Abstract

We propose and demonstrate a novel wideband microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas. The polarization network is based on a waveguide-implemented fully-reconfigurable optical interleaver using a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric Mach-Zehnder structure. For microwave photonic signal processing, this structure is able to serve as a wideband 2 × 2 RF coupler with reconfigurable complex coefficients, and therefore can be used as a polarization network for wideband antennas. Such a device can equip the antennas with not only the polarization rotation capability for linear-polarization signals but also the capability to operate with and tune between two opposite circular polarizations. Operating together with a particular modulation scheme, the device is also able to serve for simultaneous feeding of dual-polarization signals. These photonic-implemented RF functionalities can be applied to wideband antenna systems to perform agile polarization manipulations and tracking operations. An example of such a interleaver has been realized in TriPleX waveguide technology, which was designed with a free spectral range of 20 GHz and a mask footprint of smaller than 1 × 1 cm. Using the realized device, the reconfigurable complex coefficients of the polarization network were demonstrated with a continuous bandwidth from 2 to 8 GHz and an in-band phase ripple of smaller than 5 degree. The waveguide structure of the device allows it to be further integrated with other functional building blocks of a photonic integrated circuit to realize on-chip, complex microwave photonic processors. Of particular interest, it can be included in an optical beamformer for phased array antennas, so that simultaneous wideband beam and polarization trackings can be achieved photonically. To our knowledge, this is the first-time on-chip demonstration of an integrated microwave photonic polarization network for dual linear-polarized antennas.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Yao, “Microwave photonics,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(3), 314–335 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).
  4. J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 731–733 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev., DOI:10.1002/Ipor.201200032 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).
  7. M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, J. B. Luff, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter,” Opt. Express18(24), 24648–24653 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, D. A. I. Leimeng Zhuang, M. J. Marpaung, M. Bentum, J. Burla, P. Verpoorte, A. Jorna, Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 3–18 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  11. L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. C. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part II: experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 19–31 (2010).
  12. M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).
  13. F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Compact optical temporal differentiator based on silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express16(20), 15880–15886 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express20(24), 26499–26510 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. F. White, High Frequency Techniques: An Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2004).
  18. R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, 1985).
  19. C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).
  20. C. J. Kaalund and G. Peng, “Pole-zero diagram approach to the design of ring resonator-based filters for photonic applications,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(6), 1548–1559 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).
  22. R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1583–1596 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express19(23), 23162–23170 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (3)

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express20(24), 26499–26510 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1583–1596 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

2010 (6)

N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, J. B. Luff, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter,” Opt. Express18(24), 24648–24653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, D. A. I. Leimeng Zhuang, M. J. Marpaung, M. Bentum, J. Burla, P. Verpoorte, A. Jorna, Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 3–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. C. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part II: experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 19–31 (2010).

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

2007 (2)

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

2004 (1)

Agarwal, A.

Asghari, M.

Azaña, J.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Banwell, T.

Beeker, W. P.

Bentum, M.

Bourderionnet, J.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Burla, J.

Burla, M.

Capmany, J.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 731–733 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

Chen, Y.

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

Chevalier, L.

Chu, S. T.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Colman, P.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Combrié, S.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

De Rossi, A.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Dolfi, D.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Ferrera, M.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Gasulla, I.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 731–733 (2011).
[CrossRef]

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

Heideman, R. G.

Hoekman, M.

Hulzinga,

Jorna, A.

Kaalund, C. J.

Khan, M. H.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Khan, M. R.

Leaird, D. E.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lee, D. C.

Lehoucq, G.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Leimeng Zhuang, D. A. I.

Leinse, A.

Liang, H.

Little, B. E.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Liu, F.

Lloret, J.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

Luff, J. B.

Marpaung, D. A. I.

Marpaung, M. J.

Meijerink, A.

Meijerink, R.

Menendez, R.

Morandotti, R.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Moss, D. J.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Ni, C.

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

Novak, D.

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Peng, G.

Qi, M.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qian, W.

Qiang, L.

Qiu, M.

Razzari, L.

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Roeloffzen, C. G. H.

L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express20(24), 26499–26510 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express19(23), 23162–23170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Meijerink, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. Meijerink, D. A. I. Leimeng Zhuang, M. J. Marpaung, M. Bentum, J. Burla, P. Verpoorte, A. Jorna, Hulzinga, and W. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part I: design and performance analysis,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 3–18 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Meijerink, M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, R. G. Heideman, and W. C. van Etten, “Novel ring resonator-based integrated photonic beamformer for broadband phased-array antennas-Part II: experimental prototype,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(1), 19–31 (2010).

Sales, S.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 731–733 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sancho, J.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

Schreuder, E.

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1583–1596 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shen, H.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Su, Y.

Toliver, P.

van Etten, W.

van Etten, W. C.

Verpoorte, P.

Wang, T.

Wang, Z.

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

Weiner, A. M.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, T. K.

Xavier, S.

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Xiao, S.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xuan, Y.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J.

Ye, T.

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, L.

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhuang, L.

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. G. Heideman, M. Hoekman, and E. Schreuder, “TriPleX-based integrated optical ring resonators for lab-on-a-chip and environmental detection,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.18(5), 1583–1596 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

I. Gasulla, J. Lloret, J. Sancho, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Recent breakthroughs in microwave photonics,” IEEE Photonics J.3(2), 311–315 (2011).

IEEE Photonics Lett. (1)

Z. Wang, S. Chang, C. Ni, and Y. Chen, “A high-performance ultracompact optical interleaver based on double-ring assisted Mach-Zehnder interferometer,” IEEE Photonics Lett.19(14), 1072–1075 (2007).

