Abstract

We have carried out grating-based x-ray differential phase-contrast measurements with a hybrid pixel detector in 16 energy channels simultaneously. A method for combining the energy resolved phase-contrast images based on energy weighting is presented. An improvement in contrast-to-noise ratio by 58.2% with respect to an emulated integrating detector could be observed in the final image. The same image quality could thus be achieved with this detector and with energy weighting at 60.0% reduced dose compared to an integrating detector. The benefit of the method depends on the object, spectrum, interferometer design and the detector efficiency.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. R. Fitzgerald, “Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging,” Phys. Today53(7), 23–26(2000)
    [CrossRef]
  3. F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. R. T. Munro and A. Olivo, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging with polychromatic sources and the concept of effective energy,” Phys. Rev. A87, 053838(2013).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
    [CrossRef]
  13. X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. Raupach and T. G. Flohr, “Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 2219–2244(2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum X-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.30(6), 519–529(1985).
    [CrossRef]
  18. R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
    [CrossRef]
  19. J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (2)

P. R. T. Munro and A. Olivo, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging with polychromatic sources and the concept of effective energy,” Phys. Rev. A87, 053838(2013).
[CrossRef]

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Raupach and T. G. Flohr, “Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 2219–2244(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

R. Fitzgerald, “Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging,” Phys. Today53(7), 23–26(2000)
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum X-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.30(6), 519–529(1985).
[CrossRef]

Achterhold, K.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Adam-Neumair, S.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alhassen, F.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

Anton, G.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
[CrossRef]

Ballabriga, R.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bamberg, F.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barber, W. C.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

Bartl, P.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Baumann, J.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bayer, F.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bech, M.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

Bohla, A.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Böhnel, M.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Bruder, J.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Bunk, O.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

Cahn, R. N.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, M.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

Cederstrom, B.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Cloetens, P.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Danielsson, M.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

Diaz, A.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Dinapoli, R.

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

Durst, J.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eickelberg, O.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Engelhardt, M.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feidenhans’l, R.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

Fitzgerald, R.

R. Fitzgerald, “Phase-sensitive x-ray imaging,” Phys. Today53(7), 23–26(2000)
[CrossRef]

Flohr, T. G.

R. Raupach and T. G. Flohr, “Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 2219–2244(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Giersch, J.

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
[CrossRef]

Gifford, M.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Groso, A.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Haas, W.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hall, A.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Heijne, E.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Herzen, J.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirano, K.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Itai, Y.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwanczyk, J. S.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

Kawabata, K.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

Kottler, C.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuwabara, H.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

Limborg, C.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Llopart, X.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

Loewen, R.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

Lundqvist, M.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Malecki, A.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meinel, F.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michel, T.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Momose, A.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Munro, P. R. T.

P. R. T. Munro and A. Olivo, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging with polychromatic sources and the concept of effective energy,” Phys. Rev. A87, 053838(2013).
[CrossRef]

Münster, I.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Niederlöhner, D.

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
[CrossRef]

Nikolaou, K.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nygren, D.

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Olivo, A.

P. R. T. Munro and A. Olivo, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging with polychromatic sources and the concept of effective energy,” Phys. Rev. A87, 053838(2013).
[CrossRef]

Pernigotti, E.

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, F.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

Plackett, R.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Potdevin, G.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Potdevina, G.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raupach, R.

R. Raupach and T. G. Flohr, “Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 2219–2244(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reiser, M.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rifkin, J.

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ritter, A.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rohbeck, T.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, R.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruthd, R.

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

San Segundo, D.

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

Schleede, S.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schroer, C.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schuster, M.

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Seo, Y.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

Sievers, P.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Stampanoni, M.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

Takeda, T.

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takoukam, P.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Tapiovaara, M. J.

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum X-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.30(6), 519–529(1985).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, S.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thuering, T.

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

Tlustos, L.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

Valerio, P.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

M. J. Tapiovaara and R. Wagner, “SNR and DQE analysis of broad spectrum X-ray imaging,” Phys. Med. Biol.30(6), 519–529(1985).
[CrossRef]

Weber, T.

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weitkamp, T.

C. David, T. Weitkamp, F. Pfeiffer, A. Diaz, J. Bruder, T. Rohbeck, A. Groso, O. Bunk, M. Stampanoni, and P. Cloetens, “Hard X-ray phase imaging and tomography using a grating interferometer,” Spectrochim. Acta B62, 626–630(2007).
[CrossRef]

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

Wong, W.S.

W.S. Wong, G. Anton, R. Ballabriga, M. Böhnel, M. Campbell, E. Heijne, X. Llopart, T. Michel, I. Münster, R. Plackett, P. Sievers, P. Takoukam, L. Tlustos, and P. Valerio, “Electrical measurements of a multi-mode hybrid pixel detector ASIC for radiation detection,” Radiat. Meas.46, 1619–1623(2011).
[CrossRef]

Yashiro, W.

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

Yildirim, A.

