Abstract

Optical microfiber taper has unique propagation properties, which provides versatile waveguide structure to design the tunable photonic devices. In this paper, the S-tapered microfiber is fabricated by using simple fusion spicing. The spectral characteristics of microfiber taper integrated with ferrofluid under different magnetic-field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. The spectrum are both found to become highly magnetic-field-dependent. The results indicate the transmission and wavelength of the dips are adjustable by changing magnetic field intensity. The response of this device to the magnetic field intensity exhibits a Langvin function. Moreover, there is a linear relationship between the transmission loss and magnetic field intensity for a magnetic field intensity range of 25 to 200Oe, and the sensitivities as high as 0.13056dB/Oe and 0.056nm/Oe have been achieved, respectively. This suggests a potential application of this device as a tunable all-in-fiber photonic device, such as magneto-optic modulator, filter, and sensing element.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (4)

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

R. Gao, Y. Jiang, and S. Abdelaziz, “All-fiber magnetic field sensors based on magnetic fluid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Lett. 38(9), 1539–1541 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (4)

L. X. Chen, X. G. Huang, J. H. Zhu, G. C. Li, and S. Lan, “Fiber magnetic-field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and Fresnel reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2761–2763 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Yang, Y. S. Yu, Y. Xue, C. Chen, Q. D. Chen, and H. B. Sun, “Single S-tapered fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Lett. 36(23), 4482–4484 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Hu, Y. Zhao, X. Li, J. J. Chen, and Z. W. Lv, “Novel optical fiber current sensor based on magnetic fluid,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 8(4), 392–394 (2010).

2009 (1)

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abdelaziz, S.

Andrews, S. R.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ashcom, J. B.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bai, Z. Y.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Bao, X. Y.

Bennion, I.

Candiani, A.

M. Konstantaki, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Magnetic tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing ferrofluids,” in 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON'09, IEEE, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. C.

Chao, Y. H.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chapline, M. G.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Chen, J. J.

Chen, J. P.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L.

Chen, L. H.

Chen, L. X.

Chen, Q. D.

Chen, Q. Y.

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, X. F.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chieh, J. J.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Comini, E.

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, H. J.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, J. X.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Dai, Q. F.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Deng, H. D.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Di, Z. Y.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ding, H.

Ding, W.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, X. Y.

Escobar, D. M.

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Faglia, G.

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Franklin, N. R.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, R.

Gao, S. C.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gattass, R. R.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Geng, P. C.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Gopal, A. V.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, F. X.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Guo, J. C.

Gupta, S.

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

He, S. L.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, C.

C. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hong, C. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Horng, H. E.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hu, T.

Huang, J. X.

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, X. G.

Jiang, Y.

Jin, Y. X.

Kale, S. N.

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kaner, R. B.

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kitture, R.

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, J.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Konstantaki, M.

M. Konstantaki, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Magnetic tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing ferrofluids,” in 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON'09, IEEE, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lan, S.

L. X. Chen, X. G. Huang, J. H. Zhu, G. C. Li, and S. Lan, “Fiber magnetic-field sensor based on nanoparticle magnetic fluid and Fresnel reflection,” Opt. Lett. 36(15), 2761–2763 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lew, W. S.

Li, G. C.

Li, J. L.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. H.

Li, X.

Li, X. B.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. L.

Li, X. W.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lieber, C. M.

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liew, H. F.

Lin, W.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, X. S.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, B.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Liu, H. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liu, T.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lou, J. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lu, P.

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Luna-Moreno, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lv, Z. W.

Maier, S. A.

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Maxwell, I.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mazur, E.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Men, L. Q.

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Miao, Y. P.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Monzón-Hernández, D.

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nalawade, S. M.

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pan, Z. W.

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Park, H. K.

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, S.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pissadakis, S.

M. Konstantaki, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Magnetic tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing ferrofluids,” in 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON'09, IEEE, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sberveglieri, G.

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M. Y.

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, F. F.

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Shu, X. W.

Sooley, K.

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sun, H. B.

Sun, T.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Thakur, V. H.

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tong, L. M.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tong, X. L.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Villatoro, J.

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Virji, S.

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, C.

Wang, J. Z.

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. Z.

Wang, Z. L.

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wei, Q. Q.

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiller, B. H.

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wong, W. C.

Wu, L. J.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y. Q.

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, X. L.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xue, Y.

Yang, H. C.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yang, M. H.

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yang, R.

Yang, S. Y.

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yao, J. Q.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yin, X. F.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, Y. S.

Zhang, B. L.

Zhang, H.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. F.

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, K. L.

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. W. Shu, L. Zhang, and I. Bennion, “Sensitivity Characteristics of Long-Period Fiber Gratings,” J. Lightwave Technol. 20(2), 255–266 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, W. G.

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

Zhang, Y. F.

Zhang, Y. J.

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, L. C.

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, W. R.

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y.

Zhou, C. W.

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, F.

Zhu, J. H.

