Abstract

A Stokes vector based non-data-aided (NDA) differential group delay (DGD) estimation scheme with flexible bandwidth requirements is investigated. The scheme is demonstrated in both experiments and simulations for 40-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed coherent optical OFDM systems with up to 1000-km long haul transmission with an estimation error of less than 2.5 ps after 1000-km standard single-mode fiber transmissions.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 294–304 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. C. Chung, “Optical performance monitoring techniques; current status and future challenge,” in Proceedings of Eur. Conf. on Opt. Comm. (ECOC)2008 (Brussels, Belgium, 2008), pp. W.E.1.D.1.
  3. H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, and A. Ehrhardt, “Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber,” in Proceedings of Eur. Conf. on Opt. Comm. (ECOC) 2001 (2001), pp. 68–69.
  4. F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. S. Faruk, Y. Mori, C. Zhang, K. Igarashi, and K. Kikuchi, “Multi-impairments monitoring from the equalizer in a digital coherent optical receiver,” Opt. Express18, 26929–26936 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, S. Chen, L. B. Du, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, ” PMD monitoring in 16-QAM coherent optical system using Golay sequences,” in Proceedings of Opto-Elec. and Comm. Conf. (OECC)2012 (Busan, 2012), pp. 6B3–5.
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
    [CrossRef]
  10. F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Mayrock and H. Haunstein, “Monitoring of linear and nonlinear signal distortion in coherent optical OFDM transmission,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(16), 3560–3566 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  12. S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 4.
  14. B. Szafraniec, B. Nebendahl, and T. Marshall, “Polarization demultiplexing in Stokes space,” Opt. Express18(17), 17928–17939 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Optical performance monitoring for OFDM using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28724–28733 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

2010

2009

2004

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Kilper, R. Bach, D. J. Blumenthal, D. Einstein, T. Landolsi, L. Ostar, M. Preiss, and A. E. Willner, “Optical performance monitoring,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(1), 294–304 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, T.

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Optical performance monitoring for OFDM using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28724–28733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

Bach, R.

Baumert, W.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

Buchali, F.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

Bulow, H.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. K.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, L. K.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Optical performance monitoring for OFDM using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28724–28733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Du, L. B.

Duthel, T.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Einstein, D.

Faruk, M. S.

Fludger, C.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Geyer, J.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Gonzalez, N.

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Haunstein, H.

Hauske, F.

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Hewitt, D.

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Optical performance monitoring for OFDM using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28724–28733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

Igarashi, K.

Kikuchi, K.

Kilper, D. C.

Ku, Y. C.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kuschnerov, M.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Landolsi, T.

Lankl, B.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Lanne, S.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

Lowery, A. J.

Lu, G. W.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ma, Y.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

Marshall, T.

Mayrock, M.

Monroy, I.

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Mori, Y.

Nebendahl, B.

Ostar, L.

Pendock, G. J.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

Pittala, F.

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Piyawanno, K.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Preiss, M.

Schmidt, E.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Shieh, W.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

Skafidas, E.

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, L. B. Du, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, “Optical performance monitoring for OFDM using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” Opt. Express20(27), 28724–28733 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

Spinnler, B.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Szafraniec, B.

Tang, Y.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

Thiery, J. P.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

Tran, A.

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

Tran, A. V.

van den Borne, D.

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

Willner, A. E.

Xie, C.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ye, Y.

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

Yi, X.

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

Zhu, C.

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

G. W. Lu, C. Xie, Y. C. Ku, L. K. Chen, and C. K. Chan, “Enhanced PMD monitoring with frequency-resolved SOP rotation by self phase modulation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.16(9), 2180–2182 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol.

Opt. Express

Other

X. Yi, W. Shieh, Y. Ma, Y. Tang, and G. J. Pendock, “Experimental demonstration of optical performance monitoring in coherent optical OFDM systems,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW3.
[CrossRef]

F. Hauske, J. Geyer, M. Kuschnerov, K. Piyawanno, T. Duthel, C. Fludger, D. van den Borne, E. Schmidt, B. Spinnler, H. de Waardt, and B. Lankl, “Optical performance monitoring from FIR filter coefficients in coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2008 (San Diego, Calif, 2008), pp. OThW2.
[CrossRef]

S. Chen, T. Anderson, D. Hewitt, A. Tran, and E. Skafidas, “Non-data-aided PMD monitoring for optical OFDM systems using low bandwidth coherent receivers,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2013 (Anaheim, Calif., 2013), pp. JW2A.51.
[CrossRef]

C. Brosseau, Fundamentals of Polarized Light: A Statistical Optics Approach (John Wiley & Sons, 1998), Chap. 4.

Y. C. Chung, “Optical performance monitoring techniques; current status and future challenge,” in Proceedings of Eur. Conf. on Opt. Comm. (ECOC)2008 (Brussels, Belgium, 2008), pp. W.E.1.D.1.

H. Rosenfeldt, R. Ulrich, E. Brinkmeyer, U. Feiste, C. Schubert, J. Berger, R. Ludwig, H. G. Weber, and A. Ehrhardt, “Feedforward approach for automatic PMD compensation at 80 Gbit/s over 45 km installed single mode fiber,” in Proceedings of Eur. Conf. on Opt. Comm. (ECOC) 2001 (2001), pp. 68–69.

F. Buchali, S. Lanne, J. P. Thiery, W. Baumert, and H. Bulow, “Fast eye monitoring for 10 Gbit/s and its application for optical PMD compensation,” in Proceedings of Opt. Fiber Conf. (OFC)2001(Anaheim, Calif., 2001), pp. TuP5.
[CrossRef]

C. C. Do, A. V. Tran, C. Zhu, S. Chen, L. B. Du, T. Anderson, A. J. Lowery, and E. Skafidas, ” PMD monitoring in 16-QAM coherent optical system using Golay sequences,” in Proceedings of Opto-Elec. and Comm. Conf. (OECC)2012 (Busan, 2012), pp. 6B3–5.
[CrossRef]

F. Pittala, F. Hauske, Y. Ye, N. Gonzalez, and I. Monroy, “Fast and robust CD and DGD estimation based on data-aided channel estimation,” in Proceedings of Inter. Conf. on Transparent Opt. Networks ICTON 2011 (Stockholm, 2011), pp. 1–4.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representation of (a) the DGD vector and DGD-induced arc trace on the Poincaré sphere and (b) zoomed in arc trace generated by relative position of OFDM subcarriers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

DGD induced SOP traces with (a) Δω = 0, (b) Δω = 45 and (c) Δω = 90.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SOP traces with SOPMD = 1368 ps2 and (b) interpolation of longest trace in 2D plot.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Estimation error in simulation with (a) different receiver bandwidth and (b) different level of SOPMD.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Low bandwidth DGD estimation for (a) back-to-back and (b) after 1000-km transmission.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Full bandwidth DGD estimation after 1000-km transmission and (b) estimation error as a function of receiver bandwidth.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

S=( s 1 s 2 s 3 )= 1 s 0 ( | e x | 2 | e y | 2 2Re{ e x * e y } 2Im{ e x * e y } )
Δτ= Δφ 2πΔf
Δω= cos 1 Δ φ 1 Δ φ 2

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