Abstract

The concept of spaser as the coherent near-field generator and nanolaser based on nanoscale plasmonic resonators has been successfully demonstrated in number of experiments. Here we have developed the theoretical framework for the basic linewidth description of these active plasmonic structures and, in particular, linewidth enhancement – additional line broadening due to the resonator noise. In order to achieve this, we have introduced explicitly the time dependence in the quasistatic description of localized surface plasmon resonances via inclusion of the dispersion of a spectral parameter defining the resonant frequency. Linewidth enhancement factor was estimated for semiconductor gain medium and was found to be of order of 3 to 6, strongly depending on carrier density in the active layer, and resulting in more than order of magnitude broader linewidth compared to that, predicted by the Schawlow-Townes theory.

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2012

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Noskov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Subwavelength modulational instability and plasmon oscillons in nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg and A. V. Zayats, “Non-exponential decay of dark localized surface plasmons,” Opt. Express20(6), 6720–6727 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Stockman, “Spaser as Nanoscale Quantum Generator and Ultrafast Amplifier,” J. Opt.12(2), 024004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Concave plasmonic particles: broad-band geometrical tunability in the near-infrared,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1405–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Ultrasmall volume plasmons, yet with complete retardation effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole Plasmons in Metal Nanorods:?Scaling Properties and Dependence on Particle Size, Shape, Orientation, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(31), 11516–11527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: from micro to nano scale with ?/4 impedance matching,” Opt. Express15(11), 6762–6767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006

2004

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1983

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1981

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(7), 4457–4461 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980

J. G. Mendoza?Alvarez, F. D. Nunes, and N. B. Patel, “Refractive index dependence on free carriers for GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(8), 4365–4367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1972

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

1958

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev.112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Arbel, D.

Bakker, R.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belgrave, A. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Belov, P. A.

R. E. Noskov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Subwavelength modulational instability and plasmon oscillons in nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berkovitch, N.

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Concave plasmonic particles: broad-band geometrical tunability in the near-infrared,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1405–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bertness, K. A.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(7), 4457–4461 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Chang-Hasnain, C.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, L. C.

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Clausen, E.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Dai, L.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Ultrasmall volume plasmons, yet with complete retardation effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Florez, L. T.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ginzburg, P.

Gladden, C.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Hamm, J. M.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harbison, J. P.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Henry, C. H.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(7), 4457–4461 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Herz, E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hess, O.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, M. T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jewell, J. E.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Katz, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khajavikhan, M.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khlebtsov, B. N.

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole Plasmons in Metal Nanorods:?Scaling Properties and Dependence on Particle Size, Shape, Orientation, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(31), 11516–11527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Khlebtsov, N. G.

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole Plasmons in Metal Nanorods:?Scaling Properties and Dependence on Particle Size, Shape, Orientation, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(31), 11516–11527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

R. E. Noskov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Subwavelength modulational instability and plasmon oscillons in nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lehmen, A. C. V.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, K.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Logan, R. A.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(7), 4457–4461 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Lomakin, V.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ma, R. M.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maier, S. A.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margalit, S.

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Mendoza-Alvarez, J. G.

J. G. Mendoza?Alvarez, F. D. Nunes, and N. B. Patel, “Refractive index dependence on free carriers for GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(8), 4365–4367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Narimanov, E. E.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nevet, A.

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nordlander, P.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Noskov, R. E.

R. E. Noskov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Subwavelength modulational instability and plasmon oscillons in nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nötzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nunes, F. D.

J. G. Mendoza?Alvarez, F. D. Nunes, and N. B. Patel, “Refractive index dependence on free carriers for GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(8), 4365–4367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Orenstein, M.

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Concave plasmonic particles: broad-band geometrical tunability in the near-infrared,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1405–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Ultrasmall volume plasmons, yet with complete retardation effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg and M. Orenstein, “Plasmonic transmission lines: from micro to nano scale with ?/4 impedance matching,” Opt. Express15(11), 6762–6767 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg, D. Arbel, and M. Orenstein, “Gap Plasmon polariton structure for very efficient microscale-to-nanoscale interfacing,” Opt. Lett.31(22), 3288–3290 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Oubre, C.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Oulton, R. F.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Patel, N. B.

J. G. Mendoza?Alvarez, F. D. Nunes, and N. B. Patel, “Refractive index dependence on free carriers for GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(8), 4365–4367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pendry, J. B.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prodan, E.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schawlow, A. L.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev.112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Shalaev, V. M.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shor, I.

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simic, A.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Slutsky, B.

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stockman, M.

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

M. I. Stockman, “Spaser as Nanoscale Quantum Generator and Ultrafast Amplifier,” J. Opt.12(2), 024004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoffel, N. G.

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Stout, S.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Suteewong, T.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Townes, C. H.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev.112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Tsakmakidis, K. L.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K.

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Wiesner, U.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yariv, A.

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Zayats, A. V.

Zentgraf, T.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, G.

