Abstract

We report a versatile way of controlling the unsaturated loss, modulation depth and saturation fluence of graphene-based saturable absorbers (GSAs), by changing the thickness of a spacer between a single layer graphene (SLG) and a high-reflection mirror. This allows us to modulate the electric field intensity enhancement at the GSA from 0 up to 400%, due to the interference of incident and reflected light at the mirror. The unsaturated loss of the SLG-mirror-assembly can be reduced to ∼0. We use this to mode-lock a vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser (VECSEL) from 935 to 981 nm. This approach can be applied to integrate SLG into various optical components, such as output coupler mirrors, dispersive mirrors or dielectric coatings on gain materials. Conversely, it can also be used to increase the absorption (up to 10%) in various graphene based photonics and optoelectronics devices, such as photodetectors.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (6)

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44, 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, and A. Knorr, “Efficient orientational carrier relaxation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 213110 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (4)

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 8108–8116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 739–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (7)

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

W.-T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 081408 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127404 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (5)

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095–14107 (2000).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

Achete, C. A.

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, J. H.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ahn, J.-H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ahn, Y. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Anissimova, S.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

Antipov, O. L.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Artigas, D.

Aschwanden, A.

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aviles-Espinosa, R.

Bae, S.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baek, I. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Baer, C. R. E.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbarin, Y.

Basko, D. M.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Beecher, S. J.

Beere, H. E.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Bellancourt, A.-R.

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

Blake, P.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bonaccorso, F.

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Booth, T. J.

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brida, D.

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

Brown, C. T. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brown, G.

Cancado, L. G.

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capaz, R. B.

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Casiraghi, C.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

Chakraborty, B.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colombo, L.

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Crommie, M.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Das, A.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ebling, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Farrer, I.

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Fermann, M. E.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (CRC Press, 2003).

Ferrari, A. C.

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44, 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095–14107 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ferreira, E. H. M.

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Filippidis, G.

Florez, L. T.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

Galvanauskas, A.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (CRC Press, 2003).

Geim, A. K.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gini, E.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Girit, C.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gokus, T.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Golling, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Grange, R.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Grigorenko, A. N.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hader, J.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Haiml, M.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hamilton, C.

Harbison, J. P.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

Häring, R.

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hartschuh, A.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
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Harutyunyan, H.

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hasan, T.

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44, 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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Head, C. R.

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Heckl, O. H.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heinen, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Heinz, T. F.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127404 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoffmann, M.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 8108–8116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, B. H.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iijima, S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iwaniuk, D.

Jewell, J. L.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jiang, D.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jorio, A.

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kar, A. K.

Kbashi, H. J.

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Keller, U.

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 8108–8116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 739–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

T. Südmeyer, D. J. H. C. Maas, and U. Keller, “Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Lasers,” in Semiconductor Disk Lasers, O.G. Okhotnikov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2010), pp. 213–261.
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, K. S.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

Kim, Y.-J.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knorr, A.

E. Malic, T. Winzer, and A. Knorr, “Efficient orientational carrier relaxation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 213110 (2012).
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Koch, M.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koch, S. W.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Krainer, L.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kravets, V. G.

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
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Krestnikov, I. L.

Krishnamurthy, H. R.

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kulmala, T. S.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kunert, B.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lazzeri, M.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, C. C.

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, H. W.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. H.

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

Lei, T.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lidorikis, E.

Liu, W.-T.

W.-T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 081408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liverini, V.

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Livshits, D. A.

Lombardo, A.

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lorenser, D.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

Loza-Alvarez, P.

Lui, C. H.

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127404 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maas, D. J. H. C.

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
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T. Südmeyer, D. J. H. C. Maas, and U. Keller, “Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Lasers,” in Semiconductor Disk Lasers, O.G. Okhotnikov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2010), pp. 213–261.
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Mak, K. F.

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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
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M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
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Marchese, S. V.

Mary, R.

Mauri, F.

A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
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R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
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M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
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B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
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O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Mosley, P. J.

