Abstract

Laser produced plasma sources are considered attractive for high-volume extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) lithography because of their high power at the target wavelength 13.5 nm. However, besides the required EUV light, a large amount of infrared (IR) light from the CO2 drive laser is scattered and reflected from the plasma as well as from the EUV mirrors in the optical system. Since these mirrors typically consist of molybdenum and silicon, the reflectance at IR wavelengths is even higher than in the EUV, which leads to high energy loads in the optical system. One option to reduce this is to structure the EUV multilayer, in particular the collector mirror, with an IR grating that has a high IR-suppression in the zeroth order. In this paper, the characterization of such an optical element is reported, including the IR-diffraction efficiency, the EUV performance (reflectance and scattering), and the relevant surface roughness. The measurement results are directly linked to the individual manufacturing steps.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

2012 (7)

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

A. J. R. van den Boogaard, F. A. van Goor, E. Louis, and F. Bijkerk, “Wavelength separation from extreme ultraviolet mirrors using phaseshift reflection,” Opt. Lett. 37(2), 160–162 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1998 (1)

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1981 (1)

Ahmad, I.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antohe, A.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Antoni, M.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Banine, V. Y.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baumgart, P.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bennett, J. M.

Benoit, N.

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bibishkin, M. S.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bijkerk, F.

Blaschke, H.

Böwering, N. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brandt, D. C.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Braun, S.

Brown, D.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bull, H.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Bykanov, A. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chkhalo, N. I.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Church, E. L.

Cummings, K. D.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

De Dea, S.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Haan, M.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Denbeaux, G.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Duparré, A.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41(1), 154–171 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eberhardt, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Egle, W.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Enkisch, H.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ershov, A. I.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Farrar, N. R.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feigl, T.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ferre-Borrull, J.

Fiedler, T.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fomenkov, I. V.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gary, E.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gawlitza, P.

Gaylord, T. K.

Gebhardt, A.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Giggel, V.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gliech, S.

Golich, D. J.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Goodwin, F.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Gusev, S. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Harvey, J. E.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

Heidemann, K.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Heiße, H.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Herffurth, T.

Hershcovitch, A.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Hoffmann, K.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hudyma, R. M.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

Jak, M. J. J.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jobst, P. J.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, N.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kierey, H.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kleemann, B.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kluenkov, E. B.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Krivtsun, V. M.

La Fontaine, B.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lercel, M. J.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lopatin, A. Y.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Löscher, H.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Louis, E.

Luchin, V. I.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Mbanaso, C.

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Medvedev, V. V.

Melzer, F.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Moharam, M. G.

Müllender, S.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muys, P.

Myers, D. W.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Navarro, R.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nedelcu, I.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Noreen, H.

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Notni, G.

Pauer, H.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Perske, M.

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pestov, A. E.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pragt, J.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajyaguru, C.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Risse, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rohde, M.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rucks, P.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Salashchenko, N. N.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scheiding, S.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schröder, S.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schürmann, M.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Shmaenok, L. A.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Singer, W.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Soer, W. A.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sommargren, G. E.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

Srivastava, S. N.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Steinert, J.

Steinkopf, R.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Stenzel, O.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sweeney, D. W.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tao, Y.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Taylor, J. S.

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

ter Horst, R.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tromp, N.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Trost, M.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsybin, N. N.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “EUV reflectance and scattering of Mo/Si multilayers on differently polished substrates,” Opt. Express 15(21), 13997–14012 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ullrich, G.

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

van de Kruijs, R. W. E.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

van den Boogaard, A. J. R.

van der Meer, R.

van Goor, F. A.

van Herpen, M. M. J. W.

W. A. Soer, P. Gawlitza, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, M. J. J. Jak, S. Braun, P. Muys, and V. Y. Banine, “Extreme ultraviolet multilayer mirror with near-zero IR reflectance,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3680–3682 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

Vaschenko, G. O.

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

Venema, L.

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

von Finck, A.

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wagner, C.

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Wevers, R.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Wilbrandt, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

Winters, R.

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yakshin, A. E.

V. V. Medvedev, A. J. R. van den Boogaard, R. van der Meer, A. E. Yakshin, E. Louis, V. M. Krivtsun, and F. Bijkerk, “Infrared diffractive filtering for extreme ultraviolet multilayer Bragg reflectors,” Opt. Express 21(14), 16964–16974 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yakunin, A. M.

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yulin, S.

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zoethout, E.

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zuev, S. Y.