Zu, P.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

E. Comini, G. Faglia, G. Sberveglieri, Z. W. Pan, and Z. L. Wang, “Stable and highly sensitive gas sensors based on semiconducting oxide nanobelts,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(10), 1869–1871 (2002).
[CrossRef]

P. Lu, L. Q. Men, K. Sooley, and Q. Y. Chen, “Tapered fiber Mach–Zehnder interferometer for simultaneous measurement of refractive index and temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(13), 131110 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. D. Deng, J. Liu, W. R. Zhao, W. Zhang, X. S. Lin, T. Sun, Q. F. Dai, L. J. Wu, S. Lan, and A. V. Gopal, “Enhancement of switching speed by laser-induced clustering of nanoparticles in magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(23), 233103 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Liu, X. F. Chen, Z. Y. Di, J. F. Zhang, X. W. Li, and J. P. Chen, “Tunable magneto-optical wavelength filter of long-period fiber grating with magnetic fluids,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(12), 121116 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Y. Yang, J. J. Chieh, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Origin and applications of magnetically tunable refractive index of magnetic fluid films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(25), 5204–5206 (2004).
[CrossRef]

V. H. Thakur, S. M. Nalawade, S. Gupta, R. Kitture, and S. N. Kale, “Photonic crystal fiber injected with Fe3O4 nanofluid for magnetic field Detection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(16), 161101 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (1)

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

F. F. Shi, J. Z. Wang, Y. J. Zhang, Y. Q. Xia, and L. C. Zhao, “Refractive Index Sensor Based on S-Tapered Photonic Crystal Fiber,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(4), 344–347 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. L. Li, W. G. Zhang, S. C. Gao, P. C. Geng, X. L. Xue, Z. Y. Bai, and H. Liang, “Long-Period Fiber Grating Cascaded to an S Fiber Taper for Simultaneous Measurement of Temperature and Refractive Index,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(9), 888–891 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. P. Miao, K. L. Zhang, B. Liu, W. Lin, H. Zhang, and J. Q. Yao, “Magnetic fluid infiltrated microstructured optical fiber long period grating,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(3), 306–309 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

J. X. Huang, S. Virji, B. H. Weiller, and R. B. Kaner, “Polyaniline nanofibers: facile synthesis and chemical sensors,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 125(2), 314–315 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. J. Chieh, S. Y. Yang, Y. H. Chao, H. E. Horng, C. Y. Hong, and H. C. Yang, “Dynamic response of optical-fiber modulator by using magnetic fluid as a cladding layer,” J. Appl. Phys. 97(4), 043104 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (3)

Nano Lett. (1)

F. X. Gu, L. Zhang, X. F. Yin, and L. M. Tong, “Polymer Single-Nanowire Optical Sensors,” Nano Lett. 8(9), 2757–2761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nature (1)

L. M. Tong, R. R. Gattass, J. B. Ashcom, S. L. He, J. Y. Lou, M. Y. Shen, I. Maxwell, and E. Mazur, “Subwavelength-diameter silica wires for low-loss optical wave guiding,” Nature 426(6968), 816–819 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Fiber Technol. (1)

J. X. Dai, M. H. Yang, X. B. Li, H. L. Liu, and X. L. Tong, “Magnetic field sensor based on magnetic fluid clad etched fiber Bragg grating,” Opt. Fiber Technol. 17(3), 210–213 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

W. Ding, S. R. Andrews, and S. A. Maier, “Internal excitation and superfocusing of surface plasmon polaritons on a silver-coated optical fiber tip,” Phys. Rev. A 75(6), 063822 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi C (1)

C. Hong, H. E. Horng, and S. Y. Yang, “Tunable refractive index of magnetic fluids and its applications,” Phys. Status Solidi C 1(7), 1604–1609 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

J. Kong, N. R. Franklin, C. W. Zhou, M. G. Chapline, S. Peng, K. Cho, and H. J. Dai, “Nanotube Molecular Wires as Chemical Sensors,” Science 287(5453), 622–625 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Cui, Q. Q. Wei, H. K. Park, and C. M. Lieber, “Nanowire nanosensors for highly sensitive and selective detection of biological and chemical species,” Science 293(5533), 1289–1292 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sens. Actuators B Chem. (1)

D. Monzón-Hernández, D. Luna-Moreno, D. M. Escobar, and J. Villatoro, “Optical microfibers decorated with PdAu nanoparticles for fast hydrogen sensing,” Sens. Actuators B Chem. 151(1), 219–222 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

M. Konstantaki, A. Candiani, and S. Pissadakis, “Magnetic tuning of optical fibre long period gratings utilizing ferrofluids,” in 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks, 2009. ICTON'09, IEEE, 1–4 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for magnetic field tunability test; (b) optical microscopic image of the S-tapered fiber; (c) schematic diagram of the S-tapered fiber mode interference.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Transmission spectra of the S-tapered fiber before and after immersing in the ferrofluid.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectral responses to the magnetic field intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Wavelength shift of the transmission spectrum with the variation of the magnetic-field intensity: (a) dip A; (b) dip B.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission responses of dip A (black) and dip B (red).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I o u t ( λ ) = I f ( λ ) + I h ( λ ) + 2 I f ( λ ) I h ( λ ) cos ( 2 π Δ n e f f L / λ )
λ N = 2 Δ n e f f L 2 N + 1
I min ( λ N ) = [ I f ( λ N ) I h ( λ N ) ] 2
I f ( λ N ) = κ f f 2 I i n ( λ N )
I h ( λ N ) = κ f h 2 I i n ( λ N )
I min ( λ N ) = [ κ f f κ f h ] 2 I i n ( λ N )
κ f h ω 4 E f * ( x , y ) Δ ε ( x , y ) E h ( x , y ) d x d y

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