Abstract

We present an approach to the optimization of the trichromatic spectral power distributions (SPDs) of phosphor-converted (p-c) light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in respect of each of four different color rendition properties (high color fidelity, color saturating, color dulling, and color preference). The approach is based on selecting a model family of Eu2+ phosphors and finding the optimal peak wavelengths of the phosphor bands as functions of the luminous efficacy of radiation. A blue component due to either phosphor photoluminescence or InGaN electroluminescence with the peak wavelength at about 460 nm was found to be an optimal one for the high-fidelity, color-dulling, and color-preference LEDs. The high-fidelity and color-preference LEDs need red phosphors with the peak wavelength of 610-615 nm. The high-fidelity LEDs were shown to require a true green (~530 nm) phosphor component, whereas a cyan (~510 nm) component is the prerequisite of the color-saturating and color-preference LEDs. Deep-blue (~445 nm) and deep-red (~625 nm) components are required for the color-saturating LEDs. A broad yellow band similar to that of Ce3+ emission is to be used in the color-dulling LEDs. The SPDs of practical phosphor blends for the high-fidelity, color-saturating, and color-preference p-c LEDs are demonstrated.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

2011 (3)

R. S. Berns, “Designing white-light LED lighting for the display of art: A feasibility study,” Color Res. Appl.36(5), 324–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas and R. Vaicekauskas, “LEDs in lighting with tailored color quality,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20(02), 287–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (5)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng.49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. He and L. Zheng, “White-light LED clusters with high color rendering,” Opt. Lett.35(17), 2955–2957 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl.33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Luo, W. H. Cao, and F. Sun, “The development of silicate matrix phosphors with broad excitation band for phosphor-converted white LED,” Chin. Sci. Bull.53(19), 2923–2930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (5)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, “Luminescence properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)Se:Eu2+ phosphors for white LEDs application,” Mater. Lett.59(7), 749–753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin.104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (3)

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, “Luminescence properties of terbium-, cerium-, or europium-doped α-Sialon materials,” J. Solid State Chem.165(1), 19–24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of excited‐state‐absorption loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.33(5), 410–412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

W. A. Thornton, “A validation of the color-preference index,” J. Illum. Engr. Soc.4, 48–52 (1974).

1972 (2)

W. A. Thornton, “Color-discrimination index,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.62(2), 191–194 (1972).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. H. Haft and W. A. Thornton, “High performance fluorescent lamps,” J. Illum. Engr. Soc.2, 29–35 (1972).

1971 (1)

1968 (1)

T. L. Barry, “Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases of binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems,” J. Electrochem. Soc.115(11), 1181–1184 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. B. Judd, “A flattery index for artificial illuminants,” Illum. Eng.62, 593–598 (1967).

1963 (2)

W. Lehmann, “Emission spectra of (Zn,Cd)S phosphors,” J. Electrochem. Soc.110(7), 754–758 (1963).
[CrossRef]

H. F. Ivey, “Color and efficiency of luminescent light sources,” J. Opt. Soc. Am.53(10), 1185–1198 (1963).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

P. J. Bouma, “The colour reproduction of incandescent lamps and ‘Philiphan’ glass,” Philips’ Technol. Rev.3, 47–49 (1938).

Bachmann, V.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Barry, T. L.

T. L. Barry, “Fluorescence of Eu2+-activated phases of binary alkaline earth orthosilicate systems,” J. Electrochem. Soc.115(11), 1181–1184 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Berns, R. S.

R. S. Berns, “Designing white-light LED lighting for the display of art: A feasibility study,” Color Res. Appl.36(5), 324–334 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Botty, G.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, P. J.

P. J. Bouma, “The colour reproduction of incandescent lamps and ‘Philiphan’ glass,” Philips’ Technol. Rev.3, 47–49 (1938).

Cao, W. H.

X. X. Luo, W. H. Cao, and F. Sun, “The development of silicate matrix phosphors with broad excitation band for phosphor-converted white LED,” Chin. Sci. Bull.53(19), 2923–2930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chien, M.-C.

Davis, W.

W. Davis and Y. Ohno, “Color quality scale,” Opt. Eng.49(3), 033602 (2010).
[CrossRef]

de With, G.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Delsing, A. C. A.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DiSalvo, F. J.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dorenbos, P.

