Abstract

A versatile solid Poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA) composite containing porphyrin-covalently functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs-TPP) was prepared through free radical polymerization without additional dispersion stabilizer. Using nanosecond, femtosecond pulse Z-scan and degenerate femtosecond pump-probe techniques, we studied the optical limiting effect, ultrafast saturable absorption and transient differential transmission of the composite. Results show that the solid composite exhibits weaker optical limiting effects than that of the suspension at 532 nm under nanosecond pulse, due to the absence of nonlinear scattering mechanism. The composite also shows ultrafast saturable absorption with a relaxation time about 190 fs at 800 nm under femtosecond pulse due to band-filling effect, comparably to the suspension. The versatile solid composite can be the candidate for uses in applications of ultrafast optical switching and mode-locking element or optical limiter for nanosecond pulse.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).
  5. J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
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  6. Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
    [CrossRef]
  7. H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  8. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  9. N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  10. A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “Passive mode-locked lasing by injecting a carbon nanotube-solution in the core of an optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(11), 11008–11014 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
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  15. A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  16. J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of Carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  21. C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  25. C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
    [CrossRef]

2013 (3)

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012 (1)

L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, K. Zhou, I. Bennion, and S. Yamashita, “Passive mode-locked lasing by injecting a carbon nanotube-solution in the core of an optical fiber,” Opt. Express18(11), 11008–11014 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Martinez, S. Uchida, Y. W. Song, T. Ishigure, and S. Yamashita, “Fabrication of Carbon nanotube poly-methyl-methacrylate composites for nonlinear photonic devices,” Opt. Express16(15), 11337–11343 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

X. Sun, Y. N. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Y. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Investigation of an optical limiting mechanism in multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Opt.39(12), 1998–2001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

1999 (1)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Achiba, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ahn, Y. H.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Andrieux, M.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Anglaret, E.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bacou, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Bai, J. R.

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bandyopadhyay, R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Bennion, I.

Bernier, P.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Blau, W. J.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brunet, M.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Carroll, D. L.

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chen, X. D.

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. S.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Cho, W. B.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, F.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Du, Y. H.

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Elim, H. I.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Endo, M.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fan, Y. X.

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Feng, M.

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Foo, Y. L.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Govindaraj, A.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Goze, C.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Griebner, U.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gu, B.

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Guha, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, Z.

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

Hagen, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, T.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

He, N.

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hor, T. S. A.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Huan, C. H. A.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Ishigure, T.

Itoga, E.

Ji, W.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, Y. N. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Y. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Investigation of an optical limiting mechanism in multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Opt.39(12), 1998–2001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Journet, C.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kamaraju, N.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kataura, H.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kazaoui, S.

Kim, K.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kim, Y. A.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamurthy, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lafonta, F.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. Y.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Li, X. C.

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lim, H.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. H.

Lim, K. Y.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J. Y.

Liu, Y. J.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. B.

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

López-Sandoval, R.

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Lu, T. M.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Ma, G. H.

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Martinez, A.

Martínez-Gutiérrez, H.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mehendale, S. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Minami, N.

Minoshima, K.

Mishra, S. R.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Miyashita, K.

Muramatsu, H.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Namiki, S.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ortíz-López, J.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pedron, X.

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peréa-López, N.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Petrov, V.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rao, C. N. R.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Rawat, H. S.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Ren, D. M.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Reyes-Reyes, M.

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Riehl, D.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Rotermund, F.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rozhin, A. G.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Rustagi, K. C.

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sakakibara, Y.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Schibli, T. R.

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Z. X.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Song, Y. W.

Sood, A. K.

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

Sow, C. H.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Steinmeyer, G.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Sun, X.

Terrones, M.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Thong, J. T. L.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Tian, J. G.

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tokumoto, M.

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

T. R. Schibli, K. Minoshima, H. Kataura, E. Itoga, N. Minami, S. Kazaoui, K. Miyashita, M. Tokumoto, and Y. Sakakibara, “Ultrashort pulse-generation by saturable absorber mirrors based on polymer-embedded carbon nanotubes,” Opt. Express13(20), 8025–8031 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Torres, C.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Trejo-Valdez, M.

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uchida, S.

Van Stryland, E. W.

X. Sun, Y. N. Xiong, P. Chen, J. Y. Lin, W. Ji, J. H. Lim, S. S. Yang, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Investigation of an optical limiting mechanism in multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Opt.39(12), 1998–2001 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Vivien, L.

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. T.

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, L.

L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Webster, S.

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wee, A. T. S.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Xiong, Y. N.

Xu, G. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, S.

Yang, S. S.

Yim, J. H.

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ying, C. F.

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yu, R. Q.

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Yu, T.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yu Zheng, J.

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhan, H. B.

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. C.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. L.

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, Y. P.

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, C.

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, J. Y.

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, K.

Zhu, J. H.

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Y. W.

