Abstract

A new technique for multi-view autostereoscopic projection display is proposed, and demonstrated. The technique uses two mobile projectors, a rotating retro-reflective diffuser screen, and a head-tracking camera. As two dynamic viewing slits are created at the viewer’s position, the slits can track the position of the eyes by rotating the screen. The display allows a viewer to move approximately 700 mm along the horizontal axis, and 500 mm along the vertical axis with an average crosstalk below 5 %. Two screen prototypes with different diffusers have been tried, and they provide luminance levels of 60 Cd/m2, and 160 Cd/m2 within the viewing field.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  2. H. Baker and Z. Li, “Camera and projector arrays for immersive 3d video” in “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Immersive Telecommunications” (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 2009), 23.
  3. W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3d tv: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes” ACM Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. Harman, “Autostereoscopic teleconferencing system” in “Electronic Imaging,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), 293–302.
  5. K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).
  8. C. Gao and J. Xiao, “Retro-reflective light diffusing display systems” (2009). US Patent App. 12/418, 137.
  9. M. Scholl, “Ray trace through a corner-cube retroreflector with complex reflection coefficients” JOSA A12, 1589–1592 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. I. Microvision, “Microvision: A World of Display and Imaging Opportunities” http://www.microvision.com (2012).
  11. O. E. GmbH, “Reflective products - lighting optics, optical engineers, polymer processing - Reflexite” http://www.reflexite.com (2012).
  12. L. Luminit, “Luminit, The Light Shaping Diffuser (LSD) Company Luminit Shaping Light as Needed” http://www.luminitco.com (2012).
  13. I. Github, “kunguz/osman,” https://github.com/kunguz/osman (2012).
  14. A. J. Woods, “How are crosstalk and ghosting defined in the stereoscopic literature?” 78630Z–78630Z–12 (2011).
  15. F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3d displays” Displays25, 99–108 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  16. P. Harman, “Retroreflective screens and their application to autostereoscopic displays” in “Electronic Imaging’97” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1997), 145–153.

2010

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2004

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3d tv: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes” ACM Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3d displays” Displays25, 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Scholl, “Ray trace through a corner-cube retroreflector with complex reflection coefficients” JOSA A12, 1589–1592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Aksit, K.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Baghsiahi, H.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Baker, H.

H. Baker and Z. Li, “Camera and projector arrays for immersive 3d video” in “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Immersive Telecommunications” (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 2009), 23.

Borner, R.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Cha, K. H.

S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).

Day, S.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Duckstein, B.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Erden, E.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Fernandez, F.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Gao, C.

C. Gao and J. Xiao, “Retro-reflective light diffusing display systems” (2009). US Patent App. 12/418, 137.

Harman, P.

P. Harman, “Autostereoscopic teleconferencing system” in “Electronic Imaging,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), 293–302.

P. Harman, “Retroreflective screens and their application to autostereoscopic displays” in “Electronic Imaging’97” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1997), 145–153.

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).

Kishore, V.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Kooi, F. L.

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3d displays” Displays25, 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Li, D.

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Z.

H. Baker and Z. Li, “Camera and projector arrays for immersive 3d video” in “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Immersive Telecommunications” (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 2009), 23.

Machui, O.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Matusik, W.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3d tv: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes” ACM Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Olcer, S.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Pfister, H.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3d tv: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes” ACM Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Roder, H.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, M.

M. Scholl, “Ray trace through a corner-cube retroreflector with complex reflection coefficients” JOSA A12, 1589–1592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Selviah, D.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Shestak, S. A.

S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).

Sikora, T.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sinnig, T.

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sung, J. H.

S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).

Surman, P.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Tao, Y.

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Toet, A.

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3d displays” Displays25, 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Urey, H.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Wang, Q.

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Willman, E.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Woods, A. J.

A. J. Woods, “How are crosstalk and ghosting defined in the stereoscopic literature?” 78630Z–78630Z–12 (2011).

Xiao, J.

C. Gao and J. Xiao, “Retro-reflective light diffusing display systems” (2009). US Patent App. 12/418, 137.

Zhao, W.

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

ACM Trans. Graph.

