Abstract

Laser communication and ranging experiments were successfully conducted from the satellite laser ranging (SLR) station at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) in lunar orbit. The experiments used 4096-ary pulse position modulation (PPM) for the laser pulses during one-way LRO Laser Ranging (LR) operations. Reed-Solomon forward error correction codes were used to correct the PPM symbol errors due to atmosphere turbulence and pointing jitter. The signal fading was measured and the results were compared to the model.

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2012

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

2008

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

H. Hemmati, “Interplanetary laser communications,” Opt. Photon. News18(11), 22–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barbieri, C.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Bianco, G.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Biswas, A.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Boehmer, K.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Bonato, C.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Boroson, D. M.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Burianek, D. A.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cavanaugh, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coltharp, C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Connelly, J.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Czichy, R.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Dallmann, D.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Feldhaus, T.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Freier, A.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Greulich, P.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Hemmati, H.

H. Hemmati, “Interplanetary laser communications,” Opt. Photon. News18(11), 22–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hildebrnad, U.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Jackson, G. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jennewein, T.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kaempfner, H.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Katz, R. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Keine, F.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Kleyner, I.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lange, R.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Liiva, P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Luceri, V.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matuszeski, A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Mazarico, E. M.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

McGarry, J. F.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Meuller, J.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Meyer, R.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Muehlnikel, G.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Murphy, D. V.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Neumann, G. A.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Novo-Gradac, A.-M.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ott, M. N.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pernechele, C.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Peters, C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramos-Izquierdo, L. A.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ramsey, L.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Reinhardt, M.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Riris, H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Rowlands, D. D.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schmidt, S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scott, V. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Seel, S.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Shaw, G. B.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smith, D. E.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, J. C.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Smutney, B.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Sterr, U.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Sun, X.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swinski, J.-P.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Tamburini, F.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Torrence, M. H.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Unger, G.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ursin, R.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Villoresi, P.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wandernoth, B.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Weichert, A.

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

Yu, A. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zagwodzki, T. W.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zellar, R. S.

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zuber, M. T.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

New J. Phys.

P. Villoresi, T. Jennewein, F. Tamburini, M. Aspelmeyer, C. Bonato, R. Ursin, C. Pernechele, V. Luceri, G. Bianco, A. Zeilinger, and C. Barbieri, “Experimental verification of the feasibility of a quantum channel between space and Earth,” New J. Phys.10(3), 033038 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Photon. News

H. Hemmati, “Interplanetary laser communications,” Opt. Photon. News18(11), 22–27 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Science

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, X. Sun, G. A. Neumann, J. F. Cavanaugh, J. F. McGarry, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “Two-way laser link over interplanetary distance,” Science311(5757), 53 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Space Sci. Rev.

M. T. Zuber, D. E. Smith, R. S. Zellar, G. A. Neumann, X. Sun, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, A. Matuszeski, J. F. McGarry, M. N. Ott, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, D. D. Rowlands, M. H. Torrence, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Laser Ranging investigation,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 63–80 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Smith, M. T. Zuber, G. B. Jackson, J. F. Cavanaugh, G. A. Neumann, H. Riris, X. Sun, R. S. Zellar, C. Coltharp, J. Connelly, R. B. Katz, I. Kleyner, P. Liiva, A. Matuszeski, E. M. Mazarico, J. F. McGarry, A.-M. Novo-Gradac, M. N. Ott, C. Peters, L. A. Ramos-Izquierdo, L. Ramsey, D. D. Rowlands, S. Schmidt, V. S. Scott, G. B. Shaw, J. C. Smith, J.-P. Swinski, M. H. Torrence, G. Unger, A. W. Yu, and T. W. Zagwodzki, “The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter mission,” Space Sci. Rev.150(1-4), 209–241 (2010).
[CrossRef]

SPIE

B. Smutney, H. Kaempfner, G. Muehlnikel, U. Sterr, B. Wandernoth, F. Keine, U. Hildebrnad, D. Dallmann, M. Reinhardt, A. Freier, R. Lange, K. Boehmer, T. Feldhaus, J. Meuller, A. Weichert, P. Greulich, S. Seel, R. Meyer, and R. Czichy, “5.6 Gbps optical intersatellite communication link,” SPIE7199, 719906 (2009).

