Abstract

Embodying a thin metallic layer underneath the core of a sharply bent polymer waveguide is shown in this work to considerably reduce the total losses of both the quasi-transverse-electric and quasi-transverse-magnetic modes. The computational results show a total loss as low as ~0.02 dB/90° for the quasi-transverse-electric mode for radii between 6 and 13 µm at the wavelength of 1.55 µm, which corresponds to a 10-fold improvement over the purely dielectric counterpart. The radii range exhibiting such low total loss can be tuned by properly selecting the parameters of the structure. For the quasi-transverse-magnetic mode, the metal layer reduces the total losses modestly for radii ranging from 3 to 10 µm. Simulation results for different structural parameters are presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Guiding light at the nanoscale: numerical optimization of ultrasubwavelength metallic wire plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett.36(16), 3127–3129 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express16, 4310–4315 (2008).

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6, 54–68 (2000).

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aitchison, J. S.

Akimov, Y.

Alam, M. Z.

Bachman, D.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bai, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, T. H.-P.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Chu, H. S.

Ctyroký, J.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dai, D.

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deki, Y.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dikken, D. J.

Driessen, A.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6, 54–68 (2000).

Fan, F.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Fu, X.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Gelorme, J. D.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Goh, T.

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Gramotnev, D. K.

Grivas, C.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, M.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Hatanaka, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

He, S.

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hiremath, K. R.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

Horie, M.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Horvath, C.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hu, R.

Jen, A. K. Y.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Jin, L.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. W.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Krasavin, A. V.

Krasavin, V.

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ku, P. C.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kuipers, L. K.

LaBianca, N.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, K. Y.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Li, E. P.

Liu, Q.

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

Meier, J.

Miyazaki, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mojahedi, M.

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Perron, D.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett.30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Prkna, L.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Rishton, S. A.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sengo, G.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6, 54–68 (2000).

Shaw, J.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sheng, Z.

Shi, Y.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shieh, C. L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Spasenovic, M.

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoffer, R.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Takaesu, S.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Teng, J. H.

Teo, E. J.

Teo, S. L.

Thylen, L.

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van, V.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

van Oosten, D.

Verhagen, E.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Yamazaki, H.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yang, B.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C.

Yang, L.

Yang, Q.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zolgharnain, S.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater.14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(13), 131107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett.43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.6, 54–68 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett.7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett.11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express16, 4310–4315 (2008).

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Propagation characteristics of hybrid modes supported by metal-low-high index waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express18(12), 12971–12979 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. J. Dikken, M. Spasenović, E. Verhagen, D. van Oosten, and L. K. Kuipers, “Characterization of bending losses for curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Opt. Express18(15), 16112–16119 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Yang, E. J. Teo, T. Goh, S. L. Teo, J. H. Teng, and A. A. Bettiol, “Metal-assisted photonic mode for ultrasmall bending with long propagation length at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express20(21), 23898–23905 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron.37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75(24), 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B78(4), 045425 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Super mode propagation in low index medium,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JThD112.

X. B. Phoeni, V., Enschede, The Netherlands ( www.phoenixbv.com ).

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MPG (2942 KB)     
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