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (7)

A. Duparré, J. Ferre-Borrull, S. Gliech, G. Notni, J. Steinert, and J. M. Bennett, “Surface characterization techniques for determining the root-mean-square roughness and power spectral densities of optical components,” Appl. Opt. 41(1), 154–171 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, H. Blaschke, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering: an effective method for characterizing thin-film coatings,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C164–C171 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Herffurth, S. Schröder, M. Trost, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Comprehensive nanostructure and defect analysis using a simple 3D light-scatter sensor,” Appl. Opt. 52(14), 3279–3287 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, S. Gliech, and A. Duparré, “Measurement system to determine the total and angle-resolved light scattering of optical components in the deep-ultraviolet and vacuum-ultraviolet spectral regions,” Appl. Opt. 44(29), 6093–6107 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Schröder, T. Herffurth, M. Trost, and A. Duparré, “Angle-resolved scattering and reflectance of extreme-ultraviolet multilayer coatings: measurement and analysis,” Appl. Opt. 49(9), 1503–1512 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Influence of the substrate finish and thin film roughness on the optical performance of Mo/Si multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 50(9), C148–C153 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. L. Church, “Fractal surface finish,” Appl. Opt. 27(8), 1518–1526 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS (1)

I. V. Fomenkov, B. La Fontaine, D. Brown, I. Ahmad, P. Baumgart, N. R. Böwering, D. C. Brandt, A. N. Bykanov, S. De Dea, A. I. Ershov, N. R. Farrar, D. J. Golich, M. J. Lercel, D. W. Myers, C. Rajyaguru, S. N. Srivastava, Y. Tao, and G. O. Vaschenko, “The development of stable EUV sources for use in lithography exposure systems,” J. Micro/Nanolith. MEMS MOEMS 11, 021110 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. Feigl, S. Yulin, N. Benoit, and N. Kaiser, “EUV multilayer optics,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(4-9), 703–706 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

C. Wagner and H. Noreen, “EUV lithography: lithography gets extreme,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 24–26 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 µm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources (1)

C. Mbanaso, A. Antohe, H. Bull, F. Goodwin, A. Hershcovitch, and G. Denbeaux, “Out-of-band radiation mitigation at 10.6 μm by molecular absorbers in laser-produced plasma extreme ultraviolet sources,” J. Micro/nanolith MEMS MOEMS 11, 021116 (2012).

Proc. SPIE (13)

M. S. Bibishkin, N. I. Chkhalo, S. A. Gusev, E. B. Kluenkov, A. Y. Lopatin, V. I. Luchin, A. E. Pestov, N. N. Salashchenko, L. A. Shmaenok, N. N. Tsybin, and S. Y. Zuev, “Multilayer Zr/Si filters for EUV lithography and for radiation source metrology,” Proc. SPIE 7025, 702502, 702502-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. A. Soer, M. J. J. Jak, A. M. Yakunin, M. M. J. W. van Herpen, and V. Y. Banine, “Grid spectral purity filters for suppression of infrared radiation in laser-produced plasma EUV sources,” Proc. SPIE 7271, 72712Y, 72712Y-9 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. E. Yakshin, R. W. E. van de Kruijs, I. Nedelcu, E. Zoethout, E. Louis, F. Bijkerk, H. Enkisch, and S. Müllender, “Enhanced reflectance of interface engineered Mo/Si multilayers produced by thermal particle deposition,” Proc. SPIE 6517, 65170I, 65170I-9 (2007).
[Crossref]

H. Kierey, K. Heidemann, B. Kleemann, R. Winters, W. Egle, W. Singer, F. Melzer, R. Wevers, and M. Antoni, “EUV spectral purity filter: optical and mechanical design, grating fabrication, and testing,” Proc. SPIE 5193, 70–78 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. S. Taylor, G. E. Sommargren, E. Gary, D. W. Sweeney, and R. M. Hudyma, “The fabrication and testing of optics for EUV projection lithography,” Proc. SPIE 3331, 580–590 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of large EUV mirror optics by laser light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8169(81690P), 81690P (2011).

