Abstract

We fabricated a plasmonic analog of the microwave microstrip transmission line and measured its propagation loss before and after thermal annealing. It is found that its propagation loss at 980 nm wavelength can be reduced by more than 50%, from 0.45 to 0.20 dB/μm, after thermal annealing at 300 °C. The reduction in loss can be attributed to the improved gold surface condition and probably also to the change in the metal’s inner structure. Less evident loss reduction is noticed at 1550 nm, which is owing to extremely small portion of the modal electric field located in the metal regions at this wavelength.

© 2013 OSA

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2012 (2)

S. Kumar, Y. Lu, A. Huck, and U. L. Andersen, “Propagation of plasmons in designed single crystalline silver nanostructures,” Opt. Express20, 24614–24622 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (4)

Y. Ma, X. Li, H. Yu, L. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35, 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Compact optical waveguides based on hybrid index and surface- plasmon-polariton guidance mechanisms,” Active and Passive Electronic Components2007, 52461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2333–2342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (3)

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

L. Liu, Z. Han, and S. He, “Novel surface plasmon waveguide for high integration,” Opt. Express13, 6645–6650 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

M. Bowker, “Surface science: The going rate for catalysts,” Nat. Mater.1, 205–206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

P. Meakin, “The growth of rough surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rep.235, 189–289 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

Y. Golan, L. Margulis, and I. Rubinstein, “Vacuum-deposited gold films,” Surf. Sci.264, 312–326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Rocca, F. Moresco, and U. Valbusa, “Temperature dependence of surface plasmons on ag(001),” Phys. Rev. B45, 1399–1402 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

1977 (1)

T. Andersson and C. G. Granqvist, “Morphology and size distributions of islands in discontinuous films,” J. Appl. Phys.48, 1673–1679 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Alexander, R. W.

Andersen, U. L.

Andersson, T.

T. Andersson and C. G. Granqvist, “Morphology and size distributions of islands in discontinuous films,” J. Appl. Phys.48, 1673–1679 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Atwater, H. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aussenegg, F. R.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.23, 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Barnes, W. L.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bechelany, M.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Bell, R. J.

Bowker, M.

M. Bowker, “Surface science: The going rate for catalysts,” Nat. Mater.1, 205–206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Chidsey, C.E.D.

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Christiansen, S.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Danz, N.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Devaux, E.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ditlbacher, H.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Drezet, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Duscher, G.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ebbesen, T. W.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzen, S.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fukui, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gather, M. C.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Genov, D. A.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Golan, Y.

Y. Golan, L. Margulis, and I. Rubinstein, “Vacuum-deposited gold films,” Surf. Sci.264, 312–326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, Y.

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gong, Q.

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Granqvist, C. G.

T. Andersson and C. G. Granqvist, “Morphology and size distributions of islands in discontinuous films,” J. Appl. Phys.48, 1673–1679 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Grayevsky, A.

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gruber, C.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gu, Y.

Han, Z.

Hankache, J.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Haraguchi, M.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Harel, E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

He, S.

Hohenau, A.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Holmgaard, T.

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huck, A.

Kik, P. G.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kobayashi, T.

Koel, B. E.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krenn, J. R.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.23, 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, S.

Kusar, P.

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laluet, J. Y.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Laughlin, B.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leitner, A.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Quinten, A. Leitner, J. R. Krenn, and F. R. Aussenegg, “Electromagnetic energy transport via linear chains of silver nanoparticles,” Opt. Lett.23, 1331–1333 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Leonard, D. N.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leosson, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lerose, D.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Li, Q.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Li, X.

Liu, L.

Loiacono, D.N.

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Long, L. L.

Losego, M.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lu, Y.

Ma, Y.

Maeder, X.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Maier, S. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Margulis, L.

Y. Golan, L. Margulis, and I. Rubinstein, “Vacuum-deposited gold films,” Surf. Sci.264, 312–326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maria, J. P.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Matsuo, S.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Matsuzaki, Y.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Meakin, P.

P. Meakin, “The growth of rough surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rep.235, 189–289 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Meltzer, S.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Michler, J.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Millo, O.

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moresco, F.

M. Rocca, F. Moresco, and U. Valbusa, “Temperature dependence of surface plasmons on ag(001),” Phys. Rev. B45, 1399–1402 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Morimoto, A.

Nakahara, S.

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ogawa, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Okamoto, T.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ordal, M. A.

Oulton, R. F.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Philippe, L.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pile, D. F. P.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Porath, D.

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, M.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Compact optical waveguides based on hybrid index and surface- plasmon-polariton guidance mechanisms,” Active and Passive Electronic Components2007, 52461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2333–2342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Querry, M. R.

Quinten, M.

Requicha, A. A.

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rhodes, C.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Riesterer, J.

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rocca, M.

M. Rocca, F. Moresco, and U. Valbusa, “Temperature dependence of surface plasmons on ag(001),” Phys. Rev. B45, 1399–1402 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rubinstein, I.

Y. Golan, L. Margulis, and I. Rubinstein, “Vacuum-deposited gold films,” Surf. Sci.264, 312–326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sleator, T.

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sorger, V. J.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Steinberger, B.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Stepanov, A. L.

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Takahara, J.

Taki, H.

Tong, L.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ma, X. Li, H. Yu, L. Tong, Y. Gu, and Q. Gong, “Direct measurement of propagation losses in silver nanowires,” Opt. Lett.35, 1160–1162 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valbusa, U.

