Abstract

Size-controllable p-GaN hexagonal nanopyramids (HnPs)-photonic crystal (PhC) structures were selectively grown on flat p-GaN layer for the elimination of total internal reflection of light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The LEDs with HnPs-PhC of 46.3% bottom fill factor (PhC lattice constant is 730 nm) showed an improved light output power by 99.9% at forward current of 350 mA compared to the reference LEDs with flat p-GaN layer. We confirmed the effect of HnPs-PhC with different bottom fill factors and the effect of nanopyramid-shaped and nanocolumn-shaped PhC on the light-extraction of LEDs was also investigated by using three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulations.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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  1. J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  2. A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  3. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  13. D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  15. E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  16. H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  18. A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (1)

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (3)

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Asano, T.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Benisty, H.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chang, C.-C.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chhajed, S.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Chin, B.-H.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cho, C.-O.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cho, J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Choi, W. J.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Crawford, M. H.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dai, J.-J.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

David, A.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

DenBaars, S. P.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Du, C. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Epler, J. E.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Fleury, B.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Forsberg, U.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, T.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fujita, M.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Gao, H. Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gardner, N. F.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Holtz, P. O.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hu, E. L.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Im, J. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Imada, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Iza, M.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Janzén, E.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Jiang, H. X.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kato, M.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Katsnelson, A.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, H.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J. K.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. H.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kitagawa, H.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kong, Q. F.

Krames, M. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lan, D.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Li, J.

Li, J. M.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Liao, Y. X.

Lin, C.-F.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lundskog, A.

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Matioli, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGroddy, K.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Megens, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Memis, O. G.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meyaard, D.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mohseni, H.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mont, F. W.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, S.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Noemaun, A. N.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Oder, T. N.

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ohuchi, Y.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Okagawa, H.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Park, Q.-H.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Park, Y. S.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pfaff, N.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Poxson, D. J.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rangel, E.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Roh, Y.-G.

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, E. F.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schubert, M. F.

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sharma, R.

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Shieh, B.-C.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Sigalas, M. M.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, J. A.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sone, C.

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Speck, J.

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Suto, T.

H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tadatomo, K.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Taguchi, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsunekawa, T.

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. H.

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J. X.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wei, T. B.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weisbuch, C.

A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wendt, J. R.

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wierer, J. J.

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wu, K.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wu, W.

W. Wu, A. Katsnelson, O. G. Memis, and H. Mohseni, “A deep sub-wavelength process for the formation of highly uniform arrays of nanoholes and nanopillars,” Nanotechnology18(48), 485302 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yan, F. W.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, Q. F.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, Z.-J.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yi, F. T.

Zeng, Y. P.

T. B. Wei, K. Wu, D. Lan, Q. F. Yan, Y. Chen, C. X. Du, J. X. Wang, Y. P. Zeng, and J. M. Li, “Selectively grown photonic crystal structures for high efficiency InGaN emitting diodes using nanospherical-lens lithography,” Appl. Phys. Lett.101(21), 211111 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. B. Wei, Q. F. Kong, J. X. Wang, J. Li, Y. P. Zeng, G. H. Wang, J. M. Li, Y. X. Liao, and F. T. Yi, “Improving light extraction of InGaN-based light emitting diodes with a roughened p-GaN surface using CsCl nano-islands,” Opt. Express19(2), 1065–1071 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J.-H.

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhmakin, A. I.

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

J. K. Kim, S. Chhajed, M. F. Schubert, E. F. Schubert, A. J. Fischer, M. H. Crawford, J. Cho, H. Kim, and C. Sone, “Light-extraction enhancement of GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index indium tin oxide anti-reflection contact,” Adv. Mater.20(4), 801–804 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

J. K. Kim, A. N. Noemaun, F. W. Mont, D. Meyaard, E. F. Schubert, D. J. Poxson, H. Kim, C. Sone, and Y. Park, “Elimination of total internal reflection in GaInN light-emitting diodes by graded-refractive-index micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(22), 221111 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Oder, K. H. Kim, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “III-nitride blue and ultraviolet photonic crystal light emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(4), 466–468 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, J. E. Epler, N. F. Gardner, M. G. Craford, J. R. Wendt, J. A. Simmons, and M. M. Sigalas, “InGaN/GaN quantum-well heterostructure light-emitting diodes employing photonic crystal structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.84(19), 3885–3887 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D.-H. Kim, C.-O. Cho, Y.-G. Roh, H. Jeon, Y. S. Park, J. Cho, J. S. Im, C. Sone, Y. Park, W. J. Choi, and Q.-H. Park, “Enhanced light extraction from GaN-based light-emitting diodes with holographically generated two-dimensional photonic crystal patterns,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87(20), 203508 (2005).
[CrossRef]

A. David, T. Fujii, R. Sharma, K. McGroddy, S. Nakamura, S. P. DenBaars, E. L. Hu, C. Weisbuch, and H. Benisty, “Photonic-crystal GaN light-emitting diodes with tailored guided modes distribution,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(6), 061124 (2006).
[CrossRef]

E. Matioli, E. Rangel, M. Iza, B. Fleury, N. Pfaff, J. Speck, E. Hu, and C. Weisbuch, “High extraction efficiency light-emitting diodes based on embedded air-gap photonic-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(3), 031108 (2010).
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H. Kitagawa, M. Fujita, T. Suto, T. Asano, and S. Noda, “Green GaInN photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with small surface recombination effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(18), 181104 (2011).
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Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

A. Lundskog, U. Forsberg, P. O. Holtz, and E. Janzén, “Morphology control of hot-wall MOCVD selective area grown hexagonal GaN pyramids,” Cryst. Growth Des.12(11), 5491–5496 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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H. Y. Gao, F. W. Yan, Y. Zhang, J. M. Li, Y. P. Zeng, and G. H. Wang, “Enhancement of the light output power of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes grown on pyramidal patterned sapphire substrates in the micro- and nanoscale,” J. Appl. Phys.103(1), 014314 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

C.-F. Lin, Z.-J. Yang, B.-H. Chin, J.-H. Zheng, J.-J. Dai, B.-C. Shieh, and C.-C. Chang, “Enhanced light output power in InGaN light-emitting diodes by fabricating inclined undercut structure,” J. Electrochem. Soc.153(12), G1020–G1024 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Tadatomo, H. Okagawa, Y. Ohuchi, T. Tsunekawa, Y. Imada, M. Kato, and T. Taguchi, “High output power InGaN ultraviolet light-emitting diodes fabricated on patterned substrates using metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 2, No. 6B), L583–L585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

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Nat. Photonics (1)

J. J. Wierer, A. David, and M. M. Megens, “III-nitride photonic-crystal light-emitting diodes with high extraction efficiency,” Nat. Photonics3(3), 163–169 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. I. Zhmakin, “Enhancement of light extraction from light emitting diodes,” Phys. Rep.498(4-5), 189–241 (2011).
[CrossRef]

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A. David, H. Benisty, and C. Weisbuch, “Photonic crystal light-emitting sources,” Rep. Prog. Phys.75(12), 126501 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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