M. Schürmann, P. J. Jobst, S. Yulin, T. Feigl, H. Heiße, S. Wilbrandt, O. Stenzel, A. Gebhardt, S. Risse, and N. Kaiser, “Optical reflector coatings for astronomical applications from EUV to IR,” Proc. SPIE 8450, 84502K, 84502K-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Herffurth, A. von Finck, and A. Duparré, “Sophisticated light scattering techniques from the VUV to the IR regions,” Proc. SPIE 8495, 84950V, 84950V-9 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Schröder, M. Trost, T. Feigl, A. Duparré, and J. E. Harvey, “Efficient specification and characterization of surface roughness for extreme ultraviolet optics,” Proc. SPIE 7969, 79692C, 79692C-8 (2011).
[Crossref]

R. Steinkopf, A. Gebhardt, S. Scheiding, M. Rohde, O. Stenzel, S. Gliech, V. Giggel, H. Löscher, G. Ullrich, P. Rucks, A. Duparré, S. Risse, R. Eberhardt, and A. Tünnermann, “Metal Mirrors with Excellent Figure and Roughness,” Proc. SPIE 7102, 71020C, 71020C-12 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. ter Horst, N. Tromp, M. de Haan, R. Navarro, L. Venema, and J. Pragt, “Directly Polished Light Weight Aluminum Mirror,” Proc. SPIE 7018, 701808, 701808-10 (2008).
[Crossref]

T. Feigl, M. Perske, H. Pauer, T. Fiedler, S. Yulin, M. Trost, S. Schröder, A. Duparré, N. Kaiser, A. Tünnermann, N. R. Böwering, A. I. Ershov, K. Hoffmann, B. La Fontaine, and K. D. Cummings, “Optical performance of LPP multilayer collector mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 8322, 832217, 832217-8 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Trost, S. Schröder, C. C. Lin, A. Duparré, and A. Tünnermann, “Roughness characterization of EUV multilayer coatings and ultra-smooth surfaces by light scattering,” Proc. SPIE 8501, 85010F, 85010F-7 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (3)

S. Risse, A. Gebhardt, A. Kolbmüller, R. Steinkopf, M. Schürmann, J. Jobst, N. Kaiser, and R. Eberhardt, “Ultra-precise optical mirrors with thick amorphous silicon layer,“ Proc. 11th int. conf. EUSPEN, Lake Como, Italy, 337-340 (2011).

J. C. Stover, Optical Scattering - Measurement and Analysis, 3rd Edition (SPIE Press, Bellingham, WA 2012).

Gigaphoton's extreme UV source hits 5.2% efficiency” (optics.org, 05 Jul. 2012), http://optics.org/news/3/7/6

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Theoretical reflectance of Mo/Si multilayer without capping layer for normal incidence.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diffraction from binary grating. Left: Working principle for separating EUV and IR light, right: grating efficiencies and –angles for EUV and IR-radiation.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Photograph of grating-like Mo/Si multilayer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Two different process chains for manufacturing ultra-precise and post-polished metal mirrors for applications in the visible, ultraviolet, and EUV spectral range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images (measurement area: 10 µm x 10 µm) of diamond turned (left) and super polished (right) NiP surface on top of an Al alloy substrate.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Instrument ALBATROSS for light scattering measurements in the ultraviolet-visible-IR spectral range. Left: Schematic showing the individual laser light sources (1), mechanical chopper for lock-in amplification (2), attenuation filters (3), beam preparation optics (4) with spatial filter (5), polarizer (6), sample (7), and detector (8), right: photograph of 3D goniometer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Instrument MERLIN for light scattering measurement at 13.5 nm. Left: Schematic showing the measurement vacuum chamber (MC), beam preparation vacuum chamber (BC), source vacuum chamber (SC), Xe-plasma (1) beam preparation optics (4), spatial filter (5), sample (7), detectors (8a – photodiode, 8b - channeltron), and reference detector (9), right: photograph of 2D goniometer.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

AFM images (measurement area: 1µm x 1 µm) of the surface topography of the grating top and bottom.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Light scattering based roughness characterization of grating-like Mo/Si multilayer, left: ARS measurements at 395 nm for different orientations of the sample and different illumination spot sizes, right: PSD retrieved from scattering data and AFM measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Roughness map (measurement area: 5 x 5 mm2) of structured Mo/Si multilayer retrieved from ARS measurements at 395 nm. The high roughness values (red colored areas) result from the grating edges.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Measured and simulated grating efficiencies at 10.6 µm on linear scale (left) and logarithmic scale (right).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Grating profile retrieved from white light interferometry.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

ARS measurements of structured Mo/Si multilayer at 13.5 nm. Angle of incidence 20°.

Equations (4)

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sin θ n sin θ i f g =nλ,
σ 2 =2π f min f max PSD(f)fdf .
ARS( θ s )= Δ P s Δ Ω s P i = 16 π 2 λ 4 cos θ i cos 2 θ s QPSD(f),
TS=2π 2° 85° ARS( θ s θ i )sin( θ s θ i )d θ s .

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