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

K. Vahala, L. C. Chiu, S. Margalit, and A. Yariv, “On the linewidth enhancement factor ? in semiconductor injection lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett.42(8), 631–633 (1983).
[CrossRef]

M. Orenstein, A. C. V. Lehmen, C. Chang-Hasnain, N. G. Stoffel, J. P. Harbison, L. T. Florez, E. Clausen, and J. E. Jewell, “Vertical?cavity surface?emitting InGaAs/GaAs lasers with planar lateral definition,” Appl. Phys. Lett.56(24), 2384–2386 (1990).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

C. H. Henry, “Theory of the linewidth of semiconductor lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.18(2), 259–264 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

C. H. Henry, R. A. Logan, and K. A. Bertness, “Spectral dependence of the change in refractive index due to carrier injection in GaAs lasers,” J. Appl. Phys.52(7), 4457–4461 (1981).
[CrossRef]

J. G. Mendoza?Alvarez, F. D. Nunes, and N. B. Patel, “Refractive index dependence on free carriers for GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys.51(8), 4365–4367 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt.

M. I. Stockman, “Spaser as Nanoscale Quantum Generator and Ultrafast Amplifier,” J. Opt.12(2), 024004 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. C

B. N. Khlebtsov and N. G. Khlebtsov, “Multipole Plasmons in Metal Nanorods:?Scaling Properties and Dependence on Particle Size, Shape, Orientation, and Dielectric Environment,” J. Phys. Chem. C111(31), 11516–11527 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett.

N. Berkovitch, P. Ginzburg, and M. Orenstein, “Concave plasmonic particles: broad-band geometrical tunability in the near-infrared,” Nano Lett.10(4), 1405–1408 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Ginzburg, N. Berkovitch, A. Nevet, I. Shor, and M. Orenstein, “Resonances On-Demand for Plasmonic Nano-Particles,” Nano Lett.11(6), 2329–2333 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Nordlander, C. Oubre, E. Prodan, K. Li, and M. Stockman, “Plasmon Hybridization in Nanoparticle Dimers,” Nano Lett.4(5), 899–903 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Mater.

O. Hess, J. B. Pendry, S. A. Maier, R. F. Oulton, J. M. Hamm, and K. L. Tsakmakidis, “Active nanoplasmonic metamaterials,” Nat. Mater.11(7), 573–584 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Nötzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, T. Zentgraf, R. M. Ma, C. Gladden, L. Dai, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers at deep subwavelength scale,” Nature461(7264), 629–632 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, G. Zhu, A. M. Belgrave, R. Bakker, V. M. Shalaev, E. E. Narimanov, S. Stout, E. Herz, T. Suteewong, and U. Wiesner, “Demonstration of a spaser-based nanolaser,” Nature460(7259), 1110–1112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev.

A. L. Schawlow and C. H. Townes, “Infrared and optical masers,” Phys. Rev.112(6), 1940–1949 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

D. J. Bergman and M. I. Stockman, “Surface Plasmon Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation: Quantum Generation of Coherent Surface Plasmons in Nanosystems,” Phys. Rev. Lett.90(2), 027402 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum and M. Orenstein, “Ultrasmall volume plasmons, yet with complete retardation effects,” Phys. Rev. Lett.101(16), 163902 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Noskov, P. A. Belov, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Subwavelength modulational instability and plasmon oscillons in nanoparticle arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett.108(9), 093901 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

G. B. Whitham, Linear and Nonlinear Waves (John Wiley & Sons, 1974).

L. A. Coldren and S. W. Corzine, Diode lasers and photonic integrated circuits (Wiley-Blackwell 1995).

W. W. Chow and S. W. Koch, Semiconductor-Laser Fundamentals: Physics of the Gain Materials (Springer, 1999).

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley-VCH, 2012).

S. A. Maier, Plasmonics: Fundamentals and Applications (New York, Springer, 2007).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Basic spaser/nanolaser configuration.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Spaser central wavelength as the function of injected carrier density. (b) The linewidth enhancement factor and (c) The spaser linewidth: Δν~( α 2 +1)/n dependence on the injected carrier density above the spasing threshold.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematics of the gain and cavity spectral responses in the case of a conventional laser and a plasmonic nanolaser: (red solid lines) gain profile for different carrier densities, (green dashed-dotted line) LSP resonance, (blue dotted lines) laser (Fabry-Perot) cavity resonances.

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

( θ( r ) E ( r ,ω ) ) ε d ( ω ) ( ε d ( ω ) ε m ( ω ) ) E ( r ,ω )=0,
E ( r ,t )=β( t ) F ( r ) e i ω 0 t ,
s( ω )s( ω 0 )+( ω ω 0 ) s( ω 0 ) ω = s 0 +( ω ω 0 ) s 1 .
i s 1 β( t ) t F ( r )=β( t )[ ( θ F ( r ) ) s 0 F ( r ) ].
i s 1 β( t ) t =β( t )( Δ s +iΔ s ).
I t =2I Δ s s 1 , φ t = Δ s s 1 .
α spaser = Re( s( n ) ) n Im( s( n ) ) n ,

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