Abstract

Coherent XUV sources, which may operate at MHz repetition rate, could find applications in high-precision spectroscopy and for spatio-time-resolved measurements of collective electron dynamics on nanostructured surfaces. We theoretically investigate utilizing the enhanced plasmonic fields in an ordered array of gold nanoparticles for the generation of high-harmonic, extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) radiation. By optimization of the chirp of ultrashort laser pulses incident on the array, our simulations indicate a potential route towards the temporal shaping of the plasmonic near-field and, in turn, the generation of single attosecond pulses. The inherent effects of inhomogeneity of the local fields on the high-harmonic generation are analyzed and discussed. While taking the inhomogeneity into account does not affect the optimal chirp for the generation of a single attosecond pulse, the cut-off energy of the high-harmonic spectrum is enhanced by about a factor of two.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (4)

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(3), 033828 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (7)

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Husakou, F. Kelkensberg, J. Herrmann, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Polarization gating and circularly-polarized high harmonic generation using plasmonic enhancement in metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25346–25354 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Husakou, S. J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043839 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, and J. Ye, “Efficient output coupling of intracavity high-harmonic generation,” Opt. Lett. 33(10), 1099–1101 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Gai, J. Wang, and Q. Tian, “Modified Debye model parameters of metals applicable for broadband calculations,” Appl. Opt. 46(12), 2229–2233 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71(13), 1994–1997 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, “Ionization of atoms in intense laser pulses using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 42(5), 3152–3155 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (2)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

A. L'Huillier, L. A. Lompre, G. Mainfray, and C. Manus, “Multiply charged ions formed by multiphoton absorption processes in the continuum,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48(26), 1814–1817 (1982).
[Crossref]

Abel, B.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alahmed, Z. A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Altun, Z.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Attwood, D. T.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azzeer, A. M.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, J.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bao, K.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bardhan, R.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Benedetti, E.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bernhardt, B.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biegert, J.

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(3), 033828 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bleda, E. A.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blümel, L.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boneberg, J.

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Burgdörfer, J.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

V. C. Reed and K. Burnett, “Ionization of atoms in intense laser pulses using the Kramers-Henneberger transformation,” Phys. Rev. A 42(5), 3152–3155 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Capasso, F.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cavalieri, A. L.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scrinzi, A.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shvets, G.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Siu, W.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sivis, M.

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stebbings, S. L.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Steiger, A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

Stockman, M. I.

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

Süßmann, F.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Swoboda, M.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tian, Q.

Tian, Z. Q.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Topcu, T.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tünnermann, A.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

Udem, T.

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vernaleken, J. Weitenberg, T. Sartorius, P. Russbueldt, W. Schneider, S. L. Stebbings, M. F. Kling, P. Hommelhoff, H.-D. Hoffmann, R. Poprawe, F. Krausz, T. W. Hänsch, and T. Udem, “Single-pass high-harmonic generation at 20.8 MHz repetition rate,” Opt. Lett. 36(17), 3428–3430 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uiberacker, M.

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Uphues, Th.

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vernaleken, A.

Vrakking, M. J. J.

A. Husakou, F. Kelkensberg, J. Herrmann, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Polarization gating and circularly-polarized high harmonic generation using plasmonic enhancement in metal nanostructures,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25346–25354 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Wang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weitenberg, J.

Wu, C.

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wu, Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yakovlev, V. S.

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

K. J. Schafer, B. Yang, L. F. DiMauro, and K. C. Kulander, “Above threshold ionization beyond the high harmonic cutoff,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70(11), 1599–1602 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y. Y.

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yang, Z. L.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yavuz, I.

I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ye, J.

Yost, D. C.

Zhang, W.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zherebtsov, S.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X. S.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, Z. Y.

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Znakovskaya, I.

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

B. Fetic, K. Kalajdzic, and D. B. Milosevic, “High-order harmonic generation by a spatially inhomogeneous field,” Ann. Phys., doi:.
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Comput. Phys. (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47(3), 412–433 (1982).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (3)

I.-Y. Park, S. Kim, J. Choi, D.-H. Lee, Y.-J. Kim, M. F. Kling, M. I. Stockman, and S.-W. Kim, “Plasmonic generation of ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet light pulses,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 677–681 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Sansone, L. Poletto, and M. Nisoli, “High-energy attosecond light sources,” Nat. Photonics 5(11), 655–663 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, M. F. Kling, U. Kleineberg, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond nanoplasmonic-field microscope,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 539–544 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Plech, V. Kotaidis, M. Lorenc, and J. Boneberg, “Femtosecond laser near-field ablation from gold nanoparticles,” Nat. Phys. 2(1), 44–47 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nature (7)

J. F. Li, Y. F. Huang, Y. Ding, Z. L. Yang, S. B. Li, X. S. Zhou, F. R. Fan, W. Zhang, Z. Y. Zhou, Y. Wu, B. Ren, Z. L. Wang, and Z. Q. Tian, “Shell-isolated nanoparticle-enhanced Raman spectroscopy,” Nature 464(7287), 392–395 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Sivis, M. Duwe, B. Abel, and C. Ropers, “Nanostructure-enhanced atomic line emission,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Kim et al. reply,” Nature 485(7397), E1–E3 (2012).
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A. Baltuška, T. Udem, M. Uiberacker, M. Hentschel, E. Goulielmakis, Ch. Gohle, R. Holzwarth, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Scrinzi, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Attosecond control of electronic processes by intense light fields,” Nature 421(6923), 611–615 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Cavalieri, N. Müller, Th. Uphues, V. S. Yakovlev, A. Baltuška, B. Horvath, B. Schmidt, L. Blümel, R. Holzwarth, S. Hendel, M. Drescher, U. Kleineberg, P. M. Echenique, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Heinzmann, “Attosecond spectroscopy in condensed matter,” Nature 449(7165), 1029–1032 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sansone, F. Kelkensberg, J. F. Pérez-Torres, F. Morales, M. F. Kling, W. Siu, O. Ghafur, P. Johnsson, M. Swoboda, E. Benedetti, F. Ferrari, F. Lépine, J. L. Sanz-Vicario, S. Zherebtsov, I. Znakovskaya, A. L’huillier, M. Y. Ivanov, M. Nisoli, F. Martín, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Electron localization following attosecond molecular photoionization,” Nature 465(7299), 763–766 (2010).
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S. Kim, J. Jin, Y.-J. Kim, I.-Y. Park, Y. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “High-harmonic generation by resonant plasmon field enhancement,” Nature 453(7196), 757–760 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

