Abstract

We propose a cladding engineering method that flexibly modifies the radiation patterns and rates of metal-clad nanoscale optical cavity. Optimally adjusting the cladding symmetry of the metal-clad nanoscale optical cavity modifies the modal symmetry and produces highly directional radiation that leads to 90% coupling efficiency into an integrated waveguide. In addition, the radiation rate of the cavity mode can be matched to its absorption rate by adjusting the thickness of the bottom-cladding layer. This approach optimizes the energy-flow rate from the waveguide and maximizes the energy confined inside the nanoscale optical cavity.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2010 (5)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. W. Fang, B. Koch, and J. E. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-H. Kwon, J.-H. Kang, C. Seassal, S.-K. Kim, P. Regreny, Y.-H. Lee, C. M. Lieber, and H.-G. Park, “Subwavelength plasmonic lasing from a semiconductor nanodisk with silver nanopan cavity,” Nano Lett. 10(9), 3679–3683 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-K. Kim, S. H. Lee, M. Choi, B.-H. Ahn, N. Park, Y.-H. Lee, and B. Min, “Low-loss surface-plasmonic nanobeam cavities,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11089–11096 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Yu, A. Lakhani, and M. C. Wu, “Subwavelength metal-optic semiconductor nanopatch lasers,” Opt. Express 18(9), 8790–8799 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express 17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

H. T. Miyazaki and Y. Kurokawa, “Squeezing Visible Light Waves into a 3-nm-Thick and 55-nm-Long Plasmon Cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(9), 097401 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G.-H. Kim, Y.-H. Lee, A. Shinya, and M. Notomi, “Coupling of small, low-loss hexapole mode with photonic crystal slab waveguide mode,” Opt. Express 12(26), 6624–6631 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.-H.

Ahn, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Almeida, V. R.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Apsel, A. B.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Assanto, G.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature 424(6950), 824–830 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barrios, C. A.

V. R. Almeida, C. A. Barrios, R. R. Panepucci, and M. Lipson, “All-optical control of light on a silicon chip,” Nature 431(7012), 1081–1084 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beausoleil, R. G.

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature 460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90(2), 027402 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Binetti, P. R. A.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bondarenko, O.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

Carothers, D.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-H.

Chen, Y.-K.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, M.

Cohen, O.

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, J. Basak, H. Nguyen, M. Paniccia, D. Rubin, Y. Chetrit, R. Cohen, and N. Izhaky, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett. 43(22), 1196 (2007).
[Crossref]

Colace, L.

S. Fama, L. Colace, G. Masini, G. Assanto, and H.-C. Luan, “High performance germanium-on-silicon detectors for optical communications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(4), 586–588 (2002).
[Crossref]

Conway, T.

L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R.-M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature 461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

J. Van Campenhout, P. R. A. Binetti, P. R. Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, X. J. M. Leijtens, T. de Vries, Y. S. Oei, R. P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Notzel, L. É. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, M. K. Smit, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “Low-Footprint Optical Interconnect on an SOI Chip Through Heterogeneous Integration of InP-Based Microdisk Lasers and Microdetectors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(8), 522–524 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

de Waardt, H.

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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Romeo, P. R.

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Suteewong, T.

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L. C. Kimerling, D. Ahn, A. B. Apsel, M. Beals, D. Carothers, Y.-K. Chen, T. Conway, D. M. Gill, M. Grove, C.-Y. Hong, M. Lipson, J. Liu, J. Michel, D. Pan, S. S. Patel, A. T. Pomerene, M. Rasras, D. K. Sparacin, K.-Y. Tu, A. E. White, and C. W. Wong, “Electronic-photonic integrated circuits on the CMOS platform,” Proc. SPIE 6125, 612502, 612502-10 (2006).
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Opt. Express (9)

A. W. Fang, H. Park, O. Cohen, R. Jones, M. J. Paniccia, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically pumped hybrid AlGaInAs-silicon evanescent laser,” Opt. Express 14(20), 9203–9210 (2006).
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J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J.-M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
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D. Liang, M. Fiorentino, T. Okumura, H.-H. Chang, D. T. Spencer, Y.-H. Kuo, A. W. Fang, D. Dai, R. G. Beausoleil, and J. E. Bowers, “Electrically-pumped compact hybrid silicon microring lasers for optical interconnects,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20355–20364 (2009).
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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of metallic III-V cubic nanocavity. Energy-density distributions (major electric field arrows overlaid) and corresponding far-field radiation patterns in the −z direction for (b, e) cladding layers a = b1 = b2 = 150 nm around the III-V cubic nanocavity, (c, f) a = 60 nm, b1 = b2 = 150 nm, and (d, g) a = 60 nm, b1 = 150 nm, b2 = 60 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a, b) Perspective and (c, d) cross-sectional schematic views of metal-clad III-V nanocavities integrated onto a bidirectional and unidirectional silicon-on-insulator waveguide.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a, d) Coupling efficiencies and Q factors as a function of a and b1 in a metal-clad III-V cavity coupled with bidirectional and unidirectional Si waveguide, respectively. In the bidirectional case, b1 and b2 are fixed at 150 nm and, in the unidirectional case, a and b2 are fixed at 90 and 150 nm, respectively. (b, e) Profiles of E2 on logarithmic scale along x-z plane (in the bidirectional case, a = 60 nm, in the unidirectional case, b1 = 180 nm): Insets show the energy-density profiles along the x-y plane at the center of cavity. (c, f) Far-field patterns toward bottom direction (−z direction) calculated right above the waveguide, for the cases given for panels (b) and (e), respectively.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Coupling efficiencies ηuni and ηbi and quality factors Quni and Qbi as a function of g for structures of Figs. 3(e) and 3(b), respectively. (b) Radiation rates γrad,uni and γrad,bi and absorption rates γabs,uni and γabs,bi of cavity modes in panel (a) as a function of g, respectively. (c) Profile of E2 on logarithmic scale along x-z plane for unidirectional and bidirectional cases for g = 400 nm when light is coupled from waveguide. (d) Total energies |ψuni|2 and |ψbi|2 inside cavity for 10-mW waveguide input as a function of g.

Equations (2)

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d ψ i dt =j ω i ψ i 1 2 ( γ rad,i ( g )+ γ abs,i ) ψ i + ξ γ waveguide,i ( g ) s input .
| ψ i | 2 =4 η i ξ γ rad,i (g) ( γ rad,i (g)+ γ abs,i ) 2 | s input | 2 .

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