Abstract

We implement an entanglement distribution network based on wavelength-multiplexing and optical switching for quantum communication applications. Using a high-brightness source based on spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically-poled lithium niobate waveguides, we generate polarisation entangled photon pairs with a broad spectrum covering the telecom wavelengths around 1550 nm. The photon pairs have entanglement fidelities up to 99%, and are distributed via passive wavelength multiplexing in a static multi-user network. We furthermore demonstrate a possible network application in a scenario with a single centralised source dynamically allocating two-party entanglement to any pair of users by means of optical switches. The whole system, from the pump laser up to the receivers, is fibre and waveguide based, resulting in maximal stability, minimal losses and the advantage of readily integrable telecom components in the 1550 nm range.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (3)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Ghalbouni, I. Agha, R. Frey, E. Diamanti, and I. Zaquine, “Experimental wavelength-division-multiplexed photon-pair distribution,” Optics Lett. 38, 34–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Z.-Y. Zhou, Y.-K. Jiang, D.-S. Ding, B.-S. Shi, and G.-C. Guo, “Actively switchable nondegenerate polarization-entangled photon-pair distribution in dense wave-division multiplexing,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 045806 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Meyer-Scott, V. Roy, J.-P. Bourgoin, B. L. Higgins, L. K. Shalm, and T. Jennewein, “Generating polarization-entangled photon pairs using cross-spliced birefringent fibers,” Opt. Express 21, 6205–6212 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Y. Zhu, Z. Tang, L. Qian, L. G. Helt, M. Liscidini, J. E. Sipe, C. Corbari, A. Canagasabey, M. Ibsen, and P. G. Kazansky, “Direct generation of polarization-entangled photon pairs in a poled fiber,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(2012).
[Crossref]

Z. Yan, D. R. Hamel, A. K. Heinrichs, X. Jiang, M. A. Itzler, and T. Jennewein, “An ultra-low noise telecom wavelength free running single photon detector using negative feedback avalanche diode,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 073105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777–838 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

2010 (1)

B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (7)

R. E. Warburton, M. Itzler, and G. S. Buller, “Free-running, room temperature operation of an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071116 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “Three-color Sagnac source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 17, 23153–23159 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, “Robust multiwavelength all-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons with built-in analyzer alignment signal,” IEEE Journal of selected topics in quantum electronics 15, 1733–1740 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Treiber, A. Poppe, M. Hentschel, D. Ferrini, T. Loruenser, E. Querasser, T. Matyus, H. Hübel, and A. Zeilinger, “A fully automated entanglement-based quantum cryptography system for telecom fiber networks,” New J. Phys. 11, 085002 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Scheidl, R. Ursin, A. Fedrizzi, S. Ramelow, X.-S. Ma, T. Herbst, R. Prevedel, L. Ratschbacher, J. Kofler, T. Jennewein, and A. Zeilinger, “Feasibility of 300 km quantum key distribution with entangled states,” New J. Phys. 11, 085002 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. P. Peloso, I. Gerhardt, C. Ho, A. Lamas-Linares, and C. Kurtsiefer, “Daylight operation of a free space, entanglement-based quantum key distribution system,” New J. Phys. 11, 045007 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

2007 (4)

H. Huebel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Loruenser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853–7862 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Fiorentino, S. M. Spillane, R. G. Beausoleil, T. D. Roberts, P. Battle, and M. W. Munro, “Spontaneous parametric down-conversion in periodically poled KTP waveguides and bulk crystals,” Opt. Express 15, 7479–7488 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

K. F. Lee, J. Chen, C. Liang, X. Li, P. L. Voss, and P. Kumar, “Generation of high-purity telecom-band entangled photon pairs in dispersion-shifted fiber,” Opt. Express 31, 1905–1907 (2006).

