Abstract

Zinc oxide (ZnO) as an extremely bright emitter is an attractive material for photonic devices. However, devices made of epitaxially grown ZnO are difficult to fabricate due to the lack of selective etching processes. Here, we demonstrate that by a low-temperature growth process on pre-patterned silicon dioxide (SiO2) microdisks (MDs) high quality ZnO resonators are created. The devices exhibit whispering gallery modes (WGMs) over the blue-green part of the visible spectrum with quality factors exceeding Q = 3500, which are among the highest values reported in this material system so far. By deposition of SiO2 capping layers we find an enhanced coupling of the spontaneous emission from the active medium into the MDs, observed by sharp WGMs up to a radial quantum number of N = 3.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]

2013 (4)

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, W. Liu, S. Zhang, X. Shen, and Z. Chen, “Three-dimensional confinement of polaritons in ZnO microcylinder,” Opt. Express21(3), 3911–3916 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications,” AIP Advances3(7), 072114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (6)

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Scaling coefficient for three-dimensional grain coalescence of ZnO on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. B86(22), 224108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. Xu, Y. Cui, Z. Hu, W. Yu, J. Sun, N. Xu, and J. Wu, “Photoluminescence and low-threshold lasing of ZnO nanorod arrays,” Opt. Express20(14), 14857–14863 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Ding, D. Zhao, B. Yao, S. e, Z. Guo, L. Zhang, and D. Shen, “The ultraviolet laser from individual ZnO microwire with quadrate cross section,” Opt. Express20(13), 13657–13662 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B76(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

2004 (3)

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

J. F. Cordaro, Y. Shim, and J. E. May, “Bulk electron traps in zinc oxide varistors,” J. Appl. Phys.60(12), 4186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Adamo, C.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alivov, Y. I.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Allenic, A.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Alves, H. R.

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Armani, A. M.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

As, D. J.

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Avrutin, V.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Bailey, R. C.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Böntgen, T.

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, D. B.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bürger, M.

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Burlacu, A.

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cao, B.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cao, H.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ceder, G.

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, R. P. H.

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chang, S.-W.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D.-R.

Chen, Y. B.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

Cheong, H.

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, S.-J.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Chuang, S.-L.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cordaro, J. F.

J. F. Cordaro, Y. Shim, and J. E. May, “Bulk electron traps in zinc oxide varistors,” J. Appl. Phys.60(12), 4186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Czekalla, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Declair, S.

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Dietrich, C. D.

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ding, M.

Dogan, S.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

e, S.

Fang, W.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Flagan, R. C.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Förstner, J.

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Fraser, S. E.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fu, Z. X.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gargas, D. J.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gluba, M. A.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Grundmann, M.

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, W.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

He, L.

Higashihata, M.

Hinrichs, K.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ho, S. T.

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hofmann, D. M.

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hofstaetter, A.

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Z.

Huang, Y.

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Hupp, J. T.

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Iyamperumal, P.

Janotti, A.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B76(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. S.

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y.-J.

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kohan, A. F.

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krix, D.

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kröger, P.

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kulkarni, R. P.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lange, M.

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leiter, F. H.

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lin, B. X.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Liu, W.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lorenz, M.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

May, J. E.

J. F. Cordaro, Y. Shim, and J. E. May, “Bulk electron traps in zinc oxide varistors,” J. Appl. Phys.60(12), 4186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mehta, M.

M. Mehta and C. Meier, “Controlled Etching Behavior of O-Polar and Zn-Polar ZnO Single Crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(2), H119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meier, C.

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications,” AIP Advances3(7), 072114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Scaling coefficient for three-dimensional grain coalescence of ZnO on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. B86(22), 224108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehta and C. Meier, “Controlled Etching Behavior of O-Polar and Zn-Polar ZnO Single Crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(2), H119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Meyer, B. K.

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, M. C.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morgan, D.

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Morkoç¸, H.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Nakamura, D.

Ni, A.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nickel, N. H.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nienhaus, H.

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Okada, T.

Okazaki, K.

Özdemir, S. K.

Özgür, Ü.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Pan, X. Q.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Piegdon, K. A.

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Postolake, V.

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ramprasad, R.

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rappich, J.

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Reshchikov, M. A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Rinke, P.

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rusu, E. V.

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ruth, M.

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications,” AIP Advances3(7), 072114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Scaling coefficient for three-dimensional grain coalescence of ZnO on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. B86(22), 224108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Scheffler, M.

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schlom, D. G.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt-Grund, R.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shen, D.

Shen, X.

Shi, C. S.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Shim, Y.

J. F. Cordaro, Y. Shim, and J. E. May, “Bulk electron traps in zinc oxide varistors,” J. Appl. Phys.60(12), 4186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Spillane, S. M.

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sturm, C.

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Sun, X. K.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Teke, A.

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

Tian, W.

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tiginyanu, I. M.

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ursaki, V. V.

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B76(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Weber, N.

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, J.

Wu, X. H.

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Xu, N.

Yang, L.

Yang, P.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, B.

Yao, R.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yi, G.-C.

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, W.

Zhang, L.

Zhang, S.

Zhang, Z.

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhao, D.

Zhu, H.

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, J.

Zhu, J. J.