W. Matusik and H. Pfister, “3d tv: a scalable system for real-time acquisition, transmission, and autostereoscopic display of dynamic scenes” ACM Trans. Graph.23, 814–824 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chinese Optics Letters

Q. Wang, Y. Tao, W. Zhao, and D. Li, “A full resolution autostereoscopic 3d display based on polarizer parallax barrier” Chinese Optics Letters8, 22–23 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on

R. Borner, B. Duckstein, O. Machui, H. Roder, T. Sinnig, and T. Sikora, “A family of single-user autostereoscopic displays with head-tracking capabilities” Circuits and Systems for Video Technology, IEEE Transactions on10, 234–243 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Displays

F. L. Kooi and A. Toet, “Visual comfort of binocular and 3d displays” Displays25, 99–108 (2004).
[CrossRef]

JOSA A

M. Scholl, “Ray trace through a corner-cube retroreflector with complex reflection coefficients” JOSA A12, 1589–1592 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

I. Microvision, “Microvision: A World of Display and Imaging Opportunities” http://www.microvision.com (2012).

O. E. GmbH, “Reflective products - lighting optics, optical engineers, polymer processing - Reflexite” http://www.reflexite.com (2012).

L. Luminit, “Luminit, The Light Shaping Diffuser (LSD) Company Luminit Shaping Light as Needed” http://www.luminitco.com (2012).

I. Github, “kunguz/osman,” https://github.com/kunguz/osman (2012).

A. J. Woods, “How are crosstalk and ghosting defined in the stereoscopic literature?” 78630Z–78630Z–12 (2011).

H. Baker and Z. Li, “Camera and projector arrays for immersive 3d video” in “Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Immersive Telecommunications” (ICST (Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering), 2009), 23.

P. Harman, “Autostereoscopic teleconferencing system” in “Electronic Imaging,” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 2000), 293–302.

K. Aksit, S. Olcer, E. Erden, V. Kishore, H. Urey, E. Willman, H. Baghsiahi, S. Day, D. Selviah, F. Fernandez, and P. Surman, “Light engine and optics for helium3d auto-stereoscopic laser scanning display” in “3DTV Conference: The True Vision - Capture, Transmission and Display of 3D Video (3DTV-CON), 2011” (2011), 1–4.
[CrossRef]

P. Harman, “Retroreflective screens and their application to autostereoscopic displays” in “Electronic Imaging’97” (International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1997), 145–153.

S. S. Kim, S. A. Shestak, K. H. Cha, and J. H. Sung, “Multiview 3d projection system” 222–226 (2004).

C. Gao and J. Xiao, “Retro-reflective light diffusing display systems” (2009). US Patent App. 12/418, 137.

Supplementary Material (3)

» Media 1: AVI (1013 KB)     
» Media 2: AVI (1041 KB)     
» Media 3: AVI (646 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

System sketch showing the elements and the created viewing field of the display.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Viewing slits for different orientations of the transfer screen. (a) Relative angular position of viewer’s eyes with respect to projectors (b) Rotation of transfer screen by 0° of α and w < 2 × IPD, thus h = w < 2 × IPD (c) Rotation of transfer screen by small α, thus w < h < 2 × IPD (d) Rotation of transfer screen by large α, thus h > 2 × IPD > w, and there is crosstalk between viewing slits.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top view of the system showing depth of viewing slits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) The realised prototype. (b) The transfer screen consisting a retro-reflector and a diffuser.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Created viewing slits at different rotation angles: 9 shots are superimposed in order to create the photograph. The two bright spots in the photograph are pico projectors. (b) A sample picture of viewer, showing viewing slits on his eyes’ position ( Media 1: illustrates the head-tracker and screen rotation real-time. Media 2: illustrates right eye and left eye views captured with a camera that moves with the viewer.).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Screen shots taken from different viewing positions: (a) left eye, (b) right eye, and (c) between the two eyes. ( Media 3) video shows L and R images as a camera is moved laterally within the viewing field.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) and (b) Interpolated crosstalk maps of viewer’s space at the projector plane for diffusers I and II. (c) and (d) Horizontal cross-sections of viewing slits for different rotation angle, a for diffusers I and II. (e) and (f) Interpolated luminance map of viewer’s space at the projector plane for diffuser 1 and 2. (g) and (h) Crosstalk and luminance variations along the projection axis for diffuser 1 and 2 at the position (x,y) = (0,9)cm and z is variable in the measurements.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Images captured from a screen with (a) periodic and (b) aperiodic diffuser, respectively. Moire artefacts are visible in the periodic screen.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Definitions of Symbols

Tables Icon

Table 2 Prototype Parameters

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α = arctan ( X e X p Y e Y p )
L = 2 × d × tan ( ϕ / 2 )
s w = d Δ front Δ front = d + Δ back Δ back
Δ = Δ front + Δ back = d s w + 1 + d s w 1
h = w cos ( α )
h < 2 × I P D
α < θ = arccos ( w 2 × I P D )
crosstalk ( % ) = leakage signal × 100
s = 2 × d × tan ( β / 2 )

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