Abstract

We develop a refraction model to analyze the electro-optic effects of an in-plane-switching blue phase liquid crystal (IPS-BPLC) cell. Good agreement with experiment is obtained. Based on this model, we optimize the parameters affecting the electro-optics of IPS-BPLC, such as electrode dimension, saturated induced birefringence, saturation electric field, and cell gap. An IPS-BPLC with low operation voltage (<10Vrms) and high transmittance (~80%) with single gamma curve can be achieved by optimizing the BPLC material and device structure.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  3. Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  7. Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  8. J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).
  10. D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  11. Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  12. Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  13. H. Haseba and S. Kobayashi, “A full-color sequential LCD using modulated backlight,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 16, 81–83 (1985).
  14. J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  16. Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  17. Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  18. Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  21. L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  23. L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  25. M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43, 25–28 (2012).
  26. Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, K. Sago, A. Takata, and H. Tobata, “Low-voltage polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44, 254–257 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  27. M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  28. L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  31. J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. Y. Tsai, T. J. Tseng, L. Y. Wang, F. C. Yu, Y. F. Lan, P. J. Huang, S. Y. Lin, K. M. Chen, B. S. Tseng, C. W. Kuo, C. H. Lin, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays applying novel groove cell structure,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44, 182–183 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  34. P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  35. M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  36. Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (4)

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (7)

M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (8)

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Chang, Y. P.

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, K. M.

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, H. C.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, K. L.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Choi, S. W.

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Dabrowski, R.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gauza, S.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ge, Z.

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gerber, P. R.

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Haseba, Y.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Higuchi, H.

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hisakado, Y.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hong, S. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Hsieh, P. J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, H. K.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Huang, T. H.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ishinabe, T.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Jeong, H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M.

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jiao, M. Z.

M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kajiyama, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kang, B. G.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kikuchi, H.

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, M.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. K.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kim, M. S.

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lan, Y. F.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lee, H. J.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, W. Y.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liang, X.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lin, C. H.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H. C.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. C.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Y. H.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, C. Y.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Liu, S. H.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Lu, J. K.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Nagamura, T.

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Nayek, P.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Peng, F.

Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Piecek, W.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rao, L.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shin, S. T.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Shiu, J. W.

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sugiura, N.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sun, J.

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. C.

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, C. Y.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsou, Y. S.

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tu, C. D.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Wu, S. T.

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, M. Z. Jiao, and S. T. Wu, “Transflective display using a polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Express18(16), 16486–16491 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Xianyu, H.

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Xu, D.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, S.

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Yan, J.

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “High-efficiency and fast-response tunable phase grating using a blue phase liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett.36(8), 1404–1406 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, G. H.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yokota, M.

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, H.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, R.

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, X.

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

Y. Hisakado, H. Kikuchi, T. Nagamura, and T. Kajiyama, “Large electro‐optic Kerr effect in polymer‐stabilized liquid‐crystalline blue phases,” Adv. Mater.17(1), 96–98 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (11)

S. W. Choi, S. Yamamoto, Y. Haseba, H. Higuchi, and H. Kikuchi, “Optically isotropic-nanostructured liquid crystal composite with high Kerr constant,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(4), 043119 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. H. Lin, H. S. Chen, H. C. Lin, Y. S. Tsou, H. K. Hsu, and W. Y. Li, “Polarizer-free and fast response microlens arrays using polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(11), 113505 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, J. Yan, J. Sun, S. T. Wu, X. Liang, S. H. Liu, P. J. Hsieh, K. L. Cheng, and J. W. Shiu, “A microsecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.99(20), 201105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Liu, Y. F. Lan, H. Zhang, R. Zhu, D. Xu, C. Y. Tsai, J. K. Lu, N. Sugiura, Y. C. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Optical rotatory power of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(13), 131102 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, S. Gauza, M. Jiao, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Electro-optics of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.94(10), 101104 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, and S. T. Wu, “Vertical field switching for blue-phase liquid crystal devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(26), 261102 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A large Kerr constant polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(8), 081109 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, D. Xu, S. T. Wu, S. Yamamoto, and Y. Haseba, “A low voltage and submillisecond-response polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett.102(14), 141116 (2013).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. T. Wu, and S. H. Lee, “Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.95(23), 231101 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Z. Jiao, Y. Li, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage and high transmittance blue-phase liquid crystal displays with corrugated electrodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(1), 011102 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Yan, H. C. Cheng, S. Gauza, Y. Li, M. Jiao, L. Rao, and S. T. Wu, “Extended Kerr effect of polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(7), 071105 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol. (9)

