Abstract

A method to fabricate all-in-fiber liquid microcells has been demonstrated which allows for the incorporation of complex hollow-core photonic crystal fibers (HCPCFs). The approach is based on a mechanical splicing method in which the hollow-core fibers are pigtailed with telecoms fibers to yield devices that have low insertion losses, are highly compact, and do not suffer from evaporation of the core material. To isolate the PCF cores for the infiltration of low index liquids, a pulsed CO2 laser cleaving technique has been developed which seals only the very ends of the cladding holes, thus minimizing degradation of the guiding properties at the coupling region. The efficiency of this integration method has been verified via strong cascaded Raman scattering in both toluene (high index) core capillaries and ethanol (low index) core HCPCFs, for power thresholds up to six orders of magnitude lower than previous results. We anticipate that this stable, robust all-fiber integration approach will open up new possibilities for the exploration of optofluidic interactions.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express18(24), 25232–25240 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2946–2948 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(3), 2814–2821 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. C. P. Yu and J. H. Liou, “Selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for optical devices,” Opt. Express17(11), 8729–8734 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1952–1954 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express13(12), 4786–4791 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. J. Bethge, A. Husakou, F. Mitschke, F. Noack, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and J. Herrmann, “Two-octave supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(6), 6230–6240 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. J. C. Travers, W. Chang, J. Nold, N. Y. Joly, and P St J. Russell, “Ultrafast nonlinear optics in gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B28, A11–A26 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 942–944 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.
  17. S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express2(11), 1588–1611 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. D. Lopez-Cortes, O. Tarasenko, and W. Margulis, “All-fiber Kerr cell,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3288–3290 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express13(22), 9014–9022 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. F. Dai, Y. H. Xu, and X. F. Chen, “Enhanced and broadened SRS spectra of toluene mixed with chloroform in liquid-core fiber,” Opt. Express17(22), 19882–19886 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2946–2948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1952–1954 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics,” Opt. Express20(7), 8148–8154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, E. Merzlyak, J. M. Hales, A. DeSimone, J. W. Perry, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “All-optical switching based on inverse Raman scattering in liquid-core optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(5), 942–944 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Kedenburg, M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, and H. Giessen, “Linear refractive index and absorption measurements of nonlinear optical liquids in the visible and near-infrared spectral region,” Opt. Mater. Express2(11), 1588–1611 (2012).
[CrossRef]

D. Lopez-Cortes, O. Tarasenko, and W. Margulis, “All-fiber Kerr cell,” Opt. Lett.37(15), 3288–3290 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

2010

2009

2007

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express13(12), 4786–4791 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express13(22), 9014–9022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Auguste, J.-L.

Benabid, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bethge, J.

Biancalana, F.

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Birks, T. A.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjarklev, A.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Blondy, J.-M.

Bozolan, A.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Brito-Silva, A.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chang, W.

Chen, C.-H.

Chen, X. F.

Cheng, W.-H.

Chinaud, J.

Conti, C.

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordeiro, C. M. B.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Couny, F.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, F. F.

de Araújo, C.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Matos, C. J. S.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

de S. Menezes, L.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delaye, P.

Demokan, M.

DeSimone, A.

Du, H.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eggleton, B. J.

Euser, T. G.

Facincani, T.

J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Farrer, N. J.

Février, S.

Frey, R.

Gerosa, R. M.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giessen, H.

Gissibl, T.

Gomes, A.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griebner, U.

Hales, J. M.

Han, Y.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hansen, T. P.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Herrmann, J.

Ho, H.

Hoo, Y.

Husakou, A.

Jin, W.

Joly, N. Y.

Kao, C.-L.

Kedenburg, S.

Kieu, K.

Kim, J.

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

Knight, J. C.

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuhlmey, B. T.

Lee, C.-H.

Lee, H. W.

Lin, T.-H.

Liou, J. H.

Lopez-Cortes, D.

Margulis, W.

Martinez Gámez, M.

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McQuitty, R. J.

Merzlyak, E.

Mitschke, F.

Nielsen, K.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Noack, F.

Nold, J.

Noordegraaf, D.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Norwood, R. A.

Oh, K.

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

Ong, J. S. K.

J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oo, M. K.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, J.

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

Paulson, B.

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

Perry, J. W.

Peyghambarian, N.

Pricking, S.

Pristinski, D.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Romero, M. A.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Roosen, G.

Rouvie, A.

Roy, P.

Russell, P St J.

Russell, P. St. J.

S. Unterkofler, R. J. McQuitty, T. G. Euser, N. J. Farrer, P. J. Sadler, and P. St. J. Russell, “Microfluidic integration of photonic crystal fibers for online photochemical reaction analysis,” Opt. Lett.37(11), 1952–1954 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2946–2948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadler, P. J.

Schmidt, M. A.

H. W. Lee, M. A. Schmidt, and P. St. J. Russell, “Excitation of a nanowire “molecule” in gold-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett.37(14), 2946–2948 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schneebeli, L.

Sørensen, T.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

Sukhishvili, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tan, S.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tarasenko, O.

Travers, J. C.