M. Rocca, F. Moresco, and U. Valbusa, “Temperature dependence of surface plasmons on ag(001),” Phys. Rev. B45, 1399–1402 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vernon, K. C.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Volkov, V. S.

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, S.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Weibel, S.

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yamagishi, S.

Yamaguchi, K.

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Yan, M.

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Compact optical waveguides based on hybrid index and surface- plasmon-polariton guidance mechanisms,” Active and Passive Electronic Components2007, 52461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Guided plasmon polariton at 2D metal corners,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B24, 2333–2342 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Yu, H.

Zhang, X.

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Active and Passive Electronic Components (1)

M. Yan and M. Qiu, “Compact optical waveguides based on hybrid index and surface- plasmon-polariton guidance mechanisms,” Active and Passive Electronic Components2007, 52461 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

B. Steinberger, A. Hohenau, H. Ditlbacher, A. L. Stepanov, A. Drezet, F. R. Aussenegg, A. Leitner, and J. R. Krenn, “Dielectric stripes on gold as surface plasmon waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88, 094104 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, T. Okamoto, M. Haraguchi, M. Fukui, and S. Matsuo, “Theoretical and experimental investigation of strongly localized plasmons on triangular metal wedges for subwavelength waveguiding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 061106 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. F. P. Pile, T. Ogawa, D. K. Gramotnev, Y. Matsuzaki, K. C. Vernon, K. Yamaguchi, T. OKamoto, M. Haraguchi, and M. Fukui, “Two-dimensionally localized modes of a nanoscale gap plasmon waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett.87, 261114 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Cryst. Growth Des. (1)

M. Bechelany, X. Maeder, J. Riesterer, J. Hankache, D. Lerose, S. Christiansen, J. Michler, and L. Philippe, “Synthesis Mechanisms of Organized Gold Nanoparticles: Influence of Annealing Temperature and Atmosphere,” Cryst. Growth Des.10, 587–596 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics (1)

Q. Li, S. Wang, Y. Chen, M. Yan, L. Tong, and M. Qiu, “Experimental demonstration of plasmon propagation, coupling, and splitting in silver nanowire at 1550-nm wavelength,” IEEE of Selected Topics J. in Quantum Electronics17, 1107–1111 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

C. Rhodes, S. Franzen, J. P. Maria, M. Losego, D. N. Leonard, B. Laughlin, G. Duscher, and S. Weibel, “Surface plasmon resonance in conducting metal oxides,” J. Appl. Phys.100, 054905 (2006).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

P. Kusar, C. Gruber, A. Hohenau, and J. R. Krenn, “Measurement and Reduction of Damping in Plasmonic Nanowires,” Nano Lett.12, 661–665 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (2)

S. A. Maier, P. G. Kik, H. A. Atwater, S. Meltzer, E. Harel, B. E. Koel, and A. A. Requicha, “Local detection of electromagnetic energy transport below the diffraction limit in metal nanoparticle plasmon waveguides,” Nat. Mater.2, 229–232 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Bowker, “Surface science: The going rate for catalysts,” Nat. Mater.1, 205–206 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (3)

R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, D. A. Genov, D. F. P. Pile, and X. Zhang, “A hybrid plasmonic waveguide for subwavelength confinement and long-range propagation,” Nat. Photonics2, 496 – 500 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. C. Gather, K. Meerholz, N. Danz, and K. Leosson, “Net optical gain in a plasmonic waveguide embedded in a fluorescent polymer,” Nat. Photonics4, 457–461 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics4, 83–91 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (2)

W. L. Barnes, A. Dereux, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Surface plasmon subwavelength optics,” Nature424, 824–830 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, V. S. Volkov, E. Devaux, J. Y. Laluet, and T. W. Ebbesen, “Channel plasmon subwavelength waveguide components including interferometers and ring resonators,” Nature440, 508–511 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rep. (1)

P. Meakin, “The growth of rough surfaces and interfaces,” Phys. Rep.235, 189–289 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

M. Rocca, F. Moresco, and U. Valbusa, “Temperature dependence of surface plasmons on ag(001),” Phys. Rev. B45, 1399–1402 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Holmgaard and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Theoretical analysis of dielectric-loaded surface plasmon-polariton waveguides,” Phys. Rev. B75, 245405 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Surf. Sci. (3)

D. Porath, Y. Goldstein, A. Grayevsky, and O. Millo, “Scanning tunneling microscopy studies of annealing of gold films,” Surf. Sci.321, 81–88 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Golan, L. Margulis, and I. Rubinstein, “Vacuum-deposited gold films,” Surf. Sci.264, 312–326 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C.E.D. Chidsey, D.N. Loiacono, T. Sleator, and S. Nakahara, “STM study of the surface morphology of gold on mica,” Surf. Sci.200, 45–66 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Geometry of the waveguide under study. (b) Fundamental guided mode at 1550 nm. The color shading indicates the z-component of the Poynting vector, while the vectors show the transverse electric field. (c) The same but for a slot waveguide of similar size (see text).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Output intensity v.s. propagation distance measured at 980 nm (a) and 1550 nm (b) before (black squares) and after (red circles) annealing. The black and red lines are the fitted curves for the decaying light intensity in the waveguide before and after annealing, respectively. (c) Bright- and dark-field images for coupling at 980 nm recorded by a CCD camera.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) SEM images of a section of the fabricated waveguide. (b) The waveguide after thermal annealing at 300 °C.

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