Abstract

We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (2)

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, S. Barbieri, “Spectral properties of THz quantum-cascade lasers: frequency noise, phase-locking and absolute frequency measurement,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 34(5–6), 342–356 (2013).
[CrossRef]

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 37–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (10)

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-based photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 509–517 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, “Millimeter-wave optoelectronic mixers based on uni-traveling carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 686–691 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “Uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module generating 300 GHz power greater than 1 mW,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(7), 363–365 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Chtioui, F. Lelarge, A. Enard, F. Pommereau, D. Carpentier, A. Marceaux, F. van Dijk, M. Achouche, “High responsivity and high power UTC and MUTC GaInAS-InP photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 318–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rouvalis, M. Chtioui, M. Tran, F. Lelarge, F. van Dijk, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, A. J. Seeds, “High-speed photodiodes for InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(8), 9172–9177 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, “Modelling of surface waves on a THz antenna detected by a near-field probe,” Opt. Express 20(14), 16023–16031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Rouvalis, M. Chtioui, F. van Dijk, F. Lelarge, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, G. Carpintero, A. J. Seeds, “170 GHz uni-traveling carrier photodiodes for InP-based photonic integrated circuits,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20090–20095 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (8)

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2587–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Ponnampalam, M. J. Fice, F. Pozzi, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, I. F. Lealman, D. G. Moodie, P. Cannard, C. Lynch, L. Johnston, M. J. Robertson, R. Cronin, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, A. J. Seeds, “Monolithically integrated photonic heterodyne system,” J. Lightwave Technol. 29(15), 2229–2234 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. J. B. Dietz, M. Gerhard, D. Stanze, M. Koch, B. Sartorius, M. Schell, “THz generation at 1.55 µm excitation: six-fold increase in THz conversion efficiency by separated photoconductive and trapping regions,” Opt. Express 19(27), 25911–25917 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Preu, G. H. Doehler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, A. C. Gossard, “Tunable continuous wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Kumar, “Recent progress in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 17(1), 38–47 (2011).
[CrossRef]

O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

M. S. Vitiello, A. Tredicucci, “Tunable emission in THz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Trans. THz Sci. Technol. 1(1), 76–84 (2011).

2010 (7)

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 μm THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1349–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Morley, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, P. T. Greenland, J. van Tol, C. W. M. Kay, G. Aeppli, “The initialization and manipulation of quantum information stored in silicon by bismuth dopants,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 725–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Greenland, S. A. Lynch, A. F. G. van der Meer, B. N. Murdin, C. R. Pidgeon, B. Redlich, N. Q. Vinh, G. Aeppli, “Coherent control of Rydberg states in silicon,” Nature 465(7301), 1057–1061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. G. Davies, E. H. Linfield, eds., “Special Supplement: THz Technology,” Electron. Lett. 46(26), 1–3(2010).

H. Eisele, “480GHz oscillator with an InP Gunn device,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 422–423 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave uni-traveling carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (3)

W. K. Hew, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, “Incipient formation of an electron lattice in a weakly confined quantum wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Hirata, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, “8 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 250 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 45(22), 1121–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (3)

C. C. Renaud, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gregoire, I. Lealman, P. Cannard, S. Cole, R. Moore, R. Gwilliam, A. J. Seeds, “A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(11), 998–1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

H. Luo, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. C. Aers, H. C. Liu, J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser based on a three-well active module,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, “Terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Nat. Photonics 1(9), 517–525 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (1)

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2002 (2)

M. Endo, “Optical frequency comb generator using a single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation in an amplified circulating fiber loop,” Laser Phys. 12(4), 679–683 (2002).

J. Van Rudd, D. Mittleman, “Influence of substrate-lens design in terahertz time-domain spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(2), 319–329 (2002).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

1994 (1)

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

N. C. Wong, “Proposal for a 10-THz precision optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 4(10), 1166–1168 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, “Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 82–83 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

K. Kikuchi, C.-E. Zah, T.-P. Lee, “Amplitude-modulation sideband injection locking characteristics of semiconductor lasers and their application,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(12), 1821–1830 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Achouche, M.

M. Chtioui, F. Lelarge, A. Enard, F. Pommereau, D. Carpentier, A. Marceaux, F. van Dijk, M. Achouche, “High responsivity and high power UTC and MUTC GaInAS-InP photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 318–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Aeppli, G.