K. M. Chen, J. Yan, S. T. Wu, Y. P. Chang, C. C. Tsai, and J. W. Shiu, “Electrode dimension effects on blue-phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.7(7), 362–364 (2011).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Low voltage blue-phase LCDs with double-penetrating fringe fields,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 287–289 (2010).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Chen, S. Gauza, H. Xianyu, and S. T. Wu, “Hysteresis effects in blue-phase liquid crystals,” J. Disp. Technol.6(8), 318–322 (2010).
[CrossRef]

H. C. Cheng, J. Yan, T. Ishinabe, N. Sugiura, C. Y. Liu, T. H. Huang, C. Y. Tsai, C. H. Lin, and S. T. Wu, “Blue-phase liquid crystal displays with vertical field switching,” J. Disp. Technol.8(2), 98–103 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Modeling of blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.5(7), 250–256 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. H. Lee, X. Zhu, and S. T. Wu, “Novel color-sequential transflective liquid crystal displays,” J. Disp. Technol.3(1), 2–8 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Gauza, X. Zhu, W. Piecek, R. Dabrowski, and S. T. Wu, “Fast switching liquid crystals for color-sequential LCDs,” J. Disp. Technol.3(3), 250–252 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. Xu, L. Rao, C. D. Tu, and S. T. Wu, “Nematic liquid crystal display with submillisecond grayscale response time,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 67–70 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Y. Chen, F. Peng, and S. T. Wu, “Submillisecond-response vertical-aligned liquid crystal for color sequential projection displays,” J. Disp. Technol.9(2), 78–81 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (1)

J. Yan, L. Rao, M. Jiao, Y. Li, H. C. Cheng, and S. T. Wu, “Polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystals for next-generation display and photonics applications,” J. Mater. Chem.21(22), 7870–7877 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (2)

M. Kim, M. S. Kim, B. G. Kang, M. K. Kim, S. Yoon, S. H. Lee, Z. Ge, L. Rao, S. Gauza, and S. T. Wu, “Wall-shaped electrodes for reducing the operation voltage of polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.42(23), 235502 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Yoon, G. H. Yang, P. Nayek, H. Jeong, S. H. Lee, S. H. Hong, H. J. Lee, and S. T. Shin, “Study on the light leakage mechanism of a blue phase liquid crystal cell with oblique interfaces,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys.45(10), 105304 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Soc. Inf. Disp. (1)

L. Rao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp.18(11), 954–959 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.) (2)

P. R. Gerber, “Electro-optical effects of a small-pitch blue-phase system,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)116(3-4), 197–206 (1985).
[CrossRef]

L. Rao, Z. Ge, S. Gauza, K. M. Chen, and S. T. Wu, “Emerging liquid crystal displays based on the Kerr effect,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (Phila. Pa.)527(1), 186–198 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater. (1)

H. Kikuchi, M. Yokota, Y. Hisakado, H. Yang, and T. Kajiyama, “Polymer-stabilized liquid crystal blue phases,” Nat. Mater.1(1), 64–68 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys. (1)

M. Z. Jiao, J. Yan, and S. T. Wu, “Dispersion relation on the Kerr constant of a polymer-stabilized optically isotropic liquid crystal,” Phys. Rev. E Stat. Nonlin. Soft Matter Phys.83(4), 041706 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

C. Y. Tsai, T. J. Tseng, L. Y. Wang, F. C. Yu, Y. F. Lan, P. J. Huang, S. Y. Lin, K. M. Chen, B. S. Tseng, C. W. Kuo, C. H. Lin, J. K. Lu, and N. Sugiura, “Polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystal displays applying novel groove cell structure,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44, 182–183 (2013).
[CrossRef]

M. Wittek, N. Tanaka, D. Wilkes, M. Bremer, D. Pauluth, J. Canisius, A. Yeh, R. Yan, K. Skjonnemand, and M. Klasen-Memmer, “New materials for polymer-stabilized blue phase,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 43, 25–28 (2012).

