Abstract

Transparent chalcogenide glass ceramics were prepared by thermally treating gold-doped germanium–gallium–sulfur glass. The gold, as nucleating agents, modified the crystallization process of the glass, resulting in the formation of nanocrystals belonging to a single α-Ga2S3 phase. The crystalline grains increased in number with the treatment duration while their size remained constant, leading to a high infrared transmittance of the glass ceramics. Z-scan measurements revealed the performance improvement of the α-Ga2S3 nanocrystals to third-order optical nonlinearities.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

T. Remyamol, H. John, and P. Gopinath, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline,” Carbon59, 308–314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (4)

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Ren, B. Li, G. Yang, W. Xu, Z. Zhang, M. Secu, V. Bercu, H. Zeng, and G. Chen, “Broadband near-infrared emission of chromium-doped sulfide glass-ceramics containing Ga2S3 nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett.37(24), 5043–5045 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Prabhakaran, W. J. Kim, K.-S. Lee, and P. N. Prasad, “Quantum dots (QDs) for photonic applications,” Opt. Mater. Express2(5), 578–593 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-2-5-578 .
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

S. P. Singh and B. Karmakar, “Single-step synthesis and surface plasmons of bismuth-coated spherical to hexagonal silver nanoparticles in dichroic Ag: bismuth glass nanocomposites,” Plasmonics6(3), 457–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Klopfer and R. K. Jain, “Plasmonic quantum dots for nonlinear optical applications [Invited],” Opt. Mater. Express1(7), 1353–1366 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/ome/abstract.cfm?uri=ome-1-7-1353 .
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

H. Guo, C. Hou, F. Gao, A. Lin, P. Wang, Z. Zhou, M. Lu, W. Wei, and B. Peng, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of GeS2-Sb2S3-CdS chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Express18(22), 23275–23284 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-18-22-23275 .
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamelin, “Optical scattering in glass ceramics,” Curr. Appl. Phys.6(3), 355–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids338–340, 534–538 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2000 (1)

1998 (1)

1990 (1)

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

Adam, J. L.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aga, R.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aggarwal, I. D.

Allix, M.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Araujo, C. B.

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Araújo, C. B.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bercu, V.

Bohnke, O.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bureau, B.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Burger, A.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Calvez, L.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, F.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

Chen, Z.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Cheong, S. W.

Dai, S.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

De Sario, M.

Delaizir, G.

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duclère, J. R.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Duverger, C.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Edgar, A.

A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamelin, “Optical scattering in glass ceramics,” Curr. Appl. Phys.6(3), 355–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Eggleton, B. J.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Gao, F.

Gomes, A. S. L.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gómez, L. A.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q. H.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Gopinath, P.

T. Remyamol, H. John, and P. Gopinath, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline,” Carbon59, 308–314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Guignard, M.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Guo, H.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
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Hamelin, J.

A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamelin, “Optical scattering in glass ceramics,” Curr. Appl. Phys.6(3), 355–358 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Hao, Z.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hassan, S. U.

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hayakawa, T.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Heo, J.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hora, W. G.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hou, C.

Hwang, H. Y.

Jain, R. K.

Jha, A.

John, H.

T. Remyamol, H. John, and P. Gopinath, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline,” Carbon59, 308–314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kar, A. K.

Karmakar, B.

S. P. Singh and B. Karmakar, “Single-step synthesis and surface plasmons of bismuth-coated spherical to hexagonal silver nanoparticles in dichroic Ag: bismuth glass nanocomposites,” Plasmonics6(3), 457–467 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kassab, L. R. P.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Katsufuji, T.

Kim, W. J.

Klopfer, M.

Koduka, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kudlinski, A.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Le Floch, M.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
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Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
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Lenz, G.

Li, B.

Liang, X.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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Lin, C.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Liu, C.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. L.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Lucas, J.

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
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Lucas, P.

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Ma, H.

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mao, S.

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marchese, D.

