Abstract

An optical device operating at wavelengths around 1.3 µm and 1.5 µm is demonstrated experimentally. It is based on cascaded microring resonators (CMRRs) and the Vernier effect (VE). The architecture consists of two microring resonators (MRRs) connected via a common waveguide; two waveguides were added for the interrogation of CMRRs. The free spectral ranges of both MRRs are slightly different in order to activate the VE, which is known to enhance the sensitivity in optical sensors. CMRRs were fabricated on a silicon nitride (SiN) platform. Two types of buffer layers—benzocyclobutene (BCB) polymer and thermal silicon oxide (SiOx)—were tested. A study of CMRRs was carried out with three structures of different structural parameters. The experimental results show good agreement with the theoretical analysis. This approach is promising for the fabrication of highly sensitive optical sensors in wide operating wavelength range.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

2013

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012

S. Nacer and A. Aissat, “Optical sensing by silicon slot-based directional couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(1-2), 35–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011

G. Ren, T. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design and analysis of a cascaded microring resonator-based thermo-optical tunable filter with ultralarge free spectrum range and low power consumption,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 074601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascaded-microring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 842–844 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Optical waveguide double-ring sensor using intensity interrogation with a low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1128–1130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis,” Opt. Express19(14), 13277–13284 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

2009

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Dai, “Highly sensitive digital optical sensor based on cascaded high-Q ring-resonators,” Opt. Express17(26), 23817–23822 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express16(1), 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Densmore, D.-X. Xu, S. Janz, P. Waldron, T. Mischki, G. Lopinski, A. Delâge, J. Lapointe, P. Cheben, B. Lamontagne, and J. H. Schmid, “Spiral-path high-sensitivity silicon photonic wire molecular sensor with temperature-independent response,” Opt. Lett.33(6), 596–598 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

A. Ksendzov and Y. Lin, “Integrated optics ring-resonator sensors for protein detection,” Opt. Lett.30(24), 3344–3346 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Abstreiter, G.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aissat, A.

S. Nacer and A. Aissat, “Optical sensing by silicon slot-based directional couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(1-2), 35–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bañuls Polo, M. J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bienstman, P.

Bogaerts, W.

Cao, T.

G. Ren, T. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design and analysis of a cascaded microring resonator-based thermo-optical tunable filter with ultralarge free spectrum range and low power consumption,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 074601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Carlborg, C. F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cassan, E.

Cheben, P.

Chen, S.

G. Ren, T. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design and analysis of a cascaded microring resonator-based thermo-optical tunable filter with ultralarge free spectrum range and low power consumption,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 074601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, W.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, S. J.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chu, S. T.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Claes, T.

Clarke, J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dai, D.

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 842–844 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Dai, “Highly sensitive digital optical sensor based on cascaded high-Q ring-resonators,” Opt. Express17(26), 23817–23822 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dapkus, P. D.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Delâge, A.

Densmore, A.

Dorfner, D.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dortu, F.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Finley, J.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Flood, E. M.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Frandsen, L.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gausa, D.

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Giannone, D.

Gill, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goad, D.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Griol, A.

Gylfason, K. B.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express16(1), 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hauke, N.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, J.-J.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascaded-microring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Optical waveguide double-ring sensor using intensity interrogation with a low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1128–1130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidrich, H.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis,” Opt. Express19(14), 13277–13284 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, D.

Hryniewicz, J. V.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hu, J.

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 842–844 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hürlimann, T.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huscher, S.

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ja, S. J.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Janz, S.

Jin, L.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Optical waveguide double-ring sensor using intensity interrogation with a low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1128–1130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascaded-microring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kazmierczak, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express16(1), 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

King, O.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knobbe, E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kresbach, G. M.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ksendzov, A.

Lamontagne, B.

Lapointe, J.

Li, M.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascaded-microring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Optical waveguide double-ring sensor using intensity interrogation with a low-cost broadband source,” Opt. Lett.36(7), 1128–1130 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Lin, Y.

Little, B. E.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, Q. Y.

Lopinski, G.

Lützow, P.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis,” Opt. Express19(14), 13277–13284 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R.

Maire, G.

Maquieira Catala, A.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marris-Morini, D.

Mischki, T.

Moh, T.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nacer, S.

S. Nacer and A. Aissat, “Optical sensing by silicon slot-based directional couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(1-2), 35–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Najmaie, A.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peng, Z.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pergande, D.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Integrated optical sensor platform for multiparameter bio-chemical analysis,” Opt. Express19(14), 13277–13284 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Popplewell, J.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramachandran, A.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rant, U.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, G.

G. Ren, T. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design and analysis of a cascaded microring resonator-based thermo-optical tunable filter with ultralarge free spectrum range and low power consumption,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 074601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Ronan, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rong, G.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sanchez, B.

Sattler, G.

Schmid, J. H.

Sipe, J. E.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sohlström, H.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express16(1), 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stemme, G.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vachon, M.

van der Wijngaart, W.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vivien, L.

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Maire, L. Vivien, G. Sattler, A. Kaźmierczak, B. Sanchez, K. B. Gylfason, A. Griol, D. Marris-Morini, E. Cassan, D. Giannone, H. Sohlström, and D. Hill, “High efficiency silicon nitride surface grating couplers,” Opt. Express16(1), 328–333 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wald, L.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Waldron, P.