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (3)

S. Webster, M. Reyes-Reyes, X. Pedron, R. López-Sandoval, M. Terrones, and D. L. Carroll, “Enhanced nonlinear transmittance by complementary nonlinear mechanisms: A reverse-saturable absorbing dye blended with nonlinear-scattering carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.17(10), 1239–1243 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, J. G. Tian, Z. Guo, D. M. Ren, F. Du, J. Yu Zheng, and Y. S. Chen, “Enhanced optical limiting effects in porphyrin-covalently functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes,” Adv. Mater.20(3), 511–515 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. W. Zhu, H. I. Elim, Y. L. Foo, T. Yu, Y. J. Liu, W. Ji, J. Y. Lee, Z. X. Shen, A. T. S. Wee, J. T. L. Thong, and C. H. Sow, “Multiwalled carbon nanotubes beaded with ZnO nanoparticles for ultrafast nonlinear optical switching,” Adv. Mater.18(5), 587–592 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

Y. C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. P. Zhao, T. M. Lu, G. C. Wang, and X. C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.81(6), 975–977 (2002).
[CrossRef]

H. I. Elim, W. Ji, G. H. Ma, K. Y. Lim, C. H. Sow, and C. H. A. Huan, “Ultrafast absorptive and refractive nonlinearities in multiwalled carbon nanotube films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(10), 1799–1801 (2004).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, Y. A. Kim, T. Hayashi, H. Muramatsu, M. Endo, and A. K. Sood, “Double walled carbon nanotubes as ultrafast optical switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(8), 081106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Kamaraju, S. Kumar, A. K. Sood, S. Guha, S. Krishnamurthy, and C. N. R. Rao, “Large nonlinear absorption and refraction coefficients of carbon nanotubes estimated from femtosecond z-scan measurements,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(25), 251103 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. G. Rozhin, Y. Sakakibara, S. Namiki, M. Tokumoto, H. Kataura, and Y. Achiba, “Sub-200-fs pulsed erbium-doped fiber laser using a carbon nanotube-polyvinylalcohol mode locker,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(5), 051118 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Yim, W. B. Cho, S. Lee, Y. H. Ahn, K. Kim, H. Lim, G. Steinmeyer, V. Petrov, U. Griebner, and F. Rotermund, “Fabrication and characterization of ultrafast carbon nanotube saturable absorbers for solid-state laser mode locking near 1 μm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93(16), 161106 (2008).
[CrossRef]

X. Sun, R. Q. Yu, G. Q. Xu, T. S. A. Hor, and W. Ji, “Broadband optical limiting with multiwalled carbon nanotubes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.73(25), 3632–3634 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Carbon (2)

C. Zheng, M. Feng, Y. H. Du, and H. B. Zhan, “Synthesis and third-order nonlinear optical properties of a multiwalled carbon nanotube-organically modified silicate nanohybrid gel glass,” Carbon47(12), 2889–2897 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. B. Liu, Z. Guo, X. L. Zhang, J. Y. Zheng, and J. G. Tian, “Increased optical nonlinearities of multi-walled carbon nanotubes covalently functionalized with porphyrin,” Carbon51, 419–426 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. Vivien, E. Anglaret, D. Riehl, F. Bacou, C. Journet, C. Goze, M. Andrieux, M. Brunet, F. Lafonta, P. Bernier, and F. Hache, “Single-wall carbon nanotubes for optical limiting,” Chem. Phys. Lett.307(5–6), 317–319 (1999).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Mishra, H. S. Rawat, S. C. Mehendale, K. C. Rustagi, A. K. Sood, R. Bandyopadhyay, A. Govindaraj, and C. N. R. Rao, “Optical limiting in single-walled carbon nanotube suspensions,” Chem. Phys. Lett.317(3–5), 510–514 (2000).

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagen, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Wang, Y. Chen, and W. J. Blau, “Carbon nanotubes and nanotube composites for nonlinear optical devices,” J. Mater. Chem.19(40), 7425–7443 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. (1)

X. L. Zhang, X. D. Chen, X. C. Li, C. F. Ying, Z. B. Liu, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced reverse saturable absorption and optical limiting properties in a protonated water-soluble porphyrin,” J. Opt.15(5), 055206 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C (1)

N. He, Y. Chen, J. R. Bai, J. Wang, W. J. Blau, and J. H. Zhu, “Preparation and optical limiting properties of multiwalled carbon nanotubes with π-conjugated metal-free phthalocyanine moieties,” J. Phys. Chem. C113(30), 13029–13035 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nanotechnology (1)

C. Torres-Torres, N. Peréa-López, H. Martínez-Gutiérrez, M. Trejo-Valdez, J. Ortíz-López, and M. Terrones, “Optoelectronic modulation by multi-wall carbon nanotubes,” Nanotechnology24(4), 045201 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Laser Technol. (1)

J. Wang, Y. X. Fan, J. Chen, B. Gu, and H. T. Wang, “Nonlinear properties of polyurethane-urea/multi-wall carbon nanotube composite films,” Opt. Laser Technol.42(6), 956–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Polym-Plast Technol. (1)

L. Zhang and L. Wang, “A novel PMMA composite containing multi-walled carbon nanotubes/copper phthalocyanine hybrid and its optical limiting effect,” Polym-Plast Technol.51(1), 6–11 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Absorption and fluorescence spectrum of TPP-NH2/PMMA, MWNTs-TPP/PMMA composites and MWNTs in DMF. Inset show the photos of MWNTs-TPP/PMMA.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Open-aperture Z-scan curves of TPP-NH2, MWNTs-TPP in DMF and their solid PMMA composites under 5 ns-pulse at 532 nm, solid lines are theoretical fits. (b) Optical limiting properties of the samples under 5 ns-pulse at 532 nm, solid lines are visual guideline.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Open-aperture Z-scan curves of TPP-NH2, MWNTs-TPP in DMF and their PMMA composites under 130 fs-pulse at 800 nm, solid lines are theoretical fits. (b) Normalized Absorbance of MWNTs-TPP in DMF and PMMA composites as functions of input intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Transient differential transmission as a function of delay time of MWNTs-TPP in DMF and PMMA composites, solid lines are theoretical fits.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Linear and Nonlinear Optical Parameters of the Samples under Nanosecond and Femtosecond Pulses

Tables Icon

Table 2 Linear and Nonlinear Optical Parameters of Porphyrin, MWNTs and Their Derivates in Other Works

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