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

ACS Nano (1)

D. J. Gargas, M. C. Moore, A. Ni, S.-W. Chang, Z. Zhang, S.-L. Chuang, and P. Yang, “Whispering Gallery Mode Lasing from Zinc Oxide Hexagonal Nanodisks,” ACS Nano4(6), 3270–3276 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

AIP Advances (1)

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Structural enhancement of ZnO on SiO2 for photonic applications,” AIP Advances3(7), 072114 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (8)

P. Kröger, M. Ruth, N. Weber, and C. Meier, “Carrier localization in ZnO quantum wires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(26), 263114 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Liu, W. Fang, Y. Huang, X. H. Wu, S. T. Ho, H. Cao, and R. P. H. Chang, “Optically pumped ultraviolet microdisk laser on a silicon substrate,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(14), 2488 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg, S. M. Spillane, and K. J. Vahala, “Demonstration of ultra-high-Q small mode volume toroid microcavities on a chip,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(25), 6113 (2004).
[CrossRef]

W. Guo, A. Allenic, Y. B. Chen, X. Q. Pan, W. Tian, C. Adamo, and D. G. Schlom, “ZnO epitaxy on (111) Si using epitaxial Lu2O3 buffer layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(7), 072101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. Bürger, M. Ruth, S. Declair, J. Förstner, C. Meier, and D. J. As, “Whispering gallery modes in zinc-blende AlN microdisks containing non- polar GaN quantum dots,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(8), 081105 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Fang, D. B. Buchholz, R. C. Bailey, J. T. Hupp, R. P. H. Chang, and H. Cao, “Detection of chemical species using ultraviolet microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(17), 3666 (2004).
[CrossRef]

C. D. Dietrich, M. Lange, T. Böntgen, and M. Grundmann, “The corner effect in hexagonal whispering gallery microresonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(14), 141116 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Czekalla, C. Sturm, R. Schmidt-Grund, B. Cao, M. Lorenz, and M. Grundmann, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in zinc oxide microwires,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(24), 241102 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

M. A. Gluba, N. H. Nickel, K. Hinrichs, and J. Rappich, “Improved passivation of the ZnO/Si interface by pulsed laser deposition,” J. Appl. Phys.113(4), 043502 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. S. Kim, Y.-J. Kim, G.-C. Yi, and H. Cheong, “Whispering-gallery-modelike resonance of luminescence from a single hexagonal ZnO microdisk,” J. Appl. Phys.106(9), 094310 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. F. Cordaro, Y. Shim, and J. E. May, “Bulk electron traps in zinc oxide varistors,” J. Appl. Phys.60(12), 4186 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ü. Özgür, Y. I. Alivov, C. Liu, A. Teke, M. A. Reshchikov, S. Doğan, V. Avrutin, S.-J. Cho, and H. Morkoç¸, “A comprehensive review of ZnO materials and devices,” J. Appl. Phys.98, 041301 (2005).

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

M. Mehta and C. Meier, “Controlled Etching Behavior of O-Polar and Zn-Polar ZnO Single Crystals,” J. Electrochem. Soc.158(2), H119 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

V. V. Ursaki, A. Burlacu, E. V. Rusu, V. Postolake, and I. M. Tiginyanu, “Whispering gallery modes and random lasing in ZnO microstructures,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt.11(7), 075001 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

M. Mehta, M. Ruth, K. A. Piegdon, D. Krix, H. Nienhaus, and C. Meier, “Inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching of bulk ZnO single crystal and molecular beam epitaxy grown ZnO films,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B27(5), 2097 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (5)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

M. Ruth and C. Meier, “Scaling coefficient for three-dimensional grain coalescence of ZnO on Si(111),” Phys. Rev. B86(22), 224108 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Kohan, G. Ceder, D. Morgan, and C. G. Van de Walle, “First-principles study of native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B61(22), 15019–15027 (2000).
[CrossRef]

A. Janotti and C. G. Van de Walle, “Native point defects in ZnO,” Phys. Rev. B76(16), 165202 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

R. Ramprasad, H. Zhu, P. Rinke, and M. Scheffler, “New Perspective on Formation Energies and Energy Levels of Point Defects in Nonmetals,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(6), 066404 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

F. H. Leiter, H. R. Alves, A. Hofstaetter, D. M. Hofmann, and B. K. Meyer, “The oxygen vacancy as the origin of a green emission in undoped ZnO,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res.226(1), R4–R5 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. Armani, R. P. Kulkarni, S. E. Fraser, R. C. Flagan, and K. J. Vahala, “Label-Free, Single-Molecule Detection with Optical Microcavities,” Science317(5839), 783–787 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (1)

J. J. Zhu, B. X. Lin, X. K. Sun, R. Yao, C. S. Shi, and Z. X. Fu, “Heteroepitaxy of ZnO film on Si(111) substrate using a 3C-SiC buffer layer,” Thin Solid Films478(1-2), 218–222 (2005).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 10 × 10µm2 AFM measurement, (b) cross-section SEM micrograph and (c) XRD ω/2θ scan of a 60 nm LT-grown ZnO layer on thermal SiO2 on Si(111).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM micrographs (a) of a 4 μm SiO2 microdisk after the LT-ZnO overgrowth and (b) of an overgrown microdisk additionally capped with 50 nm SiO2. The measurements were performed at a viewing angle of 77°.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

PL spectra and illustrations of a 4 μm micro disk before (lower part, blue) and after the capping with 30 nm SiO2 by PECVD (upper part, red).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

High resolution PL spectra of a capped 4 µm MD. Different WGM types are distinguished by color and additional markers. The lower part shows the strong dispersion in the energy dependent mode spacing of the four different mode types.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Size dependence of the mode spacing from ZnO/SiO2 MDs with diameters from 4.0 µm to 5.0 µm at different emission energies. (b) High-resolution µPL spectrum and Lorentzian fit of a WGM with a quality factor of Q = 3530.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

FDTD-simulations of microdisks with d = 5 µm. (Upper part) Uncapped device consisting of 90 nm SiO2 and 50 nm LT-ZnO. (Lower part) Device after capping with 50 nm SiO2

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