Martinelli, G.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Messaddeq, Y.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mirgorodsky, A. P.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Moréac, A.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mu, R.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
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M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nogami, M.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peng, B.

Poulain, M.

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Prabhakaran, P.

Prasad, P. N.

Quiquempois, Y.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rai, V. K.

V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Remyamol, T.

T. Remyamol, H. John, and P. Gopinath, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline,” Carbon59, 308–314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ren, J.

Richardson, K.

B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Rozé, M.

Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, L. Calvez, M. Le Floch, M. Rozé, C. Lin, X. H. Zhang, M. Allix, G. Matzen, and Y. Messaddeq, “Structural investigations of glass ceramics in the Ga2S3-GeS2-CsCl System,” J. Phys. Chem. B113(44), 14574–14580 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sanghera, J. S.

Santos, F. E. P.

L. A. Gómez, F. E. P. Santos, A. S. L. Gomes, C. B. Araújo, L. R. P. Kassab, and W. G. Hora, “Near-infrared third-order nonlinearity of PbO-GeO2 films containing Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(14), 141916 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Secu, M.

Seznec, V.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shen, X.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Z.

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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S. P. Singh and B. Karmakar, “Single-step synthesis and surface plasmons of bismuth-coated spherical to hexagonal silver nanoparticles in dichroic Ag: bismuth glass nanocomposites,” Plasmonics6(3), 457–467 (2011).
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Smektala, F.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
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Soileau, M. J.

Song, B.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
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K. Tanaka, “Two-photon optical absorption in amorphous materials,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids338–340, 534–538 (2004).
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C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thomas, P.

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ueda, A.

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

Van Stryland,, E. W.

M. Sheik-Bahae, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Dispersion and band-gap scaling of the electronic Kerr effect in solids associated with two-photon absorption,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(1), 96–99 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vanherzeele, H.

Wang, P.

Wang, X. F.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z. W.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Wei, W.

Williams, G. V. M.

A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamelin, “Optical scattering in glass ceramics,” Curr. Appl. Phys.6(3), 355–358 (2006).
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Woodall, M. A.

Xiang, W.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W.

Xu, Y.

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G.

Yang, X.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Ying, L.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Yu, J. G.

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Zeghlache, H.

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zeng, H.

Zhai, Y.

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, L.

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. H.

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V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

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Zhao, H.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, X.

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
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[CrossRef]

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W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, Y.

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Zimmermann, J.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

M. Guignard, V. Nazabal, F. Smektala, J. L. Adam, O. Bohnke, C. Duverger, A. Moréac, H. Zeghlache, A. Kudlinski, G. Martinelli, and Y. Quiquempois, “Chalcogenide glasses based on germanium disulfide for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Funct. Mater.17(16), 3284–3294 (2007).
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Appl. Phys. A: Mater. (2)

C. Lin, L. Calvez, M. Rozé, H. Tao, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Crystallization behavior of 80GeS220Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.97(3), 713–720 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Lin, L. Calvez, L. Ying, F. Chen, B. Song, X. Shen, S. Dai, and X. Zhang, “External influence on third-order optical nonlinearity of transparent chalcogenide glass-ceramics,” Appl. Phys. A: Mater.104(2), 615–620 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. Lin, S. Dai, C. Liu, B. Song, Y. Xu, F. Chen, and J. Heo, “Mechanism of the enhancement of mid-infrared emission from GeS2-Ga2S3 chalcogenide glass-ceramics doped with Tm3+,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(23), 231910 (2012).
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T. Remyamol, H. John, and P. Gopinath, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of reduced graphene oxide covalently functionalized with polyaniline,” Carbon59, 308–314 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. F. Wang, Z. W. Wang, J. G. Yu, C. L. Liu, X. J. Zhao, and Q. H. Gong, “Large and ultrafast third-order optical nonlinearity of GeS2-Ga2S3-CdS chalcogenide glass,” Chem. Phys. Lett.399(1-3), 230–233 (2004).
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Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. Edgar, G. V. M. Williams, and J. Hamelin, “Optical scattering in glass ceramics,” Curr. Appl. Phys.6(3), 355–358 (2006).
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J. Alloy. Comp. (1)