Wang, S.

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, S. M.

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, D. X.

Xu, D.-X.

Yang, Q.

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zabel, T.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zamora, V.

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, D.

Biosens. Bioelectron.

D. Dorfner, T. Zabel, T. Hürlimann, N. Hauke, L. Frandsen, U. Rant, G. Abstreiter, and J. Finley, “Photonic crystal nanostructures for optical biosensing applications,” Biosens. Bioelectron.24(12), 3688–3692 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Ramachandran, S. Wang, J. Clarke, S. J. Ja, D. Goad, L. Wald, E. M. Flood, E. Knobbe, J. V. Hryniewicz, S. T. Chu, D. Gill, W. Chen, O. King, and B. E. Little, “A universal biosensing platform based on optical micro-ring resonators,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(7), 939–944 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Rong, A. Najmaie, J. E. Sipe, and S. M. Weiss, “Nanoscale porous silicon waveguide for label-free DNA sensing,” Biosens. Bioelectron.23(10), 1572–1576 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

J. Hu and D. Dai, “Cascaded-ring optical sensor with enhanced sensitivity by using suspended Si-nanowires,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(13), 842–844 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. J. Choi, Z. Peng, Q. Yang, and P. D. Dapkus, “Tunable narrow linewidth all-buried heterostructure ring resonator filters using vernier effects,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 106–108 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lab Chip

C. F. Carlborg, K. B. Gylfason, A. Kaźmierczak, F. Dortu, M. J. Bañuls Polo, A. Maquieira Catala, G. M. Kresbach, H. Sohlström, T. Moh, L. Vivien, J. Popplewell, G. Ronan, C. A. Barrios, G. Stemme, and W. van der Wijngaart, “A packaged optical slot-waveguide ring resonator sensor array for multiplex label-free assays in labs-on-chips,” Lab Chip10(3), 281–290 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun.

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive silicon-on-insulator sensor based on two cascaded-microring resonators with Vernier effect,” Opt. Commun.284(1), 156–159 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng.

G. Ren, T. Cao, and S. Chen, “Design and analysis of a cascaded microring resonator-based thermo-optical tunable filter with ultralarge free spectrum range and low power consumption,” Opt. Eng.50(7), 074601 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

S. Nacer and A. Aissat, “Optical sensing by silicon slot-based directional couplers,” Opt. Quantum Electron.44(1-2), 35–43 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

V. Zamora, P. Lützow, D. Pergande, and H. Heidrich, “Cascaded microring resonators for biomedical applications: improved sensitivity at large tuning range,” Proc. SPIE8570, 857002, 857002–857008 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Lützow, D. Pergande, D. Gausa, S. Huscher, and H. Heidrich, “Microring resonator arrays for multiparameter biochemical analysis,” Proc. SPIE8427(84270E), 84270E (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

L. Jin, M. Li, and J.-J. He, “Highly-sensitive optical sensor using two cascaded-microring resonators with vernier effect,” in Asia Communications and Photonics Conference, Technical Digest (TD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper TuM4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Vernier principle of two cascaded systems. (b) Configuration of CMRRs to exploit the VE. (c) Scheme of the cross section of a SiN ridge waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Microscope images for two types of CMRRs fabricated on SiN platform: (a) Structure I with a buffer layer of BCB and (b) Structure III with a buffer layer of SiOx and top cladding layer of BCB on MRRfs. (c) Top view of the tapered grating coupler with a period of 1.2 µm. Inset images in Fig. 2(a) and Fig. 2(b) show the coupling region between the bus waveguide and MRR. All MRRs have a nominal gap of 1 µm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Transmission spectra of SiN CMRRs for (a) Structure I (ΔR = 1 µm) and (b) Structure II (ΔR = 3 µm). Purple dots indicate the positions of the transmission maxima and the fitted envelope is drawn as a black line.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transmission spectra of SiN CMRRs for Structure II: (a) experimental and (b) theoretical results. Simulation parameters following [16]: α1 = α2 = α11 = α12 = 0.957, f1 = f2 = 0.97, ng,f = ng,s = 1.969292, Rf = 297.03 µm, Rs = 299.918 µm, l = 10 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Transmission spectrum at wavelengths around 1.5 µm for Structure II: (a) experimental and (b) theoretical results. Simulation parameters following [16]: α1 = α2 = α11 = α12 = 0.915, f1 = f2 = 0.935, ng,f = ng,s = 1.920625, Rf = 297.03 µm, Rs = 300.02 µm, l = 10 µm.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Spectra for different straight section lengths (l = 10 - 50 µm) using Structure III. (b) The width of the Vernier envelope (ΔλVE) as a function of the width of the individual peak (Δλsingle peak) for the straight section lengths given. Black dots are the data and the red line is the linear tendency of the obtained data. The radius of the MRRf is 199 µm with ΔR = 1 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Nominal parameters for Structures I, II and III

Equations (2)

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FS R VE =FS R f FS R s /| FS R s FS R f |.
S VE =( FS R f /| FS R s FS R f | )( λ/ n g,s ·δ n s /δ n medium )=M·S

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