Unterkofler, S.

Viale, P.

Vieweg, M.

Wu, D. C.

Xiao, L.

Xu, Y. H.

Yeh, S.-M.

Yiou, S.

Yu, C. P.

Yu, C.-P.

Zhao, C.

Adv. Mater.

Y. Han, S. Tan, M. K. Oo, D. Pristinski, S. Sukhishvili, and H. Du, “Towards full-length accumulative surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active photonic crystal fibers,” Adv. Mater.22(24), 2647–2651 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

R. M. Gerosa, A. Bozolan, C. J. S. de Matos, M. A. Romero, and C. M. B. Cordeiro, “Novel sealing technique for practical liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(3), 191–193 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.

K. Nielsen, D. Noordegraaf, T. Sørensen, A. Bjarklev, and T. P. Hansen, “Selective filling of photonic crystal fibres,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.7(8), L13–L20 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Nature

F. Benabid, F. Couny, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, and P. St. J. Russell, “Compact, stable and efficient all-fibre gas cells using hollow-core photonic crystal fibres,” Nature434(7032), 488–491 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

M. Vieweg, T. Gissibl, S. Pricking, B. T. Kuhlmey, D. C. Wu, B. J. Eggleton, and H. Giessen, “Ultrafast nonlinear optofluidics in selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express18(24), 25232–25240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C.-H. Lee, C.-H. Chen, C.-L. Kao, C.-P. Yu, S.-M. Yeh, W.-H. Cheng, and T.-H. Lin, “Photo and electrical tunable effects in photonic liquid crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(3), 2814–2821 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. P. Yu and J. H. Liou, “Selectively liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers for optical devices,” Opt. Express17(11), 8729–8734 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Yiou, P. Delaye, A. Rouvie, J. Chinaud, R. Frey, G. Roosen, P. Viale, S. Février, P. Roy, J.-L. Auguste, and J.-M. Blondy, “Stimulated Raman scattering in an ethanol core microstructured optical fiber,” Opt. Express13(12), 4786–4791 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bethge, A. Husakou, F. Mitschke, F. Noack, U. Griebner, G. Steinmeyer, and J. Herrmann, “Two-octave supercontinuum generation in a water-filled photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Express18(6), 6230–6240 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Kieu, L. Schneebeli, R. A. Norwood, and N. Peyghambarian, “Integrated liquid-core optical fibers for ultra-efficient nonlinear liquid photonics,” Opt. Express20(7), 8148–8154 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. F. Dai, Y. H. Xu, and X. F. Chen, “Enhanced and broadened SRS spectra of toluene mixed with chloroform in liquid-core fiber,” Opt. Express17(22), 19882–19886 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, W. Jin, M. Demokan, H. Ho, Y. Hoo, and C. Zhao, “Fabrication of selective injection microstructured optical fibers with a conventional fusion splicer,” Opt. Express13(22), 9014–9022 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Mater. Express

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Conti, M. A. Schmidt, P. St. J. Russell, and F. Biancalana, “Highly noninstantaneous solitons in liquid-core photonic crystal fibers,” Phys. Rev. Lett.105(26), 263902 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. de Matos, L. de S. Menezes, A. Brito-Silva, M. Martinez Gámez, A. Gomes, and C. de Araújo, “Random fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.99(15), 153903 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. Park, J. Kim, B. Paulson, and K. Oh, “Liquid core photonic crystal fiber with the enhanced light coupling efficiency,” in Proceedings of the IEEE IPC Photonics Conference (IEEE, 2012), pp. 808–809.

J. S. K. Ong, T. Facincani, and C. J. S. de Matos, “Evaporation in water-core photonic crystal fibers,” Proc. AIP Conf. 152 (2008).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of AFLM fabrication. (a) A CF/HCPCF is inserted into tapered capillary sleeves. (b) Liquid is pumped into the fiber core, with the ends immersed in excess volume to avoid evaporation. (c) SMFs are carefully inserted into the sleeves and mechanically spliced to the liquid-core fiber.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Photo of the filling process. (b) The CF is inserted in a tapered capillary. (c) Liquid flows through the CF until complete filling so that the endface is immersed in liquid. (d) The SMF on the left-hand side is seamlessly aligned to the toluene core CF. Photographs of (e) an integrated device using the gap-splicing method used in [12] and (f) our mechanically spliced AFLM. The inset in (e) shows light coupled through the gap-splicing joint.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic of the pulsed CO2 laser cleaving method. (b) Microscope image showing longitudinal deformation of the HCPCF when the cladding holes are blocked via the CO2 laser cleaving method. (c) Holes blocked a fusion splicing method for comparison [20].

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the HCPCF (inset: tapered end on same scale). (b) SEM of cross-section after sealing the cladding holes with the CO2 laser (c) Microscope image of the integrated SMF seamlessly aligned to the ethanol core HCPCF. (d) Microscopic end view of ethanol core HCPCF.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Experimental setup for SRS. (b) Cascaded Raman spectrum of a toluene core CF-AFLM. (c) Cascaded Raman spectrum of ethanol core HCPCF-AFLM.

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