G. W. Morley, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, P. T. Greenland, J. van Tol, C. W. M. Kay, G. Aeppli, “The initialization and manipulation of quantum information stored in silicon by bismuth dopants,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 725–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. T. Greenland, S. A. Lynch, A. F. G. van der Meer, B. N. Murdin, C. R. Pidgeon, B. Redlich, N. Q. Vinh, G. Aeppli, “Coherent control of Rydberg states in silicon,” Nature 465(7301), 1057–1061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aers, G. C.

H. Luo, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. C. Aers, H. C. Liu, J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser based on a three-well active module,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ajito, K.

H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “Uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module generating 300 GHz power greater than 1 mW,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(7), 363–365 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
[CrossRef]

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Hirata, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, “8 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 250 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 45(22), 1121–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Akalin, T.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 μm THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1349–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alhathlool, R.

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 37–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Alton, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, D.

W. K. Hew, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, “Incipient formation of an electron lattice in a weakly confined quantum wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bacquet, D.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 μm THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1349–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ban, D.

Barbieri, S.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, S. Barbieri, “Spectral properties of THz quantum-cascade lasers: frequency noise, phase-locking and absolute frequency measurement,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 34(5–6), 342–356 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bartalini, S.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barton, E.

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Beck, A.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 μm THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1349–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Beere, H.

Beere, H. E.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bordonalli, A. C.

Busico, G.

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Callebaut, H.

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Cannard, P.

Cannard, P. J.

O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cao, J. C.

H. Luo, S. R. Laframboise, Z. R. Wasilewski, G. C. Aers, H. C. Liu, J. C. Cao, “Terahertz quantum-cascade laser based on a three-well active module,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(4), 041112 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Carpentier, D.

M. Chtioui, F. Lelarge, A. Enard, F. Pommereau, D. Carpentier, A. Marceaux, F. van Dijk, M. Achouche, “High responsivity and high power UTC and MUTC GaInAS-InP photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 318–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Carpintero, G.

Carter, A. C.

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chan, C. W.

Chtioui, M.

Cole, S.

C. C. Renaud, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gregoire, I. Lealman, P. Cannard, S. Cole, R. Moore, R. Gwilliam, A. J. Seeds, “A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(11), 998–1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Consolino, L.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cronin, R.

Cunningham, J.

O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Davies, A. G.

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 37–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2587–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Natale, P.

M. S. Vitiello, L. Consolino, S. Bartalini, A. Taschin, A. Tredicucci, M. Inguscio, P. De Natale, “Quantum-limited frequency fluctuations in a terahertz laser,” Nat. Photonics 6(8), 525–528 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Dean, P.

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 37–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2587–2589 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dhillon, S. S.

N. Jukam, S. S. Dhillon, D. Oustinov, J. Madeo, C. Manquest, S. Barbieri, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, J. Tignon, “Terahertz amplifier based on gain switching in a quantum cascade laser,” Nat. Photonics 3(12), 715–719 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dietz, R. J. B.

Doehler, G. H.

S. Preu, G. H. Doehler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, A. C. Gossard, “Tunable continuous wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Duck, J. P.

A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ducournau, G.

G. Ducournau, P. Szriftgiser, D. Bacquet, A. Beck, T. Akalin, E. Peytavit, M. Zaknoune, J. F. Lampin, “Optically power supplied Gbit/s wireless hotspot using 1.55 μm THz photomixer and heterodyne detection at 200 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 46(19), 1349–1350 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dupont, E.

Eisele, H.

H. Eisele, “480GHz oscillator with an InP Gunn device,” Electron. Lett. 46(6), 422–423 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Enami, T.

M. Kourogi, T. Enami, M. Ohtsu, “A monolithic optical frequency comb generator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 6(2), 214–217 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Enard, A.

M. Chtioui, F. Lelarge, A. Enard, F. Pommereau, D. Carpentier, A. Marceaux, F. van Dijk, M. Achouche, “High responsivity and high power UTC and MUTC GaInAS-InP photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 318–320 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Endo, M.

M. Endo, “Optical frequency comb generator using a single-sideband suppressed-carrier modulation in an amplified circulating fiber loop,” Laser Phys. 12(4), 679–683 (2002).

