Abstract

We report a photonic frequency discriminator built on the vertically integrated As2S3-ring-on-Ti:LiNbO3 hybrid platform. The discriminator consists of a Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) formed by the optical path length difference (OPD) between polarization modes of Ti-diffused waveguide on LiNbO3 substrate and a vertically integrated As2S3 race-track ring resonator on top of the substrate. The figures of merit of the device, enhancement of the signal-to-3rd order intermodulation distortion (IMD3) power ratio and corresponding 3rd order intercept point (IP3) over a traditional MZI, are demonstrated through device characterization.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  18. W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
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2012 (5)

W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. B. Adams, and C. K. Madsen, “Device-Under-Test Jones Matrix Extraction Algorithm With Device TE/TM Reference Frame,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 Taper Couplers Using Supermode Theory,” Optics and Photonics Journal2, 344–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

2009 (2)

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (1)

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 109–111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2002 (1)

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, “Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(6), 787–793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

1964 (1)

1963 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.2(3), 47–49 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Adams, D. B.

J. Kim, D. B. Adams, and C. K. Madsen, “Device-Under-Test Jones Matrix Extraction Algorithm With Device TE/TM Reference Frame,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, D. B. Adams, W. C. Tan, W. T. Snider, and C. K. Madsen, “Vertically integrated As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1735–1737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alferness, R. C.

Bolle, C.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Buhl, L.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Buhl, L. L.

Cappuzzo, M. A.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. W.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, “Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(6), 787–793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. Y.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, G.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 109–111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. K.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Choa, F. S.

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Conrad, G. A.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, “Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(6), 787–793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Darcie, T. E.

DeSalvo, R.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Driessen, P. F.

Earnshaw, M. P.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eun, J. J.

Gomez, L. T.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.2(3), 47–49 (1963).
[CrossRef]

Hernday, P. R.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, “Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(6), 787–793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hoekman, M.

Kaminow, I. P.

Kang, J.

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 109–111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Keller, B.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Keller, R.

Khurgin, J.

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Khurgin, J. B.

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 109–111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Kim, J.

J. Kim, D. B. Adams, and C. K. Madsen, “Device-Under-Test Jones Matrix Extraction Algorithm With Device TE/TM Reference Frame,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Klemens, F.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Leinse, A.

Macik, D. D.

W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Madsen, C. K.

W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 Taper Couplers Using Supermode Theory,” Optics and Photonics Journal2, 344–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. B. Adams, and C. K. Madsen, “Device-Under-Test Jones Matrix Extraction Algorithm With Device TE/TM Reference Frame,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Modeling asymmetric resonances using an optical filter approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(20), 2951–2955 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, D. B. Adams, W. C. Tan, W. T. Snider, and C. K. Madsen, “Vertically integrated As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1735–1737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Marpaung, D.

Meredith, S.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Middleton, C.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pardo, F.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Peach, R.

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rasras, M. S.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Wyrwas, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, M. S. Rasras, K.-Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, R. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Zhang, L. Buhl, M. C. Wu, Y. K. Chen, and R. DeSalvo, “Linear phase-and-frequency-modulated photonic links using optical discriminators,” Opt. Express20(24), 26292–26298 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roeloffzen, C.

Snider, W. T.

W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, D. B. Adams, W. C. Tan, W. T. Snider, and C. K. Madsen, “Vertically integrated As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1735–1737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Solmaz, M. E.

Sorin, W. V.

W. V. Sorin, K. W. Chang, G. A. Conrad, and P. R. Hernday, “Frequecy-domain analysis of an optical FM discriminator,” J. Lightwave Technol.10(6), 787–793 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tan, W. C.

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, D. B. Adams, W. C. Tan, W. T. Snider, and C. K. Madsen, “Vertically integrated As2S3 ring resonator on LiNbO3,” Opt. Lett.34(11), 1735–1737 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tu, K. Y.

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tu, K.-Y.

Wu, M. C.

Wyrwas, J. M.

Xia, X.

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 Taper Couplers Using Supermode Theory,” Optics and Photonics Journal2, 344–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Xie, X. B.

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, J. Y.

Zhang, L.

Zhou, Y.

