Abstract

We present a novel method to fabricate low bend loss femtosecond-laser written waveguides that exploits the differential thermal stabilities of laser induced refractive index modifications. The technique consists of a two-step process; the first involves fabricating large multimode waveguides, while the second step consists of a thermal post-annealing process, which erases the outer ring of the refractive index profile, enabling single mode operation in the C-band. By using this procedure we report waveguides with sharp bends (down to 16.6 mm radius) and high (80%) normalized throughputs. This procedure was used to fabricate an efficient 3D, photonic device known as a “pupil-remapper” with negligible bend losses for the first time. The process will also allow for complex chips, based on 10's - 100's of waveguides to be realized in a compact foot print with short fabrication times.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (5)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, M. Yamaji, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, and K. Miura, “Three-dimensional temperature distribution and modification mechanism in glass during ultrafast laser irradiation at high repetition rates,” Opt. Express20(2), 934–940 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

2008 (3)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 023112 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

2003 (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1968 (1)

Allington-Smith, J.

Ams, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arai, A.

Bongioanni, I.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bovatsek, J.

Burghoff, J.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cerullo, G.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Charles, N.

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, W.-J.

Cheng, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Crespi, A.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Davis, K. M.

Dekker, P.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eaton, S. M.

Fuerbach, A.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gross, S.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Hagy, H. E.

Herman, P.

Herman, P. R.

Hirao, K.

Ho, S.

Hoekstra, H. J. W. M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, M.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jovanovic, N.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Kanehira, S.

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 023112 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Lacour, S.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J.

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, J. S.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lehmann, A.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, E.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, J.

Liao, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Little, D. J.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marshall, G.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marshall, G. D.

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Maselli, V.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Mataloni, P.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthews, J. C. F.

Mazur, E.

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Midorikawa, K.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miese, C.

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Miese, C. T.

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Miura, K.

Neil, C.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ng, M. L.

Nolte, S.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Norris, B.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. L.

O’Byrne, J.

Ohnishi, M.

Osellame, R.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Piper, J. A.

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Politi, A.

Pollnau, M.

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ramponi, R.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Robertson, G.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sakakura, M.

Sansoni, L.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sciarrino, F.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, L.

Shen, Y.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimizu, M.

Shimotsuma, Y.

Song, J.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spaleniak, I.

Stewart, P.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sugimoto, N.

Sugioka, K.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomson, R. R.

Tuennermann, A.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tuthill, P. G.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vallone, G.

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vazquez, R. M.

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Will, M.

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Withford, M. J.

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Charles, N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, P. Stewart, B. Norris, J. O’Byrne, J. S. Lawrence, M. J. Withford, and P. G. Tuthill, “Design of optically path-length-matched, three-dimensional photonic circuits comprising uniquely routed waveguides,” Appl. Opt.51(27), 6489–6497 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Z.

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamaji, M.

Yoshino, F.

Zhang, H.

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

R. Osellame, V. Maselli, R. M. Vazquez, R. Ramponi, and G. Cerullo, “Integration of optical waveguides and microfluidic channels both fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(23), 231118 (2007), doi:.
[CrossRef]

S. Kanehira, K. Miura, and K. Hirao, “Ion exchange in glass using femtosecond laser irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 023112 (2008), doi:.
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

S. Nolte, M. Will, J. Burghoff, and A. Tuennermann, “Femtosecond waveguide writing: a new avenue to three-dimensional integrated optics,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process.77(1), 109–111 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Raman Spectrosc. (1)

D. J. Little, M. Ams, S. Gross, P. Dekker, C. T. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Structural changes in BK7 glass upon exposure to femtosecond laser pulses,” J. Raman Spectrosc.42(4), 715–718 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip (1)

Y. Liao, J. Song, E. Li, Y. Luo, Y. Shen, D. Chen, Y. Cheng, Z. Xu, K. Sugioka, and K. Midorikawa, “Rapid prototyping of three-dimensional microfluidic mixers in glass by femtosecond laser direct writing,” Lab Chip12(4), 746–749 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laser Photon. Rev. (2)

