Abstract

Embodying a thin metallic layer underneath the core of a sharply bent polymer waveguide is shown in this work to considerably reduce the total losses of both the quasi-transverse-electric and quasi-transverse-magnetic modes. The computational results show a total loss as low as ~0.02 dB/90° for the quasi-transverse-electric mode for radii between 6 and 13 µm at the wavelength of 1.55 µm, which corresponds to a 10-fold improvement over the purely dielectric counterpart. The radii range exhibiting such low total loss can be tuned by properly selecting the parameters of the structure. For the quasi-transverse-magnetic mode, the metal layer reduces the total losses modestly for radii ranging from 3 to 10 µm. Simulation results for different structural parameters are presented.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

2011 (6)

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131107 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Guiding light at the nanoscale: numerical optimization of ultrasubwavelength metallic wire plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(16), 3127–3129 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

2009 (3)

2008 (4)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express 16, 4310–4315 (2008).

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

Akimov, Y.

Alam, M. Z.

Bachman, D.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Bai, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express 16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Bechtel, J. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bettiol, A. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, T. H.-P.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chen, Z.

Chu, H. S.

Ctyroký, J.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Dalton, L. R.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deki, Y.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diemeer, M. B. J.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dikken, D. J.

Driessen, A.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eldada, L.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).

Fan, F.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fattal, D.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express 16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Fu, X.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

García-Blanco, S. M.

Gelorme, J. D.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goh, T.

Gong, X.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

Gramotnev, D. K.

Grivas, C.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hammer, M.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hatanaka, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

He, S.

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hiremath, K. R.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Holmgaard, T.

Horie, M.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Horvath, C.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hu, R.

Jen, A. K. Y.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Jin, L.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. W.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Krasavin, A. V.

Krasavin, V.

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ku, P. C.

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kuipers, L. K.

LaBianca, N.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. Y.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, E. P.

Liu, Q.

Ma, H.

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Markey, L.

Meier, J.

Miyazaki, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mojahedi, M.

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Perron, D.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. F. P. Pile and D. K. Gramotnev, “Plasmonic subwavelength waveguides: next to zero losses at sharp bends,” Opt. Lett. 30(10), 1186–1188 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pollnau, M.

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Prkna, L.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Rishton, S. A.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sengo, G.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shacklette, L. W.

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).

Shaw, J.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sheng, Z.

Shi, Y.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shieh, C. L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Spasenovic, M.

Steier, W. H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stoffer, R.

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Takaesu, S.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, M.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, T.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Teng, J. H.

Teo, E. J.

Teo, S. L.

Thylen, L.

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van, V.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

van Oosten, D.

Verhagen, E.

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Z. L.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watanabe, S.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wosinski, L.

Wu, M.

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, H.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express 16, 4310–4315 (2008).

Yamazaki, H.

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, B.

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, L. Yang, R. Hu, Z. Sheng, D. Dai, Q. Liu, and S. He, “Fabrication and characterization of small optical ridge waveguides based on SU-8 polymer,” J. Lightwave Technol. 27(18), 4091–4096 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, C.

Yang, L.

Yang, Q.

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zayats, A. V.

Zhang, C.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, H.

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zolgharnain, S.

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Ma, A. K. Y. Jen, and L. R. Dalton, “Polymer-based optical waveguides: materials, processing and devices,” Adv. Mater. 14(19), 1339–1365 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. W. Kim and P. C. Ku, “Lasing in a metal-clad microring resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131107 (2011).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

Y. Deki, T. Hatanaka, M. Takahashi, T. Takeuchi, S. Watanabe, S. Takaesu, T. Miyazaki, M. Horie, and H. Yamazaki, “Wide-wavelength tunable lasers with 100 GHz FSR ring resonators,” Electron. Lett. 43(4), 225–226 (2007).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

L. Eldada and L. W. Shacklette, “Advances in polymer integrated optics,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 6, 54–68 (2000).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

L. Jin, J. Wang, X. Fu, B. Yang, Y. Shi, and D. Dai, “High-Q microring resonators with 2 × 2 angled multimode interference couplers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 25(6), 612–614 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Horvath, D. Bachman, M. Wu, D. Perron, and V. Van, “Polymer hybrid plasmonic waveguide and microring resonators,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(17), 1267–1269 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

K. Y. Lee, N. LaBianca, S. A. Rishton, S. Zolgharnain, J. D. Gelorme, J. Shaw, and T. H.-P. Chang, “Micromachining applications of a high resolution ultrathick photoresist,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 13(6), 3012–3016 (1995).
[Crossref]

Laser Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. Yang, M. B. J. Diemeer, C. Grivas, G. Sengo, A. Driessen, and M. Pollnau, “Steady-state lasing in a solid polymer,” Laser Phys. Lett. 7(9), 650–656 (2010).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

W. Wang, Q. Yang, F. Fan, H. Xu, and Z. L. Wang, “Light propagation in curved silver nanowire plasmonic waveguides,” Nano Lett. 11(4), 1603–1608 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 496–500 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature 440(7083), 508–511 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (9)

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide-ring resonators,” Opt. Express 17(4), 2968–2975 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, J. Gosciniak, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(22), 23009–23015 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Dikken, M. Spasenović, E. Verhagen, D. van Oosten, and L. K. Kuipers, “Characterization of bending losses for curved plasmonic nanowire waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(15), 16112–16119 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Xu, D. Fattal, and R. G. Beausoleil, “Silicon microring resonators with 1.5-μm radius,” Opt. Express 16, 4310–4315 (2008).