D. M. Boroson, B. S. Robinson, D. A. Burianek, D. V. Murphy, and A. Biswas, “Overview and status of the Lunar Laser Communications Demonstration,” SPIE8246, 82460C, 82460C-10 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Other

Technology demonstration missions: Laser Communications Relay Demonstration (LCRD), http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/lcrd/index.html (2012).

F. Yang, P. Huang, and I. Prochazka, “Preliminary results of the laser time transfer (LTT) experiment,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Workshop on Laser Ranging (International Laser Ranging Service, NASA, Greenbelt, Maryland, 2008), pp 648–652.

E. Samain, P. Exertier, P. Guillemot, F. Pierron, D. Albanese, J. Paris, J. Torre, I. Petitbon, and S. Leon, “Time transfer by laser link T2L2 first results,” in Proceedings of IEEE International Frequency Control Symposium (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2009), pp. 194–198.

M. Crawford, “Lunar laser ranging: 40 years of high-level science,” SPIE Newsroom, DOI: 10.1117/2.2200912.02 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, ed., Near-Earth Laser Communications (CRC Press, 2009).

J. W. Marini and C. W. Murray, “Corrections of laser range tracking data for atmospheric refraction at elevations above 10 degrees,” NASA-TM-X-70555 (Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 1973).

L. C. Andrews and R. L. Phillips, Laser Beam Propagation through Random Media 2nd ed. (SPIE Press, 2005), Chap. 12.

G. Kirchner, F. Koidl, and D. Kucharski, “Using pulse position modulation in SLR stations to transmit data to satellites,” in 11th International Conference on Telecommunications (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 447–450.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

LRO LR laser pulse position modulation. The approach allows simultaneous laser ranging and data transmission. Each laser pulse is delayed to one of the 4096 time slots (12 bits) within the 8-ms LR range window. At the 28-Hz LOLA laser pulse rate, the raw data transmission rate is 336 bits s−1, mainly limited by the LRO LR operating duty cycle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data transmission error. Plotted in terms of PPM symbol error rate vs. average received laser pulse energy with and without Reed-Solomon coding for data collected from November 2011 to March 2012. The transmitted data consisted of pseudo random numbers uniformly distributed over the 4096 PPM slots. The symbol error rate for the raw data leveled at ~10% even at strong input signal level due to signal fading by the atmosphere turbulence and laser beam pointing jitter. Reed-Solomon coding was effective in bring the error rate to zero when the raw error rate fell below the maximum correctable of the code.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Histogram of received pulse energy. Data from LRO LR session on 4 November 2011, 17:57 local time with a 73% sun-illuminated Moon at 70° above the horizon. The local weather conditions were temperature 11-13°C, wind speed 1-3 m/s SE, relative humidity 45%, pressure 1012 mbar, and the visibility 50 km, as indicated by the precipitation sensor next to the ground station.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample autocovariance of received pulse energy. Data from LRO LR session on 4 November 2011, 17:57 local time, same as in Fig. 3. The weak correlation up to 20 sec was possibly due to telescope pointing errors and gaps in the data from airplane avoidances.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mona Lisa images received by LRO without and with Reed Solomon coding. Data obtained on 26 March 2012, during the LR session starting at 11:38 local time. The image consisted of a 200×152-pixel 12-bit (4096) gray scale intensity map and each pixel was transmitted with one laser pulse in 4096-ary PPM signal format. The image on the left was constructed from the raw data without coding. The black dots represented false triggers and the white spaces represent misses (erasures). The white streak across Mona’s left ear was caused by the blockage of the laser beam for airplane avoidance. The PPM symbol error rate of the raw data was about 15%, mostly in the form of erasures. The image on the right was constructed from data with Rate 2/3 Reed-Solomon linear block error correction coding.

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