P. Dorenbos, “Energy of the first 4f7→4f65d transition of Eu2+ in inorganic compounds,” J. Lumin.104(4), 239–260 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Duppel, V.

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fang, Y.

Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Freyssinier-Nova, J. P.

M. S. Rea and J. P. Freyssinier-Nova, “Color rendering: A tale of two metrics,” Color Res. Appl.33(3), 192–202 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gaska, R.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
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Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
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K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
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F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
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R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
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H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
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Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
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Izuno, K.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
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M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
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N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
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R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 339–345 (2002).
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R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of excited‐state‐absorption loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.33(5), 410–412 (1978).
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[CrossRef]

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X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, “Luminescence properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)Se:Eu2+ phosphors for white LEDs application,” Mater. Lett.59(7), 749–753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
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X. X. Luo, W. H. Cao, and F. Sun, “The development of silicate matrix phosphors with broad excitation band for phosphor-converted white LED,” Chin. Sci. Bull.53(19), 2923–2930 (2008).
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H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
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Ma, Y. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mandal, H.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, “Luminescence properties of terbium-, cerium-, or europium-doped α-Sialon materials,” J. Solid State Chem.165(1), 19–24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, “Luminescence properties of terbium-, cerium-, or europium-doped α-Sialon materials,” J. Solid State Chem.165(1), 19–24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

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F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
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R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
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K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
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K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Petrulis, A.

Poelman, D.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
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V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sakuma, K.

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, P.

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schnick, W.

V. Bachmann, C. Ronda, O. Oeckler, W. Schnick, and A. Meijerink, “Color point tuning for (Ca,Sr,Ba)Si2O2N2:Eu2+ for white LEDs,” Chem. Mater.21(2), 316–325 (2009).
[CrossRef]

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seilmeier, A.

H. A. Höppe, H. Lutz, P. Morys, W. Schnick, and A. Seilmeier, “Luminescence in Eu2+-doped Ba2Si5N8: fluorescence, thermoluminescence, and upconversion,” J. Phys. Chem. Solids61(12), 2001–2006 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Sekiguchi, T.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shur, M.

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Color-dulling solid-state sources of light,” Opt. Express20(9), 9755–9762 (2012).
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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
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M. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
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Shur, M. S.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Simon, A.

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smet, P. F.

P. F. Smet, A. B. Parmentier, and D. Poelman, “Selecting conversion phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(6), R37–R54 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Stadler, F.

F. Stadler, O. Oeckler, H. A. Höppe, M. H. Möller, R. Pöttgen, B. D. Mosel, P. Schmidt, V. Duppel, A. Simon, and W. Schnick, “Crystal structure, physical properties and HRTEM investigation of the new oxonitridosilicate EuSi2O2N2,” Chemistry12(26), 6984–6990 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueller-Mach, G. Mueller, M. R. Krames, H. A. Höppe, F. Stadler, W. Schnick, T. Juestel, and P. Schmidt, “Highly efficient all-nitride phosphor-converted white light-emitting diode,” Phys. Status Solidi A202(9), 1727–1732 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Su, Q.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, “Luminescence properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)Se:Eu2+ phosphors for white LEDs application,” Mater. Lett.59(7), 749–753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Suehiro, T.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sun, F.

X. X. Luo, W. H. Cao, and F. Sun, “The development of silicate matrix phosphors with broad excitation band for phosphor-converted white LED,” Chin. Sci. Bull.53(19), 2923–2930 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, H.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
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Tien, C.-H.

Trottier, T.

R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, M. R. Krames, and T. Trottier, “High-power phosphor converted light-emitting diodes based on III-nitrides,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.8(2), 339–345 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Tuzikas, A.

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uheda, K.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vaicekauskas, R.

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Color-dulling solid-state sources of light,” Opt. Express20(9), 9755–9762 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, “Optimization of solid-state lamps for photobiologically friendly mesopic lighting,” Appl. Opt.51(35), 8423–8432 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas and R. Vaicekauskas, “LEDs in lighting with tailored color quality,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20(02), 287–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Vaitkevicius, H.

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

van Krevel, J. W. H.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, “Luminescence properties of terbium-, cerium-, or europium-doped α-Sialon materials,” J. Solid State Chem.165(1), 19–24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Rutten, J. W. T.