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 Taper Couplers Using Supermode Theory,” Optics and Photonics Journal2, 344–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Solmaz, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Modeling asymmetric resonances using an optical filter approach,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(20), 2951–2955 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. E. Harris, “Coversion of FM light to AM light using birefringent crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett.2(3), 47–49 (1963).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (6)

G. Chen, J. U. Kang, and J. B. Khurgin, “Frequency discriminator based on ring-assisted fiber Sagnac filter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.17(1), 109–111 (2005).
[CrossRef]

X. B. Xie, J. Khurgin, J. Kang, and F. S. Choa, “Ring-assisted frequency discriminator with improved linearity,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.14(8), 1136–1138 (2002).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Rasras, Y. K. Chen, K. Y. Tu, M. P. Earnshaw, F. Pardo, M. A. Cappuzzo, E. Y. Chen, L. T. Gomez, F. Klemens, B. Keller, C. Bolle, L. Buhl, J. M. Wyrwas, M. C. Wu, R. Peach, S. Meredith, C. Middleton, and R. DeSalvo, “Reconfigurable Linear Optical FM Discriminator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(20), 1856–1859 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhou, X. Xia, W. T. Snider, J. Kim, Q. Chen, W. C. Tan, and C. K. Madsen, “Two-Stage Taper Enhanced Ultra-High Q As2S3 Ring Resonator on LiNbO3,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(17), 1195–1197 (2011).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Snider, D. D. Macik, and C. K. Madsen, “Electro-Optically Tunable As2S3 Mach-Zehnder Interferometer on LiNbO3 substrate,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(16), 1415–1417 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Kim, D. B. Adams, and C. K. Madsen, “Device-Under-Test Jones Matrix Extraction Algorithm With Device TE/TM Reference Frame,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(1), 88–90 (2012).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (5)

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Optics and Photonics Journal (1)

X. Xia, Y. Zhou, and C. K. Madsen, “Analysis of As2S3-Ti: LiNbO3 Taper Couplers Using Supermode Theory,” Optics and Photonics Journal2, 344–351 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

C. K. Madsen and J. H. Zhao, Optical Filter Design and Analysis: A Signal Processing Approach, Wiley series in microwave and optical engineering (John Wiley, 1999).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the linear frequency discriminator and (b) intensity response for bar state of the discriminator with C = 0.87 and ϕ0 = π/2 versus frequency normalized to one FSR of the APF. The nonlinear relative phase between the two arms results in the linear intensity ramp.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic of the As2S3 ring-on-Ti:LiNbO3 frequency discriminator

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated intensity response of the discriminator versus frequency normalized to the FSR of the MZI: (a) The linear intensity ramp is formed at phase quadrature of the MZI. (b) RTL (γ = 1dB) creates intensity envelope associated with non-uniform ring response and, (c) Ring both with RTL(γ = 1dB) and pole-zero phase difference [17] (∠p-∠z = π/50) result in asymmetric complementary outputs.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Fabricated photonic frequency discriminator: (a) Ring resonator and (b) polarization coupler.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental setup: The Jones matrix measured with OVNA is a cascade of I/O fiber pigtails and DUT.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured intensity response of TM-to-TM and TM-to-TE transfer function of sample #1.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Complex constant ratio (a) versus optical bias frequency with f1 = 1 GHz modulation frequency and (b) versus modulation frequency biased at λc = 1560.117 nm: The discriminator can be biased at λ = 1560.117 nm with balanced detection to maximize the ratio. The ratio for a MZI discriminator is also shown for comparison.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Intensity response of the sample #2 with on-chip I/O polarization couplers: The driving voltage applied to each polarization coupler is Vin = 10V and Vout = 20 V, respectively.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Measured impulse response of the ring resonator and one of the three window functions: Flat-top Gaussian windows are used to separate each pulse. (b) Schematic of the coupling region

Equations (7)

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H ¯ ¯ = 1 2 [ 1 j j 1 ][ H APF 0 0 exp(j φ 0 ) ][ 1 j j 1 ], H APF = tγexp(jβL) 1tγexp(jβL)
( H TE H TM )=R( π/8 ) J DUT R( θ )( 0 1 )whereR( θ )=( cos2θ sin2θ sin2θ cos2θ )
X 1 = h 1,0 h 0,0 h 0,0 h 0,1 X 2 = h 2,0 h 0,0 2 h 1,0 h 1,0 + h 0,0 h 2,0 X 3 = h 2,1 h 0,0 + h 2,0 h 0,1 +2 h 1,1 h 1,0 2 h 1,0 h 1,1 h 0,1 h 2,0 + h 0,0 h 2,1
P f 1 / P 2 f 1 f 2 =64 β 1 2 β 2 2 | X 1 | 2 / | X 3 | 2
δ IP3 = 8 f 1 f 2 | X 1 |/| X 3 |
h APF = n=1 h n
H APF = H B B + γ ˜ H B A H A B 1 γ ˜ H A A = H 1 + H 2 1 H 3 / H 2

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