Y. Haseba, S. Yamamoto, K. Sago, A. Takata, and H. Tobata, “Low-voltage polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 44, 254–257 (2013).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Wu and D. K. Yang, Fundamentals of Liquid Crystal Devices (John Wiley & Sons, 2006).

H. Haseba and S. Kobayashi, “A full-color sequential LCD using modulated backlight,” SID Int. Symp. Digest Tech. Papers 16, 81–83 (1985).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Principle of refraction effect in IPS-BPLC.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Flowchart of the IPS-BPLC device modeling based on refraction effect.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Refraction at the boundary between the mth and (m + 1)th layers in an IPS-BPLC cell.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison between experimental VT curve and simulated results using Ge’s model [18] and the refraction model. BPLC cell: JC-BP06 in IPS-5/5 at 25°C and λ = 633 nm. The parameters used in the refraction model are Δns = 0.09 and Es = 2.2 V/μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Simulated transmittance profiles of JC-BP01 in (a, c) IPS-5/5 and (b, d) IPS-10/10 at λ = 633 nm and 25°C. Cell gap d = 7.5 μm. (a, b): Ge’s model, and (c, d): refraction model.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Simulated VT curves of IPS cells with (a) l/w = 1 and (b) l/w = 2 using JC-BP01 at 25°C and λ = 550 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Induced Δn profile of a 10-μm-thick IPS-5/5 cell at 31V and (b) simulated VT curves of IPS-5/5 with different cell gaps using JC-BP01 (25°C and λ = 550 nm).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Transmittance profile of IPS-5/5 with different cell gaps: (a) 5 μm, (b) 7 μm, (c) 8 μm and (d) 10 μm. BPLC: JC-BP01 at 25°C and λ = 550 nm.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Simulated VT curves of IPS-2/4 using BPLCs with (a) different Δns but same Es = 4.05 V/μm, and (b) different Es but same Δns = 0.154 at 25°C and λ = 550 nm. Red dashed lines: JC-BP01.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

(a) Cell structure and parameter definitions of protrusion IPS-BPLC, and simulated VT curves of the protrusion IPS-BPLC with different electrode dimensions employing (b) JC-BP01 and (c) JC-BP06 (25°C and λ = 550 nm).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

(a) Cell structure and parameter definitions of etched-IPS, and simulated VT curves of etched-IPS cells with different electrode dimensions: (b) l/w = 2 and (c) l/w = 3, 4 and 5 using JC-BP06 (25°C and λ = 550 nm).

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

(a) Simulated VT curves for RGB wavelengths. BPLC cell: etched IPS-2/4 with h = 2.5 μm and JC-BP06, and (b) Simulated VT curves for IPS-2/3.6 (R), −2/4 (G), −2/5.2 (B) with h = 2.5 μm and d = 7.5 μm.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison Between Refraction and Ge’s [18] Models for IPS-BPLC Cells with l/w = 1. BPLC: JC-BP01 at 25°C and λ = 550 nm

Tables Icon

Table 2 Comparison Between Refraction Model and Ge’s Model [18] for IPS-BPLC with l/w = 2, 3 and 4 Structures. BPLC: JC-BP01 at 25°C and λ = 550 nm

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn=Δ n s ( 1exp[ ( E E s ) 2 ] ),
n o = n i 1 3 Δn; n e = n i + 2 3 Δn.
θ inc = θ m + α m ,
θ trans = n o,m n o,m+1 sin( θ inc ).
φ TE,m = 2π λ n o,m t TE,m ,
θ m+1 = θ trans α m .
{ k C m ,m 2 n e,m 2 + k // C m ,m 2 n o,m 2 = k 0 2 k // C m ,m k C m ,m =tan( θ inc ) ,
k // C m ,m+1 = k // C m ,m .
{ k C m+1 ,m+1 = k C m ,m+1 sinβ+ k // C m ,m+1 cos β m k // C m+1 ,m+1 = k C m ,m+1 sinβ k // C m ,m+1 sin β m .
k C m+1 ,m+1 2 n e,m+1 2 + k // C m+1 ,m+1 2 n o,m+1 2 = k 0 2 .
φ TM,m = 2π λ n eff,m t TM,m ,
θ m+1 =90° tan 1 ( k C m ,m+1 k // C m ,m+1 ) α m .
Γ= m ϕ TM,m m ϕ TE,m ,
T= sin 2 (Γ/2).

Metrics