J. Lightwave Technol. (4)

Nat. Commun (1)

M. Ferrera, Y. Park, L. Razzari, B. E. Little, S. T. Chu, R. Morandotti, D. J. Moss, and J. Azaña, “On-chip CMOS-compatible all-optical integrator,” Nat. Commun. 1(29) (2010).

Nat. Commun. (1)

J. Sancho, J. Bourderionnet, J. Lloret, S. Combrié, I. Gasulla, S. Xavier, S. Sales, P. Colman, G. Lehoucq, D. Dolfi, J. Capmany, and A. De Rossi, “Integrable microwave filter based on a photonic crystal delay line,” Nat. Commun.3(9), (2012).

Nat. Photonics (3)

M. H. Khan, H. Shen, Y. Xuan, L. Zhao, S. Xiao, D. E. Leaird, A. M. Weiner, and M. Qi, “Ultrabroad-bandwidth arbitrary radiofrequency waveform generation with a silicon photonic chip-based spectral shaper,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 117–122 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany and D. Novak, “Microwave photonics combines two worlds,” Nat. Photonics1(6), 319–330 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Capmany, I. Gasulla, and S. Sales, “Microwave photonics: Harnessing slow light,” Nat. Photonics5(12), 731–733 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

M. Burla, D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Zhuang, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, M. R. Khan, A. Leinse, M. Hoekman, and R. G. Heideman, “On-chip CMOS compatible reconfigurable optical delay line with separate carrier tuning for microwave photonic signal processing,” Opt. Express19(22), 21475–21484 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, P. Dong, D. Feng, W. Qian, H. Liang, D. C. Lee, J. B. Luff, A. Agarwal, T. Banwell, R. Menendez, P. Toliver, T. K. Woodward, and M. Asghari, “Thermally-efficient reconfigurable narrowband RF-photonic filter,” Opt. Express18(24), 24648–24653 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Liu, T. Wang, L. Qiang, T. Ye, Z. Zhang, M. Qiu, and Y. Su, “Compact optical temporal differentiator based on silicon microring resonator,” Opt. Express16(20), 15880–15886 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, A. Leinse, and M. Hoekman, “A photonic chip based frequency discriminator for a high performance microwave photonic link,” Opt. Express18(26), 27359–27370 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. I. Marpaung, L. Chevalier, M. Burla, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Impulse radio ultrawideband pulse shaper based on a programmable photonic chip frequency discriminator,” Opt. Express19(25), 24838–24848 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhuang, M. R. Khan, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, R. G. Heideman, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Novel microwave photonic fractional Hilbert transformer using a ring resonator-based optical all-pass filter,” Opt. Express20(24), 26499–26510 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Zhuang, D. A. I. Marpaung, M. Burla, W. P. Beeker, A. Leinse, and C. G. H. Roeloffzen, “Low-loss, high-index-contrast Si₃N₄/SiO₂ optical waveguides for optical delay lines in microwave photonics signal processing,” Opt. Express19(23), 23162–23170 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (4)

J. F. White, High Frequency Techniques: An Introduction to RF and Microwave Engineering (Wiley, 2004).

R. E. Collin, Antennas and Radiowave Propagation (McGraw-Hill, 1985).

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis (Wiley, 1999).

D. A. I. Marpaung, C. G. H. Roeloffzen, R. G. Heideman, A. Leinse, S. Sales, and J. Capmany, “Integrated microwave photonics,” Laser Photonics Rev., DOI:10.1002/Ipor.201200032 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) schematic of a waveguide-based 2 × 2 interleaver with a two-ring resonator-assisted asymmetric MZI structure; (b) equivalent circuit when the RR in the lower arm is decoupled; (c) equivalent circuit when the RR in the upper arm is full-coupled.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Frequency responses of the interleaver for a typical setting of coefficients: (a) power transmission and phase responses of H12, (b) zero-pole diagram and the complementary nature of the two outputs, (c) corresponding group delay responses.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical and corresponding MWP phase responses of the two arms: (a) the optical phase responses aligned with the MWP signals, (b) the achieved relative RF phase shift of the two arms.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

System schemes for transmit DLP antennas with CP signal radiations.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

System schemes for transmit DLP antennas with LP signal radiations.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

System schemes for receive DLP antennas with CP signal radiations.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

System schemes for receive DLP antennas with LP signal radiations.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Waveguide structure and mask layout deign of the interleaver: (a) scanning electron microscopy photo of waveguide cross-section, and (b) mask layout of the interleaver with waveguides in red, heaters in black, and leads in yellow.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Measurement setup for device characterizations.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured and simulated filter responses of the interleaver: (a) power transmission and phase response of H21, (b) complementary nature of the two outputs of the interleaver, and (c) the corresponding group delay responses.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Verification of full reconfigurability of the fabricated interleaver: (a) demonstration of changes in stopband suppression by varying κ’s; and (b) demonstration of shifts of filter shape over one FSR.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Measurements of complex coefficients of the polarization network: (a) RF phase measurements of the two arms for two different status of the RRs, (b)-(c) corresponding quadrature RF phase relations between the two arms. Inset: illustrations of the two different status of the RRs.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

H=η[ 1 κ 4 e j ϕ 4 j κ 4 e j ϕ 4 j κ 4 1 κ 4 ][ A U (z) 0 0 A L (z) ][ 1 κ 3 j κ 3 j κ 3 1 κ 3 ]=[ H 11 H 12 H 21 H 22 ]
with A U (z)= 1 κ 1 r 2 z 2 e j ϕ 1 1 1 κ 1 r 2 z 2 e j ϕ 1
and A L (z)= 1 κ 2 r 2 z 2 e j ϕ 2 1 1 κ 2 r 2 z 2 e j ϕ 2 r z 1 e j ϕ 3

Metrics