Y.-K. Jiang and A. Tomita, “Highly efficient polarization-entangled photon source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguides,” Opt. Commun. 267, 278–281 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in 1550 nm band without subtraction of accidental coincidences,” Japanese Journal of applied Physics 44, L375–L377 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1500 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electronics Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

N. Gisin, G. Ribordy, W. Tittel, and H. Zbinden, “Quantum cryptography,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 145–195 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electronics Lett. 37, 26–28 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Buhrman, R. Cleve, and W. Van Dam, “Quantum entanglement and communication complexity,” Siam Journal on Computing 30, 1829–1841 (2001).
[Crossref]

D. James, P. Kwiat, W. Munro, and A. White, “Measurement of qubits,” Phys. Rev. A 64, 052312 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

P. G. Kwiat, K. Mattle, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, A. V. Sergienko, and Y. Shih, “New high-intensity source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 4337–4341 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

C. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. Mermin, “Quantum Cryptography without Bell theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Acín, A.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 230501 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Agha, I.

J. Ghalbouni, I. Agha, R. Frey, E. Diamanti, and I. Zaquine, “Experimental wavelength-division-multiplexed photon-pair distribution,” Optics Lett. 38, 34–36 (2013).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

Q. Lin, F. Yaman, and G. P. Agrawal, “Photon-pair generation in optical fibers through four-wave mixing: Role of Raman scattering and pump polarization,” Phys. Rev. A 75, 023803 (2007).
[Crossref]

Allacher, A.

Alleaume, R.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Arahira, S.

Asai, T.

Asobe, M.

Baek, B.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Honjo, S. W. Nam, H. Takesue, Q. Zhang, H. Kamada, Y. Nishida, O. Tadanaga, M. Asobe, B. Baek, R. H. Hadfield, S. Miki, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, Z. Wang, K. Inoue, and Y. Yamamoto, “Long-distance entanglement-based quantum key distribution over optical fiber,” Opt. Express 16, 19118–19126 (2008).
[Crossref]

Baldi, P.

S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electronics Lett. 37, 26–28 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barreiro, C.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Battle, P.

Beausoleil, R. G.

Bennett, C.

C. Bennett, G. Brassard, and N. Mermin, “Quantum Cryptography without Bell theorem,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 557–559 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Berthiaume, A.

M. Hillery, V. Bužek, and A. Berthiaume, “Quantum secret sharing,” Phys. Rev. A 59, 1829–1834 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blauensteiner, B.

Bouda, J.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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J. Ghalbouni, I. Agha, R. Frey, E. Diamanti, and I. Zaquine, “Experimental wavelength-division-multiplexed photon-pair distribution,” Optics Lett. 38, 34–36 (2013).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Grangier, P.

M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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M. Peev, C. Pacher, R. Alleaume, C. Barreiro, J. Bouda, W. Boxleitner, T. Debuisschert, E. Diamanti, M. Dianati, J. F. Dynes, S. Fasel, S. Fossier, M. Fuerst, J.-D. Gautier, O. Gay, N. Gisin, P. Grangier, A. Happe, Y. Hasani, M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, G. Humer, T. Laenger, M. Legre, R. Lieger, J. Lodewyck, T. Loruenser, N. Luetkenhaus, A. Marhold, T. Matyus, O. Maurhart, L. Monat, S. Nauerth, J.-B. Page, A. Poppe, E. Querasser, G. Ribordy, S. Robyr, L. Salvail, A. W. Sharpe, A. J. Shields, D. Stucki, M. Suda, C. Tamas, T. Themel, R. T. Thew, Y. Thoma, A. Treiber, P. Trinkler, R. Tualle-Brouri, F. Vannel, N. Walenta, H. Weier, H. Weinfurter, I. Wimberger, Z. L. Yuan, H. Zbinden, and A. Zeilinger, “The SECOQC quantum key distribution network in Vienna,” New J. Phys. 11, 075001 (2009).
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Harrington, S.