Farrer, I.

W. K. Hew, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, “Incipient formation of an electron lattice in a weakly confined quantum wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fathololoumi, S.

Federici, J.

L. Moeller, J. Federici, K. Su, “THz wireless communications: 2.5 Gb/s error-free transmission at 625 GHz using a narrow-bandwidth 1 mW THz source,” XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (2011).
[CrossRef]

Fice, M. J.

Filloux, P.

Firth, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, J.

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Furuta, T.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Hirata, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, “8 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 250 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 45(22), 1121–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gellie, P.

M. Ravaro, V. Jagtap, C. Manquest, P. Gellie, G. Santarelli, C. Sirtori, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, S. Barbieri, “Spectral properties of THz quantum-cascade lasers: frequency noise, phase-locking and absolute frequency measurement,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 34(5–6), 342–356 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Gellie, S. Barbieri, J. F. Lampin, P. Filloux, C. Manquest, C. Sirtori, I. Sagnes, S. P. Khanna, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, H. Beere, D. Ritchie, “Injection-locking of terahertz quantum cascade lasers up to 35GHz using RF amplitude modulation,” Opt. Express 18(20), 20799–20816 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gerhard, M.

Gossard, A. C.

S. Preu, G. H. Doehler, S. Malzer, L. J. Wang, A. C. Gossard, “Tunable continuous wave terahertz photomixer sources and applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(6), 061301 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Graham, C.

M. Natrella, O. Mitrofanov, R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, “Modelling of surface waves on a THz antenna detected by a near-field probe,” Opt. Express 20(14), 16023–16031 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Greenland, P. T.

P. T. Greenland, S. A. Lynch, A. F. G. van der Meer, B. N. Murdin, C. R. Pidgeon, B. Redlich, N. Q. Vinh, G. Aeppli, “Coherent control of Rydberg states in silicon,” Nature 465(7301), 1057–1061 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. W. Morley, M. Warner, A. M. Stoneham, P. T. Greenland, J. van Tol, C. W. M. Kay, G. Aeppli, “The initialization and manipulation of quantum information stored in silicon by bismuth dopants,” Nat. Mater. 9(9), 725–729 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gregoire, S.

C. C. Renaud, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gregoire, I. Lealman, P. Cannard, S. Cole, R. Moore, R. Gwilliam, A. J. Seeds, “A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(11), 998–1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gwilliam, R.

C. C. Renaud, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gregoire, I. Lealman, P. Cannard, S. Cole, R. Moore, R. Gwilliam, A. J. Seeds, “A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(11), 998–1005 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harrington, J. A.

R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Harrison, P.

Hatem, O.

O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hew, W. K.

W. K. Hew, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, “Incipient formation of an electron lattice in a weakly confined quantum wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056804 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hirata, A.

H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Hirata, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, “8 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 250 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 45(22), 1121–1122 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Hu, Q.

S. Fathololoumi, E. Dupont, C. W. Chan, Z. R. Wasilewski, S. R. Laframboise, D. Ban, A. Mátyás, C. Jirauschek, Q. Hu, H. C. Liu, “Terahertz quantum cascade lasers operating up to ∼ 200 K with optimized oscillator strength and improved injection tunneling,” Opt. Express 20(4), 3866–3876 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. S. Williams, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “High-power terahertz quantum-cascade lasers,” Electron. Lett. 42(2), 89–91 (2006).
[CrossRef]

B. S. Williams, H. Callebaut, S. Kumar, Q. Hu, J. L. Reno, “3.4-THz quantum cascade laser based on longitudinal-optical-phonon scattering for depopulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(7), 1015–1017 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Ikonic, Z.

Indjin, D.

A. Valavanis, P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, R. Alhathlool, M. Nikolić, R. Kliese, S. P. Khanna, D. Indjin, S. J. Wilson, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Self-mixing interferometry with terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” IEEE Sens. J. 13(1), 37–43 (2013).
[CrossRef]

P. Dean, Y. L. Lim, A. Valavanis, R. Kliese, M. Nikolić, S. P. Khanna, M. Lachab, D. Indjin, Z. Ikonić, P. Harrison, A. D. Rakić, E. H. Linfield, A. G. Davies, “Terahertz imaging through self-mixing in a quantum cascade laser,” Opt. Lett. 36(13), 2587–2589 (2011).
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C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
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Ritchie, D. A.