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

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D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
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A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
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C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
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D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

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R. R. Nair, P. Blake, A. N. Grigorenko, K. S. Novoselov, T. J. Booth, T. Stauber, N. M. R. Peres, and A. K. Geim, “Fine Structure Constant Defines Visual Transparency of Graphene,” Science 320, 1308 (2008).
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A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
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D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
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Privitera, G.

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C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
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O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

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K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
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M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
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D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
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A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
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G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
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C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
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W.-T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 081408 (2010).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
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C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127404 (2010).
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Song, Y. I.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
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A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
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B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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Stolz, W.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
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M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 8108–8116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 739–747 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
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D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
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F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
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F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
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D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

Torrisi, F.

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
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Tropper, A. C.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
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Turnbull, A. P.

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Unold, H. J.

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
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D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
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Waghmare, U. V.

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Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, T. L.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weber, A.

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
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R. Aviles-Espinosa, G. Filippidis, C. Hamilton, G. Malcolm, K. J. Weingarten, T. Südmeyer, Y. Barbarin, U. Keller, S. I. C. O. Santos, D. Artigas, and P. Loza-Alvarez, “Compact ultrafast semiconductor disk laser: targeting GFP based nonlinear applications in living organisms,” Biomed. Opt. Express 2, 739–747 (2011).
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G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
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Wilcox, K. G.

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

Winzer, T.

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Wu, S. W.

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeom, D.-I.

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
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Zaugg, C. A.

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zettl, A.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y. B.

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, Y.

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, F. Torrisi, D. Popa, G. Privitera, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, D. M. Basko, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene Mode-Locked Ultrafast Laser,” ACS Nano 4, 803–810 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Mater. (1)

T. Hasan, Z. Sun, F. Wang, F. Bonaccorso, P. H. Tan, A. G. Rozhin, and A. C. Ferrari, “Nanotube-polymer composites for ultrafast photonics,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3874–3899 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (3)

D. Lorenser, H. J. Unold, D. J. H. C. Maas, A. Aschwanden, R. Grange, R. Paschotta, D. Ebling, E. Gini, and U. Keller, “Towards Wafer-Scale Integration of High Repetition Rate Passively Mode-Locked Surface-Emitting Semiconductor Lasers,” Appl. Phys. B 79, 927–932 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. C. Lee, J. M. Miller, and T. R. Schibli, “Doping-induced changes in the saturable absorption of monolayer graphene,” Appl. Phys. B 108, 129–135 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. J. Spühler, K. J. Weingarten, R. Grange, L. Krainer, M. Haiml, V. Liverini, M. Golling, S. Schön, and U. Keller, “Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror structures with low saturation fluence,” Appl. Phys. B 81, 27–32 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

I. H. Baek, H. W. Lee, S. Bae, B. H. Hong, Y. H. Ahn, D.-I. Yeom, and F. Rotermund, “Efficient mode-locking of sub-70-fs Ti:sapphire laser by graphene saturable absorber,” Appl. Phys. Express 5, 032701 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. A. Lagatsky, Z. Sun, T. S. Kulmala, R. S. Sundaram, S. Milana, F. Torrisi, O. L. Antipov, Y. Lee, J. H. Ahn, C. T. A. Brown, W. Sibbett, and A. C. Ferrari, “2μm solid-state laser mode-locked by single-layer graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 013113 (2013).
[Crossref]

E. Malic, T. Winzer, and A. Knorr, “Efficient orientational carrier relaxation in optically excited graphene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101, 213110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

Electron. Lett. (2)

B. Heinen, T. L. Wang, M. Sparenberg, A. Weber, B. Kunert, J. Hader, S. W. Koch, J. V. Moloney, M. Koch, and W. Stolz, “106 W continuous-wave output power from vertical-external-cavity surface-emitting laser,” Electron. Lett. 48, 516–517 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Scheller, T. L. Wang, B. Kunert, W. Stolz, S. W. Koch, and J. V. Moloney, “Passively modelocked VECSEL emitting 682 fs pulses with 5.1 W of average output power,” Electron. Lett. 48, 588–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. (3)

J. L. Jewell, J. P. Harbison, A. Scherer, Y. H. Lee, and L. T. Florez, “Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Design, growth, fabrication, characterization,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 27, 1332–1346 (1991).
[Crossref]

