Abstract

The generation of mode-locked rectangular pulses operating in dissipative soliton resonance (DSR) region is demonstrated in an erbium-doped figure-eight fiber laser with net anomalous dispersion. The duration of the wave-breaking-free rectangular pulse broadens with the increase of pump power. At a maximum pump power of 341mW, the pulse energy can be up to 3.25 nJ with a repetition rate of 3.54 MHz. Particularly, the spectrum of rectangular pulse operating in DSR exhibits conventional soliton sidebands. The observed results show that the formation of pulse operating in DSR region is independent of mode-locking techniques, which may be helpful for further understanding the DSR phenomenon.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (6)

X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, M. Y. Peng, Z. M. Yang, and J. R. Qiu, “All fiber ring bound-soliton laser with a round trip time of 5.7 ns,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5449–5451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

L. Duan, X. M. Liu, D. Mao, L. Wang, and G. Wang, “Experimental observation of dissipative soliton resonance in an anomalous-dispersion fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(1), 265–270 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Yun, X. M. Liu, and D. Mao, “Observation of dual-wavelength dissipative solitons in a figure-eight erbium-doped fiber laser,” Opt. Express20(19), 20992–20997 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[PubMed]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

2009 (4)

2008 (3)

H. Zhang, D. Y. Tang, L. M. Zhao, and H. Y. Tam, “Induced solitons formed by cross-polarization coupling in a birefringent cavity fiber laser,” Opt. Lett.33(20), 2317–2319 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (2)

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett.28(8), 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. Anderson, M. Desaix, M. Lisak, and M. L. Quiroga–Teixeiro, “Wave breaking in nonlinear-optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B9(8), 1358–1361 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Ph. Grelu, W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonance as a guideline for high-energy pulse laser oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), 2336–2341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A79(3), 033840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D.

Ankiewicz, A.

Ph. Grelu, W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonance as a guideline for high-energy pulse laser oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), 2336–2341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A79(3), 033840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Buckley, J. R.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cai, Z. R.

Cao, W. J.

Chang, W.

Ph. Grelu, W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonance as a guideline for high-energy pulse laser oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), 2336–2341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A79(3), 033840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Clark, W. G.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Deng, Y. J.

Desaix, M.

Ding, E.

Drummond, P. D.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duan, L.

Grelu, P.

P. Grelu and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative solitons for mode-locked lasers,” Nat. Photonics6(2), 84–92 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Grelu, Ph.

Grudinin, A.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Haus, H. A.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hideur, A.

Ilday, F. O.

F. O. Ilday, J. R. Buckley, W. G. Clark, and F. W. Wise, “Self-similar evolution of parabolic pulses in a laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett.92(21), 213902 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ilday, F. Ö.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ippen, E. P.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jones, D. J.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kafka, J. D.

Kelly, S. M. J.

S. M. J. Kelly, “Characteristic sideband instability of periodically amplified average soliton,” Electron. Lett.28(8), 806–807 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kieu, K.

Kutz, J. N.

Laming, R. I.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lefrançois, S.

Limpert, J.

Lin, Z. B.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[PubMed]

Lisak, M.

Liu, X.

X. Liu, “Pulse evolution without wave breaking in a strongly dissipative-dispersive laser system,” Phys. Rev. A81(5), 053819 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X. M.

Luo, A. P.

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[PubMed]

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Luo, Z. C.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[PubMed]

Man, W. S.

D. Y. Tang, W. S. Man, H. Y. Tam, and P. D. Drummond, “Observation of bound states of solitons in a passively mode-locked fiber laser,” Phys. Rev. A64(3), 033814 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mao, D.

Matsas, V.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Matsas, V. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nelson, L. E.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Newson, T. P.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ning, Q. Y.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Okhotnikov, O.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oktem, B.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ortaç, B.

Payne, D. N.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peng, M. Y.

X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, M. Y. Peng, Z. M. Yang, and J. R. Qiu, “All fiber ring bound-soliton laser with a round trip time of 5.7 ns,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5449–5451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Pessa, M.