W. K. Hew, K. J. Thomas, M. Pepper, I. Farrer, D. Anderson, G. A. C. Jones, D. A. Ritchie, “Incipient formation of an electron lattice in a weakly confined quantum wire,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(5), 056804 (2009).
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A. J. Ward, D. J. Robbins, G. Busico, E. Barton, L. Ponnampalam, J. P. Duck, N. D. Whitbread, P. J. Williams, D. C. J. Reid, A. C. Carter, M. J. Wale, “Widely tunable DS-DBR laser with monolithically integrated SOA: Design and performance,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 11(1), 149–156 (2005).
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C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
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E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-based photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 509–517 (2012).
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O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
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E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. G. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, “Traveling-wave uni-traveling carrier photodiodes for continuous wave THz generation,” Opt. Express 18(11), 11105–11110 (2010).
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C. C. Renaud, M. Robertson, D. Rogers, R. Firth, P. J. Cannard, R. Moore, A. J. Seeds, “A high responsivity, broadband waveguide uni-travelling carrier photodiode,” Proc. SPIE 61940, 61940C (2006).
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Rouvalis, E.

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O. Hatem, J. Cunningham, E. H. Linfield, C. D. Wood, A. G. Davies, P. J. Cannard, M. J. Robertson, D. G. Moodie, “Terahertz-frequency photoconductive detectors fabricated from metal-organic chemical vapor deposition-grown Fe-doped InGaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(12), 121107 (2011).
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Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

S. Barbieri, J. Alton, H. E. Beere, J. Fowler, E. H. Linfield, D. A. Ritchie, “2.9 THz quantum cascade laser operating up to 70 K in continuous wave,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(10), 1674–1676 (2004).
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H.-J. Song, K. Ajito, A. Hirata, A. Wakatsuki, Y. Muramoto, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, T. Nagatsuma, Y. Kado, “8 Gbit/s wireless data transmission at 250 GHz,” Electron. Lett. 45(22), 1121–1122 (2009).
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R. T. Ramos, A. J. Seeds, “Fast heterodyne optical phase-lock loop using double quantum well laser diodes,” Electron. Lett. 28(1), 82–83 (1992).
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H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “24 Gbit/s data transmission in 300 GHz band for future terahertz communications,” Electron. Lett. 48(15), 953–954 (2012).
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IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. C. Renaud, M. Pantouvaki, S. Gregoire, I. Lealman, P. Cannard, S. Cole, R. Moore, R. Gwilliam, A. J. Seeds, “A monolithic MQW InP/InGaAsP-based comb generator,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 43(11), 998–1005 (2007).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

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IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. (1)

H. J. Song, K. Ajito, Y. Muramoto, A. Wakatsuki, T. Nagatsuma, N. Kukutsu, “Uni-travelling-carrier photodiode module generating 300 GHz power greater than 1 mW,” IEEE Microw. Wirel. Compon. Lett. 22(7), 363–365 (2012).
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IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (2)

E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, D. Moodie, M. J. Robertson, A. J. Seeds, “Continuous wave terahertz generation from ultra-fast InP-based photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 509–517 (2012).
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E. Rouvalis, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, “Millimeter-wave optoelectronic mixers based on uni-traveling carrier photodiodes,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 60(3), 686–691 (2012).
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R. Mueckstein, C. Graham, C. C. Renaud, A. J. Seeds, J. A. Harrington, O. Mitrofanov, “Imaging and analysis of THz surface plasmon polariton waves with the integrated sub-wavelength aperture probe,” J. Infrared Milli. Terahz. Waves 32(8–9), 1031–1042 (2011).
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Nature (1)

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Other (15)

T. Nagatsuma, H. Song, Y. Fujimoto, K. Miyake, A. Hirata, K. Ajito, A. Wakatsuki, T. Furuta, N. Kukutsu, and Y. Kado, “Giga-bit wireless link using 300-400 GHz bands,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2009 (2009).