D. Lorenser, D. J. H. C. Maas, H. J. Unold, A.-R. Bellancourt, B. Rudin, E. Gini, D. Ebling, and U. Keller, “50-GHz passively mode-locked surface-emitting semiconductor laser with 100 mW average output power,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 42, 838–847 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Häring, R. Paschotta, A. Aschwanden, E. Gini, F. Morier-Genoud, and U. Keller, “High-power passively mode-locked semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. of Quantum Electron. 38, 1268–1275 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. J. Saraceno, C. Schriber, M. Mangold, M. Hoffmann, O. H. Heckl, C. R. E. Baer, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “SESAMs for high-power oscillators: design guidelines and damage thresholds,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 18, 29–41 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Journal (1)

V. J. Wittwer, C. A. Zaugg, W. P. Pallmann, A. E. H. Oehler, B. Rudin, M. Hoffmann, M. Golling, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Timing Jitter Characterization of a Free-Running SESAM Mode-locked VECSEL,” IEEE Photonics Journal 3, 658–664 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mater. Today (1)

F. Bonaccorso, A. Lombardo, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, L. Colombo, and A. C. Ferrari, “Production and processing of graphene and 2d crystals,” Mater. Today 15, 564–589 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

L. G. Cancado, A. Jorio, E. H. M. Ferreira, F. Stavale, C. A. Achete, R. B. Capaz, M. V. O. Moutinho, A. Lombardo, T. S. Kulmala, and A. C. Ferrari, “Quantifying defects in graphene via Raman spectroscopy at different excitation energies,” Nano Lett. 11, 3190–3196 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Casiraghi, A. Hartschuh, E. Lidorikis, H. Qian, H. Harutyunyan, T. Gokus, K. S. Novoselov, and A. C. Ferrari, “Rayleigh imaging of graphene and graphene layers,” Nano Lett. 7, 2711–2717 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (3)

A. C. Ferrari and D. M. Basko, “Raman spectroscopy as a versatile tool for studying the properties of graphene,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 8, 235–246 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Das, S. Pisana, B. Chakraborty, S. Piscanec, S. K. Saha, U. V. Waghmare, K. S. Novoselov, H. R. Krishnamurthy, A. K. Geim, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Sood, “Monitoring dopants by Raman scattering in an electrochemically top-gated graphene transistor,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 3, 210–215 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bae, H. Kim, Y. Lee, X. Xu, J.-S. Park, Y. Zheng, J. Balakrishnan, T. Lei, H. Ri Kim, Y. I. Song, Y.-J. Kim, K. S. Kim, B. Ozyilmaz, J.-H. Ahn, B. H. Hong, and S. Iijima, “Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 5, 574–578 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

F. Bonaccorso, Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Graphene photonics and optoelectronics,” Nat. Photonics 4, 611–622 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

U. Keller, “Recent developments in compact ultrafast lasers,” Nature 424, 831–838 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature Comm. (1)

D. Brida, A. Tomadin, C. Manzoni, Y. J. Kim, A. Lombardo, S. Milana, R. R. Nair, K. S. Novoselov, A. C. Ferrari, G. Cerullo, and M. Polini, “Ultrafast collinear scattering and carrier multiplication in graphene,” Nature Comm. 4, 1987 (2013).

Opt. Express (6)

M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, V. J. Wittwer, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, Y. Barbarin, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “Femtosecond high-power quantum dot vertical external cavity surface emitting laser,” Opt. Express 19, 8108–8116 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Mary, G. Brown, S. J. Beecher, F. Torrisi, S. Milana, D. Popa, T. Hasan, Z. Sun, E. Lidorikis, S. Ohara, A. C. Ferrari, and A. K. Kar, “1.5 GHz picosecond pulse generation from a monolithic waveguide laser with a graphene-film saturable output coupler,” Opt. Express 21, 7943–7950 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Mangold, V. J. Wittwer, O. D. Sieber, M. Hoffmann, I. L. Krestnikov, D. A. Livshits, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “VECSEL gain characterization,” Opt. Express 20, 4136–4148 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Rudin, V. J. Wittwer, D. J. H. C. Maas, M. Hoffmann, O. D. Sieber, Y. Barbarin, M. Golling, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High-power MIXSEL: an integrated ultrafast semiconductor laser with 6.4 W average power,” Opt. Express 18, 27582–27588 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. G. Wilcox, A. C. Tropper, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, B. Kunert, B. Heinen, and W. Stolz, “4.35 kW peak power femtosecond pulse mode-locked VECSEL for supercontinuum generation,” Opt. Express 21, 1599–1605 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. H. C. Maas, B. Rudin, A.-R. Bellancourt, D. Iwaniuk, S. V. Marchese, T. Südmeyer, and U. Keller, “High precision optical characterization of semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors,” Opt. Express 16, 7571–7579 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rep. (1)