W. Xiang, H. Zhao, J. Zhong, H. Luo, X. Zhao, Z. Chen, X. Liang, and X. Yang, “Synthesis and third-order optical nonlinearities of In2S3 quantum dots glass,” J. Alloy. Comp.553, 135–141 (2013).
[CrossRef]

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G. Delaizir, P. Lucas, X. Zhang, H. Ma, B. Bureau, and J. Lucas, “Infrared glass–ceramics with fine porous surfaces for optical sensor applications,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc.90(7), 2073–2077 (2007).
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V. K. Rai, C. B. Araujo, Y. Ledemi, B. Bureau, M. Poulain, X. H. Zhang, and Y. Messaddeq, “Frequency upconversion in a Pr3+ doped chalcogenide glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Appl. Phys.103(10), 103526 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (2)

Z. Pan, A. Ueda, R. Aga, A. Burger, R. Mu, and S. H. Morgan, “Spectroscopic studies of Er3+ doped Ge-Ga-S glass containing silver nanoparticles,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids356(23-24), 1097–1101 (2010).
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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Solid State Chem. (1)

C. Lin, L. Calvez, H. Tao, M. Allix, A. Moréac, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Evidence of network demixing in GeS2–Ga2S3 chalcogenide glasses: A phase transformation study,” J. Solid State Chem.184(3), 584–588 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mater. Lett. (1)

L. Zhang, Z. Shi, L. Zhang, Y. Zhou, and S. U. Hassan, “Fabrication and optical nonlinearities of ultrathin composite films incorporating a Keplerate type polyoxometalate,” Mater. Lett.86, 62–64 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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B. J. Eggleton, B. Luther-Davies, and K. Richardson, “Chalcogenide photonics,” Nat. Photonics5, 141–148 (2011).

Opt. Express (1)

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Opt. Mater. Express (2)

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

C. Lin, L. Calvez, B. Bureau, H. Tao, M. Allix, Z. Hao, V. Seznec, X. Zhang, and X. Zhao, “Second-order optical nonlinearity and ionic conductivity of nanocrystalline GeS2-Ga2S3-LiI glass-ceramics with improved thermo-mechanical properties,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.12(15), 3780–3787 (2010).
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Scr. Mater. (1)

T. Hayakawa, M. Koduka, M. Nogami, J. R. Duclère, A. P. Mirgorodsky, and P. Thomas, “Metal oxide doping effects on Raman spectra and third-order nonlinear susceptibilities of thallium-tellurite glasses,” Scr. Mater.62(10), 806–809 (2010).
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Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. (1)

H. Guo, H. Tao, Y. Zhai, S. Mao, and X. Zhao, “Raman spectroscopic analysis of GeS2-Ga2S3-PbI2 chalcohalide glasses,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc.67(5), 1351–1356 (2007).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) XRD patterns of the GGS glass and the glasses heat treated for 64 hours (including surface polished and unpolished); (b) XRD patterns of the GGS-Au series.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Vis-NIR absorption spectra of the GGS-Au series. Insets are their photograph and FTIR spectra.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SEM images of the glass and glass ceramic samples: (a) the GGS glass; (b) the treated GGS glass; (c) GGS-Au-9; (d) GGS-Au-18; (e) GGS-Au-36; (f) GGS-Au-72.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of the GGS-GCs. The inset is the enlarged spectra at a Raman shift range of 230 cm−1 to 290 cm−1.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic of the localized GGS-Au glass matrix that involved in crystallization process.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Z-scan curves of the GGS-Au series: (a) closed aperture Z-scans; (b) open aperture Z-scans.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Vickers-hardness (HV), optical band gap (Eopg) and TON parameters of the GGS-Au series and some chalcogenide glasses in literature

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