S. M. García-Blanco, M. Pollnau, and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Loss compensation in long-range dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25298–25311 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Dai, Y. Shi, S. He, L. Wosinski, and L. Thylen, “Silicon hybrid plasmonic submicron-donut resonator with pure dielectric access waveguides,” Opt. Express 19(24), 23671–23682 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Yang, E. J. Teo, T. Goh, S. L. Teo, J. H. Teng, and A. A. Bettiol, “Metal-assisted photonic mode for ultrasmall bending with long propagation length at visible wavelengths,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23898–23905 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Propagation characteristics of hybrid modes supported by metal-low-high index waveguides and bends,” Opt. Express 18(12), 12971–12979 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Holmgaard, Z. Chen, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, L. Markey, A. Dereux, A. V. Krasavin, and A. V. Zayats, “Bend- and splitting loss of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13585–13592 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. R. Hiremath, M. Hammer, R. Stoffer, L. Prkna, and J. Čtyroký, “Analytic approach to dielectric optical bent slab waveguides,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 37(1-3), 37–61 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Three-dimensional numerical modeling of photonic integration with dielectric-loaded SPP waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 78(4), 045425 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B 75(24), 245405 (2007).
[Crossref]

Science (2)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C. L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Shi, C. Zhang, H. Zhang, J. H. Bechtel, L. R. Dalton, B. H. Robinson, and W. H. Steier, “Low (sub-1-Volt) halfwave voltage polymeric electro-optic modulators achieved by controlling chromophore shape,” Science 288(5463), 119–122 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

M. Z. Alam, J. Meier, J. S. Aitchison, and M. Mojahedi, “Super mode propagation in low index medium,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper JThD112.

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids (Academic Press, 1985).

X. B. Phoeni, V., Enschede, The Netherlands ( www.phoenixbv.com ).

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MPG (2942 KB)     
» Media 2: MPG (3194 KB)     
» Media 3: MPG (2972 KB)     
» Media 4: MPG (3246 KB)     

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Dielectric-loaded hybrid plasmonic waveguide (“metallic” structure) and (b) dielectric reference structure (“non-metallic” structure). Typical parameters: hridge = wridge = 2 µm, tbuffer = 100 nm, tmetal = 100 nm. The silicon substrate was not taken into account in the simulations, as the thickness of the SiO2 undercladding was considered sufficiently thick for the mode not to be influenced by the presence of the silicon substrate.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated 2-D mode profiles (showing the real part of the dominant electrical field component) at λ = 1.55 µm, R = 6 µm for the non-metallic structures (top) with the parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm for the (a) quasi-TE (Media 1) and (b) quasi-TM (Media 2) modes and for the metallic structures (bottom) with the parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tbuffer = 100 nm and tmetal = 100 nm for the (c) quasi-TE (Media 1) and (d) quasi-TM (Media 2) modes.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Total loss (dB/90°) versus bend radius (R) for metallic and non-metallic structures for (a) quasi-TE and (b) quasi-TM modes with the parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tbuffer = 100 nm, and tmetal = 100 nm (only for metallic structure). The insets are a zoom of the corresponding loss plots in the region of interest.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of the SiO2 buffer thickness: Total losses (dB/90°) versus bend radius (R) for the metallic structure with the parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tmetal = 100 nm for different tbuffer parameter (tbuffer = 0 nm, 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, 200 nm, and 400 nm) for (a) quasi-TE and (b) quasi-TM modes. The insets zoom in the regions of interest.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Effect of the buffer layer thickness: Calculated 2-D mode profiles (shown as the real part of the dominant electrical field component) at λ = 1.55 µm, R = 6 µm for the metallic structure with the parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tmetal = 100 nm, tbuffer = 0 nm for the (a) quasi-TE (Media 3), (b) quasi-TM (Media 4) modes and in the case of tbuffer = 400 nm for (c) quasi-TE (Media 3) and (d) quasi-TM modes (Media 4).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Effect of metal thickness: Total loss (dB/90°) versus bend radius (R) for the metallic structure with the structural parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tbuffer = 100 nm for different tmetal (tmetal = 25 nm, 50 nm, 100 nm, 150 nm and 200 nm) for (a) quasi-TE and (b) quasi-TM modes. The insets are zoom of the corresponding loss plots.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Effect of metal type: Total loss (dB/90°) versus bend radius (R) for the metallic structure with the structural parameters of wridge = 2 µm, hridge = 2 µm, tmetal = 100 nm, tbuffer = 100 nm for different metals; Au, Ag, Al, Cu for (a) quasi-TE and (b) quasi-TM modes. The insets magnify the regions of small radii R.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive indices and thicknesses of the materials employed (λ = 1.55 µm).

Tables Icon

Table 2 Refractive indices and dielectric permittivity of the metals employed in Fig. 7 (λ = 1.55 µm) [32].

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