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V. Rymanov, M. Palandoeken, S. Lutzmann, B. Bouhlal, T. Tekin, and A. Stoehr, “Integrated photonic 71-76 GHz transmitter module employing high linearity double mushroom type 1.55 µm waveguide photodiodes,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2012, 253–256 (2012).
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C. C. Renaud, L. Ponnampalam, F. Pozzi, E. Rouvalis, D. Moodie, M. Robertson, and A. J. Seeds, “Photonically enabled communication systems beyond 1000 GHz,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2008, 55–58 (2008).
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L. Moeller, J. Federici, K. Su, “THz wireless communications: 2.5 Gb/s error-free transmission at 625 GHz using a narrow-bandwidth 1 mW THz source,” XXXth URSI General Assembly and Scientific Symposium (2011).
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K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, L. Ponnampalam, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneable monolithically integrated photonic THz heterodyne system,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2012, 286–289 (2012).
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L. Ponnampalam, R. J. Steed, M. J. Fice, C. C. Renaud, D. C. Rogers, D. G. Moodie, G. D. Maxwell, I. F. Lealman, M. J. Robertson, L. Pavlovic, L. Naglic, M. Vidmar, and A. J. Seeds, “A compact tunable coherent terahertz source based on an hybrid integrated optical phase-lock loop,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2010, 151–154 (2010).
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S. Ristic, A. Bhardwaj, M. J. Rodwell, L. A. Coldren, and L. A. Johansson, “Heterodyne locking of an integrated optical phase-locked loop,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2009 (2009).

K. Balakier, M. J. Fice, L. Ponnampalam, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “Tuneability of monolithically integrated optical phase lock loop for THz generation,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2013 (2013).

F. van Dijk, M. Lamponi, M. Chtioui, F. Lelarge, G. Kervella, E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, M. J. Fice, and G. Carpintero, “Heterodyne millimeter wave source with monolithically integrated UTC photodiodes,” International Topical Meeting on Microwave Photonics (MWP) 2013 (2013).

C. Sydlo, M. Feiginov, T. Goebel, D. Schoenherr, P. Meissner, and H. L. Hartnagel, “Electro-optical THz phase control,” Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) 2011 (2011).

M. J. Fice, E. Rouvalis, C. C. Renaud, and A. J. Seeds, “1 Gb/s wireless link at 200 GHz using heterodyne detection,” IEEE International Microwave Symposium (IMS) 2012 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Koenig, F. Boes, D. Lopez-Diaz, J. Antes, R. Henneberger, R. Schmogrow, D. Hillerkuss, R. Palmer, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, O. Ambacher, I. Kallfass, and J. Leuthold, “100 Gbit/s wireless link with mm-wave photonics,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2013, paper PDP5B.4 (2013).

S. Koenig, J. Antes, D. Lopez-Diaz, I. Kallfass, T. Zwick, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed wireless bridge at 220 GHz connecting two fiber-optic links each spanning up to 20 km,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2012, paper OM2B.1 (2012).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the THz coherent system including the local oscillator, emitter and receiver.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum of the OFCG (in blue) and the 800 GHz heterodyne signal between two tuneable lasers (in red).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the integrated photonic heterodyne OPLL THz source. Red lines correspond to optical components. Green lines correspond to electrical paths and components.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Beat note spectra at 2.5 GHz (RBW = 100 kHz, VBW = 10 kHz); (b) phase noise measurement of the phase locked heterodyne signal at 2.5 GHz, 14.5 GHz and 21.5 GHz.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative output power from an integrated UTC PD with dual DFB lasers at different frequencies [27] SI: Semi Insulating; N: N doped.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Directivity in dBi. The bow-tie antenna is 600 µm long and has a 60° angle. The InP substrate is 400 µm thick. The silicon lens has a 2 mm diameter.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Radiation efficiency in dB calculated in the conical solid angle centered on the axis origin and defined by an angle of 30° with respect to the z negative semi axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Figure of merit of UTC-PD emitters from 100 GHz to 1.6 THz.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Recent examples of record output power as a function of frequency for UTC-PDs compared to other photodetectors [6, 3237].

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Demonstration of wireless transmission of 1 Gb/s OOK data at 200 GHz [54]: (a) experimental arrangement; (b) BER results for offline processing emulating envelope and synchronous detection.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Coherent imaging of a set of objects using a coherent QCL based system [57, 58].

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