U. Keller and A. C. Tropper, “Passively modelocked surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Phys. Rep. 429, 67–120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

A. Tomadin, D. Brida, G. Cerullo, A. C. Ferrari, and M. Polini, “Nonequilibrium dynamics of photoexcited electrons in graphene: Collinear scattering, Auger processes, and the impact of screening,” Phys. Rev. B 88, 035430 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. G. Kravets, A. N. Grigorenko, R. R. Nair, P. Blake, S. Anissimova, K. S. Novoselov, and A. K. Geim, “Spectroscopic ellipsometry of graphene and an exciton-shifted van Hove peak in absorption,” Phys. Rev. B 81, 155413 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. C. Ferrari and J. Robertson, “Interpretation of Raman spectra of disordered and amorphous carbon,” Phys. Rev. B 61, 14095–14107 (2000).
[Crossref]

W.-T. Liu, S. W. Wu, P. J. Schuck, M. Salmeron, Y. R. Shen, and F. Wang, “Nonlinear broadband photoluminescence of graphene induced by femtosecond laser irradiation,” Phys. Rev. B 82, 081408 (2010).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

C. H. Lui, K. F. Mak, J. Shan, and T. F. Heinz, “Ultrafast Photoluminescence from Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 127404 (2010).
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M. Lazzeri, S. Piscanec, F. Mauri, A. C. Ferrari, and J. Robertson, “Electron transport and hot phonons in carbon nanotubes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 95236802 (2005).
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K. F. Mak, M. Y. Sfeir, Y. Wu, C. H. Lui, J. A. Misewich, and T. F. Heinz, “Measurement of the Optical Conductivity of Graphene,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 196405 (2008).
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A. C. Ferrari, J. C. Meyer, V. Scardaci, C. Casiraghi, M. Lazzeri, F. Mauri, S. Piscanec, D. Jiang, K. S. Novoselov, S. Roth, and A. K. Geim, “Raman spectrum of graphene and graphene layers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 187401 (2006).
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Physica E (1)

Z. Sun, T. Hasan, and A. C. Ferrari, “Ultrafast lasers mode-locked by nanotubes and graphene,” Physica E 44, 1082–1091 (2012).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

F. Wang, Y. B. Zhang, C. S. Tian, C. Girit, A. Zettl, M. Crommie, and Y. R. Shen, “Gate-variable optical transitions in graphene,” Science 320, 206–209 (2008).
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Other (5)

O. J. Morris, K. G. Wilcox, C. R. Head, A. P. Turnbull, P. J. Mosley, A. H. Quarterman, H. J. Kbashi, I. Farrer, H. E. Beere, D. A. Ritchie, and A. C. Tropper, “A wavelength tunable 2-ps pulse VECSEL,” in Photonics West, (SPIE, 2012), pp. 824212.

M. E. Fermann, A. Galvanauskas, and G. Sucha, Ultrafast Lasers: Technology and Applications (CRC Press, 2003).

T. Südmeyer, D. J. H. C. Maas, and U. Keller, “Mode-Locked Semiconductor Disk Lasers,” in Semiconductor Disk Lasers, O.G. Okhotnikov, ed. (Wiley-VCH, 2010), pp. 213–261.
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K. F. Renk, Basics of Laser Physics (Springer, 2012).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

