Abstract

Superconducting nanowire single photon detectors (SNSPDs) have separately demonstrated high efficiency, low noise, and extremely high speed when detecting single photons. However, achieving all of these simultaneously has been limited by detector subtleties and tradeoffs. Here, we report an SNSPD system with <80 ps timing resolution, kHz noise count rates, and 76% fiber-coupled system detection efficiency in the low-flux limit at 1550 nm. We present a model for determining the detection efficiency penalty due to the detection recovery time, and we validate our method using experimental data obtained at high count rates. We demonstrate improved performance tradeoffs, such as 68% system detection efficiency, including losses due to detector recovery time, when coupled to a Poisson source emitting 100 million photons per second. Our system can provide limited photon number resolution, continuous cryogen-free operation, and scalability to future imaging and GHz-count-rate applications.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
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  8. I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  11. V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  18. E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  19. T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  21. F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (2)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (3)

D. Fukuda, G. Fujii, T. Numata, K. Amemiya, A. Yoshizawa, H. Tsuchida, H. Fujino, H. Ishii, T. Itatani, S. Inoue, and T. Zama, “Titanium-based transition-edge photon number resolving detector with 98% detection efficiency with index-matched small-gap fiber coupling,” Opt. Express19(2), 870–875 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (6)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acín, A.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Amemiya, K.

Anant, V.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Annunziata, A. J.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aspect, A.

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Aspuru-Guzik, A.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aull, B. F.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Aversa, J. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Baek, B.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bellei, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berggren, K. K.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bernard, J.

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biswas, A.

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Boroson, D. M.

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Brunner, N.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Casaburi, A.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chapman, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cova, S.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cristiano, R.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Csete, M.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dauler, E. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Donnelly, J. P.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Duerr, E. K.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ejrnaes, M.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Frunzio, L.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Frydman, A.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fujii, G.

Fujino, H.

Fujiwara, M.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, D.

Funk, J. E.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gaggero, A.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghioni, M.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gisin, N.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glettler, J. B.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gol’tsman, G. N.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Gulinatti, A.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hadfield, R. H.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
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Hamilton, S. A.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
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H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hu, X.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
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Inoue, S.

Ishii, H.

Itatani, T.

Jensen, K. E.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Keicher, W. E.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kerman, A. J.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
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J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
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A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Leoni, R.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Liau, Z. L.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lita, A. E.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mahan, J. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mahoney, L. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Marchetti, S.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marsili, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Massar, S.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mattioli, F.

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

McIntosh, K. A.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Miki, S.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Molnar, R. J.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Molvar, K. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, F.

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nam, S.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Natarajan, C. M.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Numata, T.

O¿Donnell, F. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Oakley, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
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S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pagano, S.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Pironio, S.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Prober, D. E.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Qiu, W.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Quaranta, O.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Rech, I.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Renzi, M. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Robinson, B. S.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, D.

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

Rosfjord, K. M.

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Santavicca, D. F.

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sasaki, M.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Scarani, V.

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaver, D. C.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smith, G. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tanner, M. G.

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tsuchida, H.

Tyrrell, B. M.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verghese, S.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Verma, V.

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vineis, C. J.

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, B. M.

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Walther, P.

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Z.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yamashita, T.

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, J. K. W.

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

V. Anant, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Optical properties of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Opt. Express16(14), 10750–10761 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Yoshizawa, A.

Zama, T.

Zappa, F.

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Yamashita, S. Miki, W. Qiu, M. Fujiwara, M. Sasaki, and Z. Wang, “Temperature dependent performances of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors in an ultralow-temperature region,” Appl. Phys. Express3(10), 102502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, J. K. W. Yang, K. M. Rosfjord, V. Anant, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. M. Voronov, “Constriction-limited detection efficiency of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(10), 101110 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, R. Cristiano, O. Quaranta, S. Pagano, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, B. Voronov, and G. Gol’tsman, “A cascade switching superconducting single photon detector,” Appl. Phys. Lett.91(26), 262509 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, W. E. Keicher, J. K. W. Yang, K. K. Berggren, G. N. Gol’tsman, and B. Voronov, “Kinetic-inductance-limited reset time of superconducting nanowire photon counters,” Appl. Phys. Lett.88(11), 111116 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. Baek, A. E. Lita, V. Verma, and S. Nam, “Superconducting a-WxSi1-x nanowire single-photon detector with saturated internal quantum efficiency from visible to 1850 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett.98(25), 251105 (2011).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