O. Okhotnikov, A. Grudinin, and M. Pessa, “Ultra-fast fibre laser systems based on SESAM technology: new horizons and applications,” New J. Phys.6, 177 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, M. W.

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, J. R.

X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, M. Y. Peng, Z. M. Yang, and J. R. Qiu, “All fiber ring bound-soliton laser with a round trip time of 5.7 ns,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5449–5451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Quiroga–Teixeiro, M. L.

Richardson, D. J.

V. J. Matsas, T. P. Newson, D. J. Richardson, and D. N. Payne, “Selfstarting passively mode-locked fibre ring soliton laser exploiting nonlinear polarisation rotation,” Electron. Lett.28(15), 1391–1393 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Richardson, R. I. Laming, D. N. Payne, V. Matsas, and M. W. Phillips, “Selfstarting, passively modelocked erbium fibre ring laser based on the amplifying Sagnac switch,” Electron. Lett.27(6), 542–544 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Soto-Crespo, J. M.

Ph. Grelu, W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonance as a guideline for high-energy pulse laser oscillators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B27(11), 2336–2341 (2010).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, J. M. Soto-Crespo, A. Ankiewicz, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances in the anomalous dispersion regime,” Phys. Rev. A79(3), 033840 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and Ph. Grelu, “Roadmap to ultra-short record high-energy pulses out of laser oscillators,” Phys. Lett. A372(17), 3124–3128 (2008).
[CrossRef]

W. Chang, A. Ankiewicz, J. M. Soto-Crespo, and N. Akhmediev, “Dissipative soliton resonances,” Phys. Rev. A78(2), 023830 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tam, H. Y.

Tamura, K.

L. E. Nelson, D. J. Jones, K. Tamura, H. A. Haus, and E. P. Ippen, “Ultrashort-pulse fiber ring lasers,” Appl. Phys. B65(2), 277–294 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tang, D. Y.

Tünnermann, A.

Ülgüdür, C.

B. Oktem, C. Ülgüdür, and F. Ö. Ilday, “Soliton–similariton fiber laser,” Nat. Photonics4(5), 307–311 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, G.

Wang, L.

Wang, S. K.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wei, X. M.

X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, M. Y. Peng, Z. M. Yang, and J. R. Qiu, “All fiber ring bound-soliton laser with a round trip time of 5.7 ns,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5449–5451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wise, F. W.

Wu, J.

Wu, X.

Xu, S. H.

X. M. Wei, S. H. Xu, M. Y. Peng, Z. M. Yang, and J. R. Qiu, “All fiber ring bound-soliton laser with a round trip time of 5.7 ns,” Opt. Commun.285(24), 5449–5451 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Xu, W. C.

Q. Y. Ning, S. K. Wang, A. P. Luo, Z. B. Lin, Z. C. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Bright–dark pulse pair in a figure-eight dispersion-managed passively mode-locked fiber laser,” IEEE Photon. J.4(5), 1647–1652 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Z. C. Luo, W. J. Cao, Z. B. Lin, Z. R. Cai, A. P. Luo, and W. C. Xu, “Pulse dynamics of dissipative soliton resonance with large duration-tuning range in a fiber ring laser,” Opt. Lett.37(22), 4777–4779 (2012).
[PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the figure-eight fiber laser. WDM: wavelength division multiplexer; EDF: erbium-doped fiber; SMF: single mode fiber; PC: polarization controller; PI-ISO: polarization insensitive isolator; UR: unidirectional ring; NALM: nonlinear amplifying loop mirror.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Conventional mode-locking operation of the fiber laser. (a) Pulse spectrum; (b) pulse-train and autocorrelation trace.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

A typical rectangular pulse emission of the laser at the fundamental cavity frequency of 3.54 MHz. (a) Mode-locked rectangular pulse train; (b) corresponding optical spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Rectangular pulses under different pump power. (a) Output pulses; (b) corresponding optical spectra.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse width and average output power varies with the pump power.

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