Abstract

Size-controllable p-GaN hexagonal nanopyramids (HnPs)-photonic crystal (PhC) structures were selectively grown on flat p-GaN layer for the elimination of total internal reflection of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The LEDs with HnPs-PhC of 46.3% bottom fill factor (PhC lattice constant is 730 nm) showed an improved light output power by 99.9% at forward current of 350 mA compared to the reference LEDs with flat p-GaN layer. We confirmed the effect of HnPs-PhC with different bottom fill factors and the effect of nanopyramid-shaped and nanocolumn-shaped PhC on the light-extraction of LEDs was also investigated by using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, B.-H.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.-J.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forsberg, U.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, P. O.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janzén, E.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, A.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, H.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Q. F.

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lan, D.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, J. M.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. X.

Lin, C.-F.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lundskog, A.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Memis, O. G.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roh, Y.-G.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, B.-C.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suto, T.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. B.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F. W.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q. F.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.-J.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, F. T.

Zeng, Y. P.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.-H.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhmakin, A. I.

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of process for growth of GaN HnPs on p-GaN layer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Bird view SEM images of (a) nano holes array in photoresist. The inset of (a) is the cross-section view of nano holes. (b) and (c) are HnPs GaN. The insets of (b) and (c) are the truncated pyramids GaN.(d) Tilted high resolution images of the HnPs GaN.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The height of the HnPs/truncated HnPs as a function of growth time.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) LOP-I-V curves of the LEDs. (b) Far field radiation patterns of the LEDs.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Schematic of the 3D FDTD simulation domain for the HnPs-PhC LED. (b) Calculated LEE enhancement factor of the HnPs-PhC and the HnCs-PhC LED with different f. (c) Radiation profiles of the horizontal dipole source (dx) and (dy) in the R-LED and HnPs-PhC LED with f = 50%, respectively.

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