, M.

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, L. B.

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.) (1)

J. H. Son, J. U. Kim, Y. H. Song, B. J. Kim, C. J. Ryu, and J.-L. Lee, “Design rule of nanostructures in light-emitting diodes for complete elimination of total internal reflection,” Adv. Mater. (Deerfield Beach Fla.)24(17), 2259–2262 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

P. Kozodoy, J. P. Ibbetson, H. Marchand, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, and U. K. Mishra, “Electrical characterization of GaN p-n junctions with and without threading dislocations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(7), 975 (1998).
[CrossRef]

S. L. Qi, Z. Z. Chen, H. Fang, Y. J. Sun, L. W. Sang, X. L. Yang, L. B. Zhao, P. F. Tian, J. J. Deng, Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. X. Qin, and G. Y. Zhang, “Study on the formation of dodecagonal pyramid on nitrogen polar GaN surface etched by hot H3PO4,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(7), 071114 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. F. Schubert, J. Xu, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, M. H. Kim, S. Yoon, S. M. Lee, C. Sone, T. Sakong, and Y. Park, “Polarization-matched GaInN/AlGaInN multi-quantum-well light-emitting diodes with reduced efficiency droop,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(4), 041102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

B. Monemar and B. E. Sernelius, “Defect related issues in the “current roll-off” in InGaN based light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 181103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Y. C. Shen, G. O. Mueller, S. Watanabe, N. F. Gardner, A. Munkholm, and M. R. Krames, “Auger recombination in InGaN measured by photoluminescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(14), 141101 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Zhang, P. Bhattacharya, J. Singh, and J. Hinckley, “Direct measurement of auger recombination in In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN quantum wells and its impact on the efficiency of In0.1Ga0.9N/GaN multiple quantum well light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(20), 201108 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Choi, M. D. Dawson, P. R. Edwards, and R. W. Martin, “High extraction efficiency InGaN micro-ring light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(22), 4483 (2003).
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S. X. Jin, J. Li, J. Z. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “GaN microdisk light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.76(5), 631 (2000).
[CrossRef]

M. H. Kim, M. F. Schubert, Q. Dai, J. K. Kim, E. F. Schubert, J. Piprek, and Y. Park, “Origin of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(18), 183507 (2007).
[CrossRef]

O. B. Shchekin, J. E. Epler, T. A. Trottier, T. Margalith, D. A. Steigerwald, M. O. Holcomb, P. S. Martin, and M. R. Krames, “High performance thin-film flip-chip InGaN–GaN light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(7), 071109 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

J.-H. Kim, C.-S. Oh, Y.-H. Ko, S.-M. Ko, K.-Y. Park, M. Jeong, J. Y. Lee, and Y.-H. Cho, “Dislocation-eliminating chemical control method for high-efficiency GaN-based light emitting nanostructures,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(3), 1292–1298 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

W. Y. Lin, D. S. Wuu, K. F. Pan, S. H. Huang, C. E. Lee, W. K. Wang, S. C. Hsu, Y. Y. Su, S. Y. Huang, and R. H. Horng, “High-power GaN-mirror-Cu light-emitting diodes for vertical current injection using laser liftoff and electroplating techniques,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(9), 1809–1811 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

Y. Yang, X. A. Cao, and C. H. Yan, “Investigation of the nonthermal mechanism of efficiency rolloff in InGaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.55(7), 1771–1775 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

H. M. Ng, N. G. Weimann, and A. Chowdhury, “GaN nanotip pyramids formed by anisotropic etching,” J. Appl. Phys.94(1), 650 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ch.-F. Chu, F.-I. Lai, J.-T. Chu, C.-C. Yu, C.-F. Lin, H.-C. Kuo, and S. C. Wang, “Study of GaN light-emitting diodes fabricated by laser lift-off technique,” J. Appl. Phys.95, 3916 (2004).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

F. E. Williams and H. Eyring, “The mechanism of the luminescence of solids,” J. Chem. Phys.15(5), 289–304 (1947).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

Y. B. Tao, T. J. Yu, Z. Y. Yang, D. Ling, Y. Wang, Z. Z. Chen, Z. J. Yang, and G. Y. Zhang, “Evolution and control of dislocations in GaN grown on cone-patterned sapphire substrate by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Cryst. Growth315(1), 183–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (4)

T. J. Badcock, R. Hao, M. A. Moram, M. J. Kappers, P. Dawson, and C. J. Humphreys, “The effect of dislocation density and surface morphology on the optical properties of InGaN/GaN quantum wells grown on r-plane sapphire substrates,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.50(8), 080201 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Gao, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. Fujito, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Roughening hexagonal surface morphology on laser lift-off (LLO) N-face GaN with simple photo-enhanced chemical wet etching,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 5A), L637–L639 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Chu, C.-C. Yu, H.-C. Cheng, C.-F. Lin, and S.-C. Wang, “Comparison of p-Side Down and p-Side Up GaN Light-Emitting Diodes Fabricated by Laser Lift-Off,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No. 2B), L147–L150 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J.-T. Chu, H.-W. Huang, C.-C. Kao, W.-D. Liang, F.-I. Lai, C.-F. Chu, H.-C. Kuo, and S.-C. Wang, “Fabrication of large-area GaN-based light-emitting diodes on Cu substrate,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.44(4B), 2509–2511 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (2)

H. P. T. Nguyen, K. Cui, S. Zhang, M. Djavid, A. Korinek, G. A. Botton, and Z. Mi, “Controlling electron overflow in phosphor-free InGaN/GaN nanowire white light-emitting diodes,” Nano Lett.12(3), 1317–1323 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-M. Kim, Y.-H. Cho, H. Lee, S. I. Kim, S. R. Ryu, D. Y. Kim, T. W. Kang, and K. S. Chung, “High-brightness light emitting diodes using dislocation-free indium gallium nitride/gallium nitride multiquantum-well nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett.4(6), 1059–1062 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The schematic of key procedures for the fabrications of HPA V-LEDs, including (a) hexagonal pyramids randomly formed on p-electrode after wet etching (the red parts of pyramids are separated active regions) (b) spin-coated silicon gel to protect the active regions and (c) deposition of ITO and n-electrode. Tilt-view SEM images of (e) hexagonal pyramids, (d) hexagonal pyramids with spin-coated silicon gel after plasma etching, (f) hexagonal pyramids with deposited ITO film.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bright field TEM images of isolated pyramid with diffraction vector of (a) g = 000 2 ¯ and (b) g = 2 ¯ 110 .

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a-c) Top-view monochromatic CL images of single pyramid under 5 kV, 10 kV and 20 kV, respectively. (d-f) Birds-eye-view monochromatic CL images of single pyramid under 5 kV, 10 kV and 20 kV, respectively. (g) Birds-eye-view monochromatic CL image of large scale pyramids array under 10 kV.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Temperature dependence of integrated PL intensities (log scale) for HPA (red) and BA (green) V-LEDs. The inset shows the PL spectra for the two sample (b) Time-resolved PL decay curves for HPA (red) and BA (green) V-LEDs at 10 K and 300 K.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated far-field emission pattern of HPA V-LEDs.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) I-V properties for BA and HPA V-LEDs, the inset shows the leakage current under reversed bias. (b) Localized I-V curves (log scale) of HPA (red) and BA (green) V-LEDs measured by C-AFM.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Light output power versus current for BA (solid circle) and HPA (solid triangle) V-LEDs. The inset shows the optical photograph of HPA V-LEDs under 20 mA. (b) Relative efficiency droop versus current for HPA (red) and BA (green) V-LEDs.

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