DBR-GSAM design. Schematic zoom into the last mirror pairs with (a) no SiO2, (b) λ/12 (55 nm) SiO2, (c) λ/8 (83 nm) SiO2 and (d) λ/4 (165 nm) SiO2. The blue curve represents the normalized standing electric field intensity resulting from the refractive index profile, as a function of the vertical distance from the mirror, for the design wavelength λ =960 nm. A SLG is placed as the last layer. (e) (right axis) linear absorption and (left axis) field intensity enhancement at the SLG location corresponding to the DBRs without SiO2 (ξabs=0), a λ/12 layer of SiO2 (ξabs=0.5), a λ/8 layer (ξabs=1.3) and a λ/4 layer (ξabs=4). (f) (lines) calculated and (dots) experimental ξabs and absorption of the four designs as a function of wavelength.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Raman characterization and non-linear response. (a) Raman spectra of graphene on Cu and after transfer on the no-SiO2, λ/4 SiO2, λ/8 SiO2, λ/12 SiO2 devices. (b) Transmittance of the same graphene transferred on a quartz substrate, derived from the transmittance of transferred graphene on quartz divided by that of quartz. (c) Non-linear reflectivity of the λ/4 SiO2 sample (black markers) and fit assuming a 5% saturable and 5.1% non-saturable absorption (blue curve), resulting in a saturation fluence of 100 μJ/cm2. (d) Non-linear reflectivity of all GSAMs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Laser setup. (a) Schematic of the VECSEL setup. OC: output coupler mirror. HR: high reflective folding mirror. GSAM: graphene saturable absorber. The VECSEL gain chip is placed as a folding mirror and pumped under a 45° angle. The total cavity length is 6 cm. (b) Picture of the laser setup. (c) Picture of the λ/8 GSAM. The SLG is clearly seen as shaded area, since the 83 nm SiO2 thickness gives a a high optical contrast in the visible range [42].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Mode-locking results. (a) (Blue line) second harmonic autocorrelation signal and (dashed red line) fit with the autocorrelation of an ideal sech2-shaped pulse, corresponding to a pulse duration of 466 fs. (b) Optical spectrum. (c) Microwave spectrum centered around the repetition rate of 2.5 GHz, measured with a 1 kHz resolution bandwidth (RBW). (d) Microwave spectrum measured from 0 to 13 GHz with RBW=300 kHz, showing the first 5 harmonic peaks of the repetition rate (frep).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Tuning results. Mode-locking with the λ/8 GSAM in VECSELs optimized for different emission wavelengths. An intra-cavity etalon is used, except for the two points at 935 and 949 nm. (a) Pulse duration and (b) average output power at different emission wavelengths. (c) Emission spectra for the 970 nm-VECSEL and average output power.

Equations (14)

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ξ ( z ) = | in ( z ) + out ( z ) | 2 | in ( z ) | 2 ,
out / in ( z ) = out / in 0 e i ( ω t ± k n z ) ,
ξ ( z ) = | in ( z ) in ( z ) | 2 | in ( z ) | 2 = | 2 i sin ( k n z ) | 2 = 4 sin 2 ( 2 π n air z λ ) ,
r in = n air n SiO 2 n air + n SiO 2 = 1 n SiO 2 1 + n SiO 2 and r out = r in ,
t in = 2 n air n air + n SiO 2 = 2 1 + n SiO 2 and t out = 2 n SiO 2 n air + n SiO 2 = 2 n SiO 2 1 + n SiO 2 .
air out = r in air in + t out SiO 2 out ,
SiO 2 in = t in air in + r out SiO 2 out
SiO 2 out = r mirror e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d SiO 2 in .
SiO 2 in = t in 1 + r out e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d
SiO 2 out = t in e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d 1 + r out e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d .
air out = r in + t out t in e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d 1 + r out e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d .
ξ ( d SiO 2 ) = | 1 4 n SiO 2 ( 1 + n SiO 2 ) 2 1 e 2 in SiO 2 k 0 d + n SiO 2 1 n SiO 2 + 1 + 1 n SiO 2 1 + n SiO 2 | 2
ξ abs ( d SiO 2 ) 4 1 + n SiO 2 2 cot 2 ( 2 π λ n SiO 2 d SiO 2 ) .
R ( F ) R lin R ns F F sat + ( F F sat ) 2 atanh [ F F sat + F ] + R ns ,

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