S. Verghese, J. P. Donnelly, E. K. Duerr, K. A. McIntosh, D. C. Chapman, C. J. Vineis, G. M. Smith, J. E. Funk, K. E. Jensen, P. I. Hopman, D. C. Shaver, B. F. Aull, J. C. Aversa, J. P. Frechette, J. B. Glettler, Z. L. Liau, J. M. Mahan, L. J. Mahoney, K. M. Molvar, F. J. O¿Donnell, D. C. Oakley, E. J. Ouellette, M. J. Renzi, and B. M. Tyrrell, “Arrays of InP-based avalanche photodiodes for photon counting,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.13, 870–886 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond. (1)

J. K. W. Yang, A. J. Kerman, E. A. Dauler, V. Anant, K. M. Rosfjord, and K. K. Berggren, “Modeling the electrical and thermal response of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” IEEE Trans. Appl. Supercond.17(2), 581–585 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. J. Annunziata, O. Quaranta, D. F. Santavicca, A. Casaburi, L. Frunzio, M. Ejrnaes, M. J. Rooks, R. Cristiano, S. Pagano, A. Frydman, and D. E. Prober, “Reset dynamics and latching in niobium superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” J. Appl. Phys.108(8), 084507 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt. (1)

E. A. Dauler, A. J. Kerman, B. S. Robinson, J. K. W. Yang, B. Voronov, G. Gol’tsman, S. A. Hamilton, and K. K. Berggren, “Photon-number-resolution with sub-30-ps timing using multi-element superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” J. Mod. Opt.56(2-3), 364–373 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F. Marsili, F. Najafi, E. Dauler, F. Bellei, X. Hu, M. Csete, R. J. Molnar, and K. K. Berggren, “Single-photon detectors based on ultranarrow superconducting nanowires,” Nano Lett.11(5), 2048–2053 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Phys. (1)

A. Aspuru-Guzik and P. Walther, “Photonic quantum simulators,” Nat. Phys.8(4), 285–291 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

A. Aspect, “Bell’s inequality test: more ideal than ever,” Nature398(6724), 189–190 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (2)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. J. Kerman, J. K. W. Yang, R. J. Molnar, E. A. Dauler, and K. K. Berggren, “Electrothermal feedback in superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors,” Phys. Rev. B79(10), 100509 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

A. Acín, N. Brunner, N. Gisin, S. Massar, S. Pironio, and V. Scarani, “Device-independent security of quantum cryptography against collective attacks,” Phys. Rev. Lett.98(23), 230501 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Orrit and J. Bernard, “Single pentacene molecules detected by fluorescence excitation in a p-terphenyl crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett.65(21), 2716–2719 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

H. Hemmati, A. Biswas, and D. M. Boroson, “Prospects for Improvement of Interplanetary Laser Communication Data Rates by 30 dB,” Proc. IEEE95(10), 2082–2092 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

I. Rech, A. Gulinatti, F. Zappa, M. Ghioni, and S. Cova, “High performance silicon single-photon avalanche diode array,” Proc. SPIE7320, 73200H, 73200H-12 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Supercond. Sci. Technol. (2)

C. M. Natarajan, M. G. Tanner, and R. H. Hadfield, “Superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors: physics and applications,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.25(6), 063001 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Ejrnaes, A. Casaburi, O. Quaranta, S. Marchetti, A. Gaggero, F. Mattioli, R. Leoni, S. Pagano, and R. Cristiano, “Characterization of parallel superconducting nanowire single photon detectors,” Supercond. Sci. Technol.22(5), 055006 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

A. J. Kerman, D. Rosenberg, and E. A. Dauler, (submitted).

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