J. W. H. van Krevel, J. W. T. van Rutten, H. Mandal, H. T. Hintzen, and R. Metselaar, “Luminescence properties of terbium-, cerium-, or europium-doped α-Sialon materials,” J. Solid State Chem.165(1), 19–24 (2002).
[CrossRef]

van Steen, J. E. J.

Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Vitta, P.

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, “Optimization of solid-state lamps for photobiologically friendly mesopic lighting,” Appl. Opt.51(35), 8423–8432 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. J.

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of excited‐state‐absorption loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.33(5), 410–412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Xiao, F.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xie, R.-J.

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, T. Naitou, K. Izuno, H. Tamaki, Y. Murazaki, M. Kameshima, and T. Mukai, “Red-enhanced white-light-emitting diode using a new red phosphor,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.42(Part 2, No.1A/B), L20–L23 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, H.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, Y.

K. Uheda, N. Hirosaki, Y. Yamamoto, A. Naito, T. Nakajima, and H. Yamamoto, “Luminescence properties of a red phosphor, CaAlSiN3:Eu2+, for white light-emitting diodes,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.9(4), H22–H25 (2006).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, H.

Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ye, S.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, “Luminescence properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)Se:Eu2+ phosphors for white LEDs application,” Mater. Lett.59(7), 749–753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Q. Y.

S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, S.

Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, L. Liang, J. Zhang, and Q. Su, “Luminescence properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)Se:Eu2+ phosphors for white LEDs application,” Mater. Lett.59(7), 749–753 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, L.

Zhuang, W.

Y. Hu, W. Zhuang, H. Ye, S. Zhang, Y. Fang, and X. Huang, “Preparation and luminescent properties of (Ca1-x,Srx)S:Eu2+ red-emitting phosphor for white LED,” J. Lumin.111(3), 139–145 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Žukauskas, A.

A. Liu, A. Tuzikas, A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, and M. Shur, “Cultural preferences to color quality of illumination of different artwork objects revealed by a color rendition engine,” IEEE Photonics J.5(4), 6801010 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, P. Vitta, A. Tuzikas, A. Petrulis, and M. Shur, “Color rendition engine,” Opt. Express20(5), 5356–5367 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. Shur, “Color-dulling solid-state sources of light,” Opt. Express20(9), 9755–9762 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and P. Vitta, “Optimization of solid-state lamps for photobiologically friendly mesopic lighting,” Appl. Opt.51(35), 8423–8432 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas and R. Vaicekauskas, “LEDs in lighting with tailored color quality,” Int. J. High Speed Electron. Syst.20(02), 287–301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Color rendition properties of solid-state lamps,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.43(35), 354006 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, and M. S. Shur, “Solid-state lamps with optimized color saturation ability,” Opt. Express18(3), 2287–2295 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Shur and A. Žukauskas, “Solid-state lighting: Toward superior illumination,” Proc. IEEE93(10), 1691–1703 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Spectral optimization of phosphor-conversion light-emitting diodes for ultimate color rendering,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(5), 051115 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jacobs, W. F. Krupke, and M. J. Weber, “Measurement of excited‐state‐absorption loss for Ce3+ in Y3Al5O12 and implications for tunable 5d→4f rare-earth lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.33(5), 410–412 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, and M. S. Shur, “Rendering a color palette by light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(2), 021109 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R.-J. Xie, N. Hirosaki, K. Sakuma, Y. Yamamoto, and M. Mitomo, “Eu2+ doped Ca-α-SiAlON: A yellow phosphor for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(26), 5404–5406 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirosaki, R.-J. Xie, K. Kimoto, T. Sekiguchi, Y. Yamamoto, T. Suehiro, and M. Mitomo, “Characterization and properties of green-emitting β-SiAlON:Eu2+ powder phosphors for white light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.86(21), 211905 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Optimization of white polychromatic semiconductor lamps,” Appl. Phys. Lett.80(2), 234–236 (2002).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

A. Žukauskas, R. Vaicekauskas, F. Ivanauskas, H. Vaitkevičius, P. Vitta, and M. S. Shur, “Statistical approach to color quality of solid-state lamps,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.15(6), 1753–1762 (2009).
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Y. Q. Li, J. E. J. van Steen, J. W. H. van Krevel, G. Botty, A. C. A. Delsing, F. J. DiSalvo, G. de With, and H. T. Hintzen, “Luminescence properties of red-emitting M2Si5N8:Eu2+ (M = Ca, Sr, Ba) LED conversion phosphors,” J. Alloy. Comp.417(1-2), 273–279 (2006).
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[CrossRef]