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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J.-W. Pan, Z.-B. Chen, C.-Y. Lu, H. Weinfurter, A. Zeilinger, and M. Żukowski, “Multiphoton entanglement and interferometry,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 84, 777–838 (2012).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

R. E. Warburton, M. Itzler, and G. S. Buller, “Free-running, room temperature operation of an InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94, 071116 (2009).
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Electronics Lett. (2)

A. Yoshizawa, R. Kaji, and H. Tsuchida, “Generation of polarisation-entangled photon pairs at 1500 nm using two PPLN waveguides,” Electronics Lett. 39, 621–622 (2003).
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S. Tanzilli, H. De Riedmatten, W. Tittel, H. Zbinden, P. Baldi, M. De Micheli, D. Ostrowsky, and N. Gisin, “Highly efficient photon-pair source using periodically poled lithium niobate waveguide,” Electronics Lett. 37, 26–28 (2001).
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IEEE Journal of selected topics in quantum electronics (1)

S. X. Wang and G. S. Kanter, “Robust multiwavelength all-fiber source of polarization-entangled photons with built-in analyzer alignment signal,” IEEE Journal of selected topics in quantum electronics 15, 1733–1740 (2009).
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A. Yoshizawa and H. Tsuchida, “Violation of Bell’s inequality in 1550 nm band without subtraction of accidental coincidences,” Japanese Journal of applied Physics 44, L375–L377 (2005).
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Nature Photonics (1)

F. Marsili, V. B. Verma, J. A. Stern, S. Harrington, A. E. Lita, T. Gerrits, I. Vayshenker, B. Baek, M. D. Shaw, R. P. Mirin, and S. W. Nam, “Detecting single infrared photons with 93% system efficiency,” Nature Photonics 7, 210–214 (2013).
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B. Qi, W. Zhu, L. Qian, and H.-K. Lo, “Feasibility of quantum key distribution through a dense wavelength division multiplexing network,” New J. Phys. 12, 103042 (2010).
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Opt. Commun. (1)

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Opt. Express (12)

H. C. Lim, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, and K. Kikuchi, “Stable source of high quality telecom-band polarization-entangled photon-pairs based on a single, pulse-pumped, short PPLN waveguide,” Opt. Express 16, 12460–12468 (2008).
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M. Hentschel, H. Hübel, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “Three-color Sagnac source of polarization-entangled photon pairs,” Opt. Express 17, 23153–23159 (2009).
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F. Steinlechner, P. Trojek, M. Jofre, H. Weier, D. Perez, T. Jennewein, R. Ursin, J. Rarity, M. W. Mitchell, J. P. Torres, H. Weinfurter, and V. Pruneri, “A high-brightness source of polarization-entangled photons optimized for applications in free space,” Opt. Express 20, 9640–9649 (2012).
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H. Huebel, M. R. Vanner, T. Lederer, B. Blauensteiner, T. Loruenser, A. Poppe, and A. Zeilinger, “High-fidelity transmission of polarization encoded qubits from an entangled source over 100 km of fiber,” Opt. Express 15, 7853–7862 (2007).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Outline of an entanglement distribution network. Each user is connected via a single quantum channel (solid lines) to the centralised entangled-photon-source (EPS). Entanglement (dotted arrows), used for quantum information tasks, can be shared between any two users on request (only certain combinations are shown).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup with a cw-laser pumping two ppLN crystals in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to create polarisation-entangled photon pairs. The pairs are split using a DWDM multiplexer, analysed using polarisation optics and detected with InGaAs single photon detectors. The active phase stabilisation of the interferometric part is achieved with the help of a fibre stretcher.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Real part of the density matrices obtained from tomography measurements (raw coincidences) for each entangled channel pair. The elements of the imaginary parts are all smaller than 0.07.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Software-defined network (SDN) realisation with two optical switches for active, on-demand distribution of entanglement. Depending on the choice of the switch setting (I, II or III), different user pairs will share entangled photons for quantum information applications.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of results for the four entangled channel pairs, designated by their ITU numbers and central wavelengths. Coincidence rates and calculated fidelities and purities of the measured states are displayed. Fidelity and purity were calculated both for raw data and after background subtraction.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of results for the three switch settings in the SDN. Each setting results in two 2-party sharing of entangled states. Coincidence rates, calculated fidelities and purities (with and without background counts) for each user pair are listed.

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