R. Osellame, H. J. W. M. Hoekstra, G. Cerullo, and M. Pollnau, “Femtosecond laser microstructuring: an enabling tool for optofluidic lab-on-chips,” Laser Photon. Rev.5(3), 442–463 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Ams, G. D. Marshall, P. Dekker, J. A. Piper, and M. J. Withford, “Ultrafast laser written active devices,” Laser Photon. Rev.3(6), 535–544 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. (1)

N. Jovanovic, P. G. Tuthill, B. Norris, S. Gross, P. Stewart, N. Charles, S. Lacour, M. Ams, J. S. Lawrence, A. Lehmann, C. Neil, G. Robertson, G. Marshall, M. Ireland, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Starlight demonstration of the dragonfly instrument: an integrated photonic pupil-remapping interferometer for high-contrast imaging,” Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc.427(1), 806–815 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat Commun (1)

A. Crespi, R. Ramponi, R. Osellame, L. Sansoni, I. Bongioanni, F. Sciarrino, G. Vallone, and P. Mataloni, “Integrated photonic quantum gates for polarization qubits,” Nat Commun2, 566 (2011), doi:.
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. R. Gattass and E. Mazur, “Femtosecond laser micromachining in transparent materials,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 219–225 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (6)

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, P. Herman, F. Yoshino, L. Shah, J. Bovatsek, and A. Arai, “Heat accumulation effects in femtosecond laser-written waveguides with variable repetition rate,” Opt. Express13(12), 4708–4716 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Eaton, H. Zhang, M. L. Ng, J. Li, W.-J. Chen, S. Ho, and P. R. Herman, “Transition from thermal diffusion to heat accumulation in high repetition rate femtosecond laser writing of buried optical waveguides,” Opt. Express16(13), 9443–9458 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Thomson, A. K. Kar, and J. Allington-Smith, “Ultrafast laser inscription: an enabling technology for astrophotonics,” Opt. Express17(3), 1963–1969 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. D. Marshall, A. Politi, J. C. F. Matthews, P. Dekker, M. Ams, M. J. Withford, and J. L. O’Brien, “Laser written waveguide photonic quantum circuits,” Opt. Express17(15), 12546–12554 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Shimizu, M. Sakakura, M. Ohnishi, M. Yamaji, Y. Shimotsuma, K. Hirao, and K. Miura, “Three-dimensional temperature distribution and modification mechanism in glass during ultrafast laser irradiation at high repetition rates,” Opt. Express20(2), 934–940 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jovanovic, I. Spaleniak, S. Gross, M. Ireland, J. S. Lawrence, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, and M. J. Withford, “Integrated photonic building blocks for next-generation astronomical instrumentation I: the multimode waveguide,” Opt. Express20(15), 17029–17043 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

N. Jovanovic, S. Gross, C. Miese, A. Fuerbach, J. Lawrence, and M. J. Withford, “Direct laser written multimode waveguides for astronomical applications,” Proc. SPIE7739, 773923, 773923-8 (2010), http://proceedings.spiedigitallibrary.org/proceeding.aspx?articleid=1346699 .
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical waveguide theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Micrograph image, (b) Mode field profile at 1550 nm and (c) Refractive index profile (at 635 nm) for a waveguide written with high repetition rates in Eagle2000 glass (pulse energy = 40 nJ).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Schematic of the chip layouts. (b) Temperature profile for the rate annealing process. The process was done in 3 steps: first, heating the chip to 600 °C in 6 hours (rate: 100°C/h), then to 750°C in 2 additional hours (75°C/h) and last cooling the chip down to 18°C in 120 hours (−6 °C/h).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Bright field images of the waveguides before and (b) after annealing and the corresponding mode-field for the annealed waveguides (8.5 × 10 µm MFD) (c). Note that a different scale bar has been used in Fig. 3(c) for better visualization.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Refractive index profiles of a 90 nJ waveguide measured before (a) and after annealing (b).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized throughput as a function of radius of curvature for a 30 mm long waveguide. Solid lines show the result of BeamPROP simulations for the measured refractive index profiles. A step-index with a contrast of 5.3 × 10-3 was used for the single mode fiber with a core radius of 4.85 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Diagram of a 8 waveguide pupil-remapper (taken from [16]). The waveguides are spaced by 250 µm at the output of the chip. (b) Bright field microscope image of the input facet of the annealed remapper fabricated in this body of work. (c) Measured throughput and minimum bend radius of the individual waveguides within the pupil-remapper chip.

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