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S. Ye, F. Xiao, Y. X. Pan, Y. Y. Ma, and Q. Y. Zhang, “Phosphors in phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes: Recent advances in materials, techniques, and properties,” Mater. Sci. Eng. Rep.71(1), 1–34 (2010).
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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Wavelength FWHM of Eu2+ activated phosphors vs. peak wavelength. Circles, chalcogenides [3337]; squares, silicates [3841]; diamonds, aluminates [34,42]; upward triangles, nitridosilicates [4347]; downward triangles, SiONs [45,48,49]; and stars, SiAlONs [5052], respectively. The solid and open points show data for phosphor bands that can be approximated by a single-band model with R2 > 0.99 and R2 < 0.99, respectively.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Examples of the SPDs of Eu2+ phosphors (solid lines) and fits to model single-band SPDs with the same width (dashed lines). Blue phosphor, BAM (after [42]); cyan phosphor, Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ (after [39]); yellow phosphor, EuSi2O2N2 (after [48]); and red phosphor, SrS:Eu2+ (after [33]).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a), (b), and (c) Maximized statistical color fidelity index (pink circles) vs. LER for the trichromatic blends of model Eu2+ phosphors at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. Also shown are CSI (magenta triangles), CDI (violet triangles), Ra (black squares), and CQS Qf (open circles). (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding peak wavelengths of the three model phosphors.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a), (b), and (c) Examples of high color fidelity trichromatic SPDs composed of commercial blue BAM (Intematix B101C-2), green silicate (Intematix EG3264), and red nitride (PhosphorTech HTR620) Eu2+ phosphors for CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. The values of CFI and LER are indicated.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a), (b), and (c) Maximized statistical color saturating index (magenta triangles) vs. LER for the trichromatic blends of model Eu2+ phosphors at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. Also shown are CFI (pink circles), CDI (violet triangles), Ra (black squares), and CQS Qg (open triangles). (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding peak wavelengths of the three model phosphors.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a), (b), and (c) Examples of color-saturating trichromatic SPDs composed of commercial blue BAM (Intematix B101C-2), cyan silicate (Intematix EG1758), and deep red nitride (Intematix ER6436) Eu2+ phosphors for CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. The values of CSI and LER are indicated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a), (b), and (c) Maximized statistical color dulling index (violet triangles) vs. LER for the trichromatic blends of model Eu2+ phosphors at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. Also shown are CFI (pink circles), CSI (magenta triangles), Ra (black squares), and CQS Qg (open triangles). (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding peak wavelengths of the three model phosphors.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a), (b), and (c) Maximized ratio of the statistical color saturating index and color-fidelity index (crosses) vs. LER for the trichromatic blends of model Eu2+ phosphors at CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. Also shown are CFI (pink circles), CSI (magenta triangles), CDI (violet triangles), Ra (black squares), and CQS Qp (open diamonds). (d), (e), and (f) Corresponding peak wavelengths of the three model phosphors.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a), (b), and (c) Examples of color-preference trichromatic SPDs composed of commercial blue BAM (Intematix B101C-2), cyan silicate (Intematix EG1758), and red-orange silicate (Intematix O6040) Eu2+ phosphors for CCTs of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K, respectively. The values of CSI/CFI and LER are indicated.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Proposed approximate peak wavelengths of Eu2+ activated phosphors required for the trichromatic phosphor converted LEDs with different color rendition properties.

Equations (6)

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S i,hν ( hν )dhν= 2 ln(2) /π /W exp[ 4ln(2) ( hνh ν i ) 2 / W 2 ]dhν,
S i,λ ( λ )dλ=k ( λ/ λ 0i ) 2 exp[ 4ln(2) h 2 c 2 ( λ 1 λ 0i 1 ) 2 / W 2 ]dλ,
F CCT,LER ( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , p 1 , p 2 , p 3 )=CFI,
F CCT,LER ( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , p 1 , p 2 , p 3 )= CSI | HDI50% .
F CCT,LER ( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , p 1 , p 2 , p 3 )= CDI | HDI50% .
F CCT,LER ( λ 1 , λ 2 , λ 3 , p 1 , p 2 , p 3 )= CSI/CFI | HDI50% CDI10% .

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