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Thuering, W. C. Barber, Y. Seo, F. Alhassen, J. S. Iwanczyk, and M. Stampanoni, “Energy resolved X-ray grating interferometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102, 191113(2013).
[CrossRef]

IEEE T. Nucl. Sci. (1)

X. Llopart, M. Campbell, D. San Segundo, E. Pernigotti, and R. Dinapoli, “Medipix2: a 64-k pixel readout chip with 55- μm square elements working in single photon counting mode,” IEEE T. Nucl. Sci., 49(5), 1484–1488(2002).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

M. Engelhardt, C. Kottler, O. Bunk, C. David, C. Schroer, J. Baumann, M. Schuster, and F. Pfeiffer, “The fractional Talbot effect in differential x-ray phase-contrast imaging for extended and polychromatic x-ray sources,” J. Microsc.232, 145–157(2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (2)

M. Bech, O. Bunk, C. David, R. Ruth, J. Rifkin, R. Loewen, R. Feidenhans’l, and F. Pfeiffer, “Hard X-ray phase-contrast imaging with the Compact Light Source based on inverse Compton X-rays,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.16, 43–47(2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Schleede, M. Bech, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevin, M. Gifford, R. Loewen, C. Limborg, R. Ruthd, and F. Pfeiffer, “Multimodal hard x-ray imaging of a mammography phantom at a compact synchrotron light source,” J. Synchrotron Radiat.19, 525–529(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Momose, W. Yashiro, H. Kuwabara, and K. Kawabata, “Grating-based X-ray phase imaging using multiline X-ray source,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.48(7), 076512(2009).
[CrossRef]

Med. Phys. (2)

T. Weber, P. Bartl, F. Bayer, J. Durst, W. Haas, T. Michel, A. Ritter, and G. Anton, “Noise in x-ray grating-based phase-contrast imaging,” Med. Phys.38(7), 4133–4140(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. N. Cahn, B. Cederstrom, M. Danielsson, A. Hall, M. Lundqvist, and D. Nygren, “Detective quantum efficiency dependence on x-ray energy weighting in mammography,” Med. Phys.26(12), 2680–2683(1999).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Med. (1)

A. Momose, T. Takeda, Y. Itai, and K. Hirano, “Phasecontrast Xray computed tomography for observing biological soft tissues,” Nat. Med.2(4), 473–475(1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

F. Pfeiffer, T. Weitkamp, O. Bunk, and C. David, “Phase retrieval and differential phase-contrast imaging with low-brilliance X-ray sources,” Nat. Phys.2(4), 258–261(2006).
[CrossRef]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods (2)

X. Llopart, R. Ballabriga, M. Campbell, L. Tlustos, and W. Wong, “Timepix, a 65k programmable pixel readout chip for arrival time, energy and/or photon counting measurements,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods581, 485–494(2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Giersch, D. Niederlöhner, and G. Anton, “The influence of energy weighting on x-ray imaging quality,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods531, 68–74(2004).
[CrossRef]

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R. Raupach and T. G. Flohr, “Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography,” Phys. Med. Biol.56, 2219–2244(2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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P. R. T. Munro and A. Olivo, “X-ray phase-contrast imaging with polychromatic sources and the concept of effective energy,” Phys. Rev. A87, 053838(2013).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

PNAS (1)

S. Schleede, F. Meinel, M. Bech, J. Herzen, K. Achterhold, G. Potdevina, A. Malecki, S. Adam-Neumair, S. Thieme, F. Bamberg, K. Nikolaou, A. Bohla, A. Yildirim, R. Loewen, M. Gifford, R. Ruth, O. Eickelberg, M. Reiser, and F. Pfeiffer, “Emphysema diagnosis using X-ray dark-field imaging at a laser-driven compact synchrotron light source,” PNAS109(44), 17880–17885(2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radiat. Meas. (1)

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Count rate (circles) and visibility (crosses) measured without object in the 16 energy bins of the Dosepix detector. As expected the visibility peaks at the design energy of 25 keV.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Differential phase signal averaged in the wedge area [Fig. 3]. The curve with errorbars shows the differential phase like it is obtained in the detector’s energy bins. The energy weighting factors from one arbitrary pixel are shown as stairs.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top row: Measured DPC images using integrating-mode (left), counting-mode (middle) and the energy-weighting method (right). From the left to the right an increase of the wedge signal as well as a reduction in noise can be observed. The wedge (top, blue) and air-ROI (bottom, red) are indicated on the left. Bottom row: Histograms of the DPC-signals obtained in the two ROIs. The air-signal is centered at Φ = 0. An increase in the signal difference can be seen. The width of the distributions is reduced with the energy-weighting method, leading to an enhanced CNR.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

CNR obtained in the 16 energy bins of the Dosepix detector (stairs). The energy bins close to the interferometers design-energy of 25 keV contribute with high CNR to the image.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the CNR values obtained for different types of data analysis.

Equations (13)

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Φ i = arg [ ν p ( N i ( x ) ) ] arg [ ν p ( N 0 i ( x ) ) ] .
V i = [ ν p ( N i ( x ) ) ] 1 [ ν p ( N i ( x ) ) ] 0 ,
Φ weighting = 1 w i w i Φ i
σ Φ i 2 = 2 N i V i 2 + 2 N 0 i V 0 i 2 .
SNR 2 = ( i w i Φ i ) 2 i w i 2 σ Φ i 2 .
SNR 2 = ( a b ) 2 b 2
a i = Φ i σ Φ i
b i = w i σ Φ i
w i Φ i σ Φ i 2 .
w i 1 σ Φ i 2 E i 2 .
Φ integrating = arg [ ν p ( i = 4 15 E i N i ( x ) ) ] arg [ ν p ( i = 4 15 E i N 0 i ( x ) ) ] .
Φ counting = arg [ ν p ( i = 4 15 N i ( x ) ) ] arg [ ν p ( i = 4 15 N 0 i ( x ) ) ] .
CNR = Φ wedge ¯ Φ air ¯ σ Φ wedge 2 + σ Φ air 2 ,

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