Abstract

We describe a novel approach for CMOS-compatible passively temperature insensitive silicon based optical devices using titanium oxide cladding which has a negative thermo-optic (TO) effect. We engineer the mode confinement in Si and TiO2 such that positive TO of Si is exactly cancelled out by negative TO of TiO2. We demonstrate robust operation of the resulting device over 35 degrees.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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  1. Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).
  3. M. Han and A. Wang, “Temperature compensation of optical microresonators using a surface layer with negative thermo-optic coefficient,” Opt. Lett.32, 1800–1802 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).
  6. P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low power and compact reconfigurable multiplexing devices based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 9852–9858 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).
  9. W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).
  11. E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).
  12. B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express18, 1879–1887 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 3487–3493 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. B. Guha, K. Preston, and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon microring electro-optic modulator,” Opt. Lett.37, 2253–2255 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  17. B. Guha and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon ring resonator with bi-material cantilever for passive thermal feedback,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2013).
  18. S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  20. J. T. Choy, J. D. Bradley, P. B. Deotare, I. B. Burgess, C. C. Evans, E. Mazur, and M. Loncar, “Integrated TiO2resonators for visible photonics,” Opt. Lett.37, 539–541 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. J. D. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Loncar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2010

2009

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

1999

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1967

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Ackert, J. J.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Adibi, A.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Alipour, P.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Asghari, M.

Baets, R.

Basak, J.

Bergman, K.

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Biberman, A.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Bogaerts, W.

Bradley, J. D.

Burgess, I. B.

Campbell, S. A.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chan, J.

Chen, L.

Cheung, S. T.

Choy, J. T.

Dejneka, A.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Deotare, P. B.

DeRose, C. T.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Djordjevic, S. S.

Dong, P.

Dumon, P.

Eftekhar, A. A.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Evans, C. C.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Gilmer, D. C.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gladfelter, W. L.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Gondarenko, A.

Guan, B.

Guha, B.

Han, M.

Han, X. Y.

He, B.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Jastrabik, L.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jian, X. G.

Kim, H.-S.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Knights, A. P.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kyotoku, B. B. C.

Lentine, A.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

Lipson, M.

Liu, H.-F.

Logan, D. F.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Loncar, M.

Luck, D. L.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Lynnyk, A.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, T.

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Markovin, P.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Mazur, E.

Momeni, B.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Moresco, M.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Morthier, G.

Nielson, G. N.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Padmaraju, K.

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Parsy, F.

Phillips, K. C.

Preston, K.

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Qiu, F.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reshef, O.

Shafiiha, R.

Shah Hosseini, E.

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

Shang, K.

Spring, A. M.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Stojanovic, V.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Sun, C.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Teng, J.

Timurdogan, E.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

Trepakov, V.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Trotter, D. C.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Varshni, Y.

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

Watts, M.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Watts, M. R.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Xu, Q.

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

Yokoyama, S.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yoo, S.

Young, R. W.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

Yu, F.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H. B.

Zhao, M. S.

Zheng, X.

Zhu, X.

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

Zortman, W.

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Qiu, A. M. Spring, F. Yu, and S. Yokoyama, “Complementary metaloxidesemiconductor compatible athermal silicon nitride/ titanium dioxide hybrid micro-ring resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 051106 (2013).
[CrossRef]

IBM journal of research and development

S. A. Campbell, H.-S. Kim, D. C. Gilmer, B. He, T. Ma, and W. L. Gladfelter, “Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based gate insulators,” IBM journal of research and development43, 383–392 (1999).
[CrossRef]

New J. Phys.

V. Trepakov, A. Dejneka, P. Markovin, A. Lynnyk, and L. Jastrabik, “A ‘soft electronic band’ and the negative thermooptic effect in strontium titanate,” New J. Phys.11, 083024 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express

J. D. Bradley, C. C. Evans, J. T. Choy, O. Reshef, P. B. Deotare, F. Parsy, K. C. Phillips, M. Loncar, and E. Mazur, “Submicrometer-wide amorphous and polycrystalline anatase TiO2waveguides for microphotonic devices,” Opt. Express20, 23821–23831 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Padmaraju, J. Chan, L. Chen, M. Lipson, and K. Bergman, “Thermal stabilization of a microring modulator using feedback control,” Opt. Express20, 27999–28008 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. S. Djordjevic, K. Shang, B. Guan, S. T. Cheung, L. Liao, J. Basak, H.-F. Liu, and S. Yoo, “CMOS-compatible, athermal silicon ring modulators clad with titanium dioxide,” Opt. Express21, 13958–13968 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Teng, P. Dumon, W. Bogaerts, H. B. Zhang, X. G. Jian, X. Y. Han, M. S. Zhao, G. Morthier, and R. Baets, “Athermal Silicon-on-insulator ring resonators by overlaying a polymer cladding on narrowed waveguides,” Opt. Express17, 14627–14633 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, A. Gondarenko, and M. Lipson, “Minimizing temperature sensitivity of silicon Mach-Zehnder interferometers,” Opt. Express18, 1879–1887 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Guha, B. B. C. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 3487–3493 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Dong, W. Qian, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Low power and compact reconfigurable multiplexing devices based on silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express18, 9852–9858 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Physica

Y. Varshni, “Temperature dependence of the energy gap in semiconductors,” Physica34, 149–154 (1967)
[CrossRef]

Other

P. Alipour, E. Shah Hosseini, A. A. Eftekhar, B. Momeni, and A. Adibi, “Temperature-insensitive silicon microdisk resonators using polymeric cladding layers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2009).

K. Padmaraju, D. F. Logan, X. Zhu, J. J. Ackert, A. P. Knights, and K. Bergman, “Integrated thermal stabilization of a microring modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2013).

W. Zortman, A. Lentine, D. Trotter, and M. Watts, “Integrated CMOS compatible low power 10Gbps silicon photonic heater-modulator,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference (Optical Society of America, 2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Qiu and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2011).

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2012).

B. Guha and M. Lipson, “Athermal silicon ring resonator with bi-material cantilever for passive thermal feedback,” in CLEO: Science and Innovations (Optical Society of America, 2013).

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Resonance wavelength sensitivity to temperature ( λ 0 T in nm/K) for (a) TE and (b) TM polarizations. Si guiding layer is 220nm thick. Black dashed line represents the optimum waveguide width and cladding thickness for athermal operation. Energy flux density of optical modes in a 250nm wide waveguide is shown at the top. TiO2 cladding thickness is 300nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) TiO2 cladded Si microring resonator. Inset shows a false colored SEM cross section of the waveguide. (b) AFM image of the TiO2 surface.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Measured resonance sensitivity to temperature as a function of waveguide width, for TE and TM modes. Resonance sensitivity decreases significantly as mode is delocalized into TiO2 cladding. Theoretical curves are obtained assuming 200nm thick TiO2 layer. (b) Temperature dependence of the resonance for hybrid Si-TiO2 resonator (athermal TM mode, right) compared to that of a conventional Si resonator (left).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) BER vs. temperature for 5Gbps data transmission. (b) BER vs. received power for 1 °C temperature fluctuation.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1: Summary of previously reported temperature stabilization schemes

Metrics