Abstract

Traditional laparoscopic optical systems consisting of about 30 lenses have low optical magnification. To magnify tissue during surgical operations, one must change from one laparoscope to another or use a magnifying adapter between the laparoscope and the sensor. Our work focuses on how to change the sag of a liquid lens while zooming from 1 × zoom, to 2 × , and 4 × in an optical design for a laparoscope. The design includes several lenses and two liquid lenses with variable focal lengths. A pair of laparoscopes for 3-D stereoscopy is placed within a tube 11 mm in diameter. The predicted depth resolution of tissue is 0.5 mm without interpolation at 4 × zoom.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
    [PubMed]
  5. J. P. O. Evens, M. Robinson, S. X. Godber, and R. S. Petty, “The development of 3-D (stereoscopic) imaging systems for security applications,” in International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (Sanderstead, England, 1995), 505–511.
  6. W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2005

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1999

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

1991

W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, J. R.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arianpour, A.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bjurstroem, H.

W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bouma, B. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Brezinski, M. E.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Chang, J.-H.

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, D. T.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cho, S. H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Choi, M.

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Darzi, A.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Duffy, D. C.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ehrenstein, W. H.

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Francis, C. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fujimoto, J. G.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Gitlin, I.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horgan, S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, J.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Johnson, D.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jung, K.-D.

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lammens, R.

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, E.

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S.

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lo, Y.-H.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McDonald, J. C.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mintz, Y.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monch, W.

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Muller, P.

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ng, J. M. K.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pitris, C.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Qiao, W.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russell, R. C. G.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schueller, O. J. A.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulz, S. N.

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Setterwall, F.

W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, S. G. T.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Southern, J. F.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Spengler, N.

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Stroock, A. D.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stroomer, S.

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Taffinder, N.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Talamini, M.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tearney, G. J.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Tsai, F. S.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verwey, W. B.

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Whitesides, G. M.

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, H.

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, W.

W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Zappe, H.

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.

C. Pitris, M. E. Brezinski, B. E. Bouma, G. J. Tearney, J. F. Southern, and J. G. Fujimoto, “High resolution imaging of the upper respiratory tract with optical coherence tomography: a feasibility study,” Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.157(5 Pt 1), 1640–1644 (1998).
[PubMed]

Electrophoresis

J. C. McDonald, D. C. Duffy, J. R. Anderson, D. T. Chiu, H. Wu, O. J. A. Schueller, and G. M. Whitesides, “Fabrication of microfluidic systems in poly(dimethylsiloxane),” Electrophoresis21(1), 27–40 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. K. Ng, I. Gitlin, A. D. Stroock, and G. M. Whitesides, “Components for integrated poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems,” Electrophoresis23(20), 3461–3473 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ergonomics

W. B. Verwey, S. Stroomer, R. Lammens, S. N. Schulz, and W. H. Ehrenstein, “Comparing endoscopic systems on two simulated tasks,” Ergonomics48(3), 270–287 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Biomed. Opt.

F. S. Tsai, D. Johnson, C. S. Francis, S. H. Cho, W. Qiao, A. Arianpour, Y. Mintz, S. Horgan, M. Talamini, and Y.-H. Lo, “Fluidic lens laparoscopic zoom camera for minimally invasive surgery,” J. Biomed. Opt.15(3), 030504 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Eng. Data

W. Yao, H. Bjurstroem, and F. Setterwall, “Surface tension of lithium bromide solutions with heat-transfer additives,” J. Chem. Eng. Data36(1), 96–98 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Microelectromech. Syst.

P. Muller, N. Spengler, H. Zappe, and W. Monch, “An optofluidic concept for a tunable micro-iris,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.19(6), 1477–1484 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

J.-H. Chang, K.-D. Jung, E. Lee, M. Choi, and S. Lee, “Microelectrofluidic iris for variable aperture,” Proc. SPIE8252, 82520O, 82520O-6 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Surg. Endosc.

N. Taffinder, S. G. T. Smith, J. Huber, R. C. G. Russell, and A. Darzi, “The effect of a second-generation 3D endoscope on the laparoscopic precision of novices and experienced surgeons,” Surg. Endosc.13(11), 1087–1092 (1999).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

J. P. O. Evens, M. Robinson, S. X. Godber, and R. S. Petty, “The development of 3-D (stereoscopic) imaging systems for security applications,” in International Carnahan Conference on Security Technology (Sanderstead, England, 1995), 505–511.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical lens configuration using two liquids.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Effective focal length as a function of changes in the sag of two liquid lenses, (b) ray tracing of liquid lens.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Refractive index vs. salt concentration; (b) Abbe number vs. salt concentration.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Schematic of lens module; (b) structure of IRIS; (c) Ray tracing and liquid lens shape at wide angle, middle angle, and tele angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Change in lens sag vs. focal length.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

The image resolution by the IRIS aperture diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase profile of DOE.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Design result; MTF (a),(b) Wide angle mode 1 × , (left 0–0.5F, right 0.6F–1.0F). (c),(d) Middle angle zoom 2 × ; (c), (d) Tele angle, zoom 4 ×.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Design result; Optical distortion.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Image simulation result using USAF1951 chart; (a) zoom 1 × , (b) zoom 2 × ,(c) zoom 4 ×.

Tables (5)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Design conditions and goals for optical lens

Tables Icon

Table 2 Summary of design result

Tables Icon

Table 3 Optical lens parameters

Tables Icon

Table 4 Lens parameters of liquid lens and iris

Tables Icon

Table 5 Lens parameters of aspheric polymer lens

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

δz= Z 2 δ P 1 Bf
1 f =( n 1 1 )( n 2 1 )( 1 R 1 ( n 2 1) 1 R 2 ( n 1 1) +( d 1 n 1 + d 2 n 2 ) 1 R 1 R 2 )
1 f =( n 1 1 )( 1 R 1 1 R 2 + ( d 1 + d 2 )( n 1 1) R 1 R 2 n 1 )
z(r)=( c r 2 1+ (1(1+k) c 2 r 2 ) 0.5 )+ A 2 r 4 + A 4 r 6 +A r 8 8 ......
z(r)=( c r 2 1+ (1 c 2 r 2 ) 0.5 )
R 1 =( ( b 1 2 +z ( b 1 ) 2 ) 2z( b 1 ) )
φ(r)= 2π λ o n=1 10 C n r 2n
height= λ o n 2 ( λ o ) n 1 ( λ o ) = 0.572μm 1.49231 =1.17μm
f= 0.5 Qudratic_Phase_Coefficient = 0.5 C 1 =2735.6

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