New J. Phys. (1)

S. L. Stebbings, F. Süßmann, Y. Y. Yang, A. Scrinzi, M. Durach, A. Rusina, M. I. Stockman, and M. F. Kling, “Generation of isolated attosecond extreme ultraviolet pulses employing nanoplasmonic field enhancement: optimization of coupled ellipsoids,” New J. Phys. 13(7), 073010 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (4)

M. F. Ciappina, J. Biegert, R. Quidant, and M. Lewenstein, “High-order-harmonic generation from inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(3), 033828 (2012).
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I. Yavuz, E. A. Bleda, Z. Altun, and T. Topcu, “Generation of a broadband XUV continuum in high-order-harmonic generation by spatially inhomogeneous fields,” Phys. Rev. A 85(1), 013416 (2012).
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A. Husakou, S. J. Im, and J. Herrmann, “Theory of plasmon-enhanced high-order harmonic generation in the vicinity of metal nanostructures in noble gases,” Phys. Rev. A 83(4), 043839 (2011).
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Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Pupeza, T. Eidam, J. Kaster, B. Bernhardt, J. Rauschenberger, A. Ozawa, E. Fill, T. Udem, M. F. Kling, J. Limpert, Z. A. Alahmed, A. M. Azzeer, A. Tünnermann, T. W. Hänsch, and F. Krausz, “Power scaling of femtosecond enhancement cavities and high-power applications,” Proc. SPIE 7914, 79141I, 79141I-13 (2011).
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Science (3)

M. Schultze, M. Fiess, N. Karpowicz, J. Gagnon, M. Korbman, M. Hofstetter, S. Neppl, A. L. Cavalieri, Y. Komninos, Th. Mercouris, C. A. Nicolaides, R. Pazourek, S. Nagele, J. Feist, J. Burgdörfer, A. M. Azzeer, R. Ernstorfer, R. Kienberger, U. Kleineberg, E. Goulielmakis, F. Krausz, and V. S. Yakovlev, “Delay in photoemission,” Science 328(5986), 1658–1662 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, M. Schultze, M. Hofstetter, V. S. Yakovlev, J. Gagnon, M. Uiberacker, A. L. Aquila, E. M. Gullikson, D. T. Attwood, R. Kienberger, F. Krausz, and U. Kleineberg, “Single-cycle nonlinear optics,” Science 320(5883), 1614–1617 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Fan, C. Wu, K. Bao, J. Bao, R. Bardhan, N. J. Halas, V. N. Manoharan, P. Nordlander, G. Shvets, and F. Capasso, “Self-assembled plasmonic nanoparticle clusters,” Science 328(5982), 1135–1138 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Schematic of the ordered gold NP array with an optimum radius of R = 80 nm and a gap between NPs of d = 2 nm; (b) Spectrum of the plasmonic field enhancement. The peak of the field enhancement was optimized to be at 800 nm; the observation point is at the center of the gap in the x-y plane and 15 nm above the cross-section of the NP array. The z-axis is 15 nm.(c) Contour plot of the enhanced fields between the nanoparticles; (d) The enhanced plasmonic field of three hot spots in the gaps (indicated by three black and two red crosses with corresponding color codes in (c)). The crosses are at 15 nm in z-axis.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Temporal profiles of the incident laser pulse for different chirp parameters; (b) Corresponding enhanced plasmonic fields of the NP array. Note, that the CEPs of the fields for negative chirp in (a) and (b) have been optimized (see text for details).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) The HHG spectrum for an incident intensity of 1011 W/cm2 (black line); the green line and the red line are the Gaussian band-pass filters with FWHM of 5 eV and10 eV, respectively. (b) Temporal profile of the generated XUV light after spectral selection of the cutoff region by a Gaussian filter of 5 eV FWHM (black line) and 10 eV FWHM (red line) in (a).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

The dipole moment (a) and the harmonic spectrum of the dipole moment (b) for a continuous wave incident beam at 882 nm with an intensity of 3 × 1011 W/cm2. The observation point is 1 nm away from the metal surface at the center of the gap.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) The total dipole momentum in the gap. (b) The high-harmonic spectrum, where the red curve is calculated by the model presented in Ref. [15], and the thin green curve is calculated by the standard model. (c) The temporal profile corresponding to selection of the cut-off region for a chirp parameter of C = −0.5.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Incident laser pulse durations and peak field amplitudes for different chirp parameters. The peak field amplitude has been normalized to 1 for zero chirp.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Parameters of plasmonic fields obtained with negatively chirped laser pulses

Tables Icon

Table 3 Parameters of the calculated HHG spectra

Equations (3)

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E(t,C)= E 0 e 1+iC 2 (2 ln2 t τ p ) 2 e i(ωt+φ)
ε(ω)= ε i ε i ε s 1+iτω + σ iω ε 0
E cutoff = 3.17 U p + I p

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