Abstract

A new active-passive monolithic integration approach for photonic components based on vertical evanescent coupling is presented. Two vertically stacked waveguides are used in order to provide full resonant power transfer between them and avoiding the need of tapered structures. Light confinement in each waveguide is achieved combining strong lateral asymmetric structures and bent waveguides, both defined during lithography. Low propagation losses for the active waveguide and coupling efficiencies to the passive section as high as 97% have been obtained.

© 2013 OSA

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2011 (1)

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, Y. S. Oei, U. Khalique, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “InP-based photonic circuits: Comparison of monolithic integration techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(4), 135–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (4)

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration: Si or InP substrates?” Electron. Lett.45(12), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

C. Cole, B. Huebner, and J. E. Johnson, “Photonic integration for high-volume, low-cost applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(3), S16–S22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Grasso, P. Galli, M. Romagnoli, E. Iannone, and A. Bogoni, “Role of integrated photonics technologies in the realization of terabit nodes [Invited],” J. Opt. Commun. Netw.1(3), B111–B119 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Hu and C. R. Menyuk, “Understanding leaky modes: Slab waveguide revisited,” Adv. Opt. Photonics1(1), 58–106 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2005 (3)

F. Xia, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part I - Concepts and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 17–29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part II-devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

M. Lundstrom, “Applied physics. Moore’s law forever?” Science299(5604), 210–211 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. D. Meindl, Q. Chen, and J. A. Davis, “Limits on silicon nanoelectronics for terascale integration,” Science293(5537), 2044–2049 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, J. C. Dries, and S. R. Forrest, “Monolithic integration of a quantum-well laser and an optical amplifier using an asymmetric twin-waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(8), 1088–1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (2)

C. Vassallo and J. M. Van Der Keur, “Comparison of a few transparent boundary conditions for finite-difference optical mode-solvers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(2), 397–402 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2031–2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

A. S. Sudbo, “Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.5(3), 342–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada, and K. Hayashi, “Integrated Twin-Guide AlGaAs laser with multiheterostructure,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE11(7), 457–460 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973 (1)

A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE9(9), 919–933 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Augustin, L. M.

Babic, D. I.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2031–2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Baets, R.

Barton, J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Beheshti, N.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Blumenthal, D. J.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Bogoni, A.

Bostak, J. S.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Bowers, J. E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration: Si or InP substrates?” Electron. Lett.45(12), 578–581 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2031–2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Burmeister, E.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Butrie, T.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Q.

J. D. Meindl, Q. Chen, and J. A. Davis, “Limits on silicon nanoelectronics for terascale integration,” Science293(5537), 2044–2049 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coldren, L. A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cole, C.

C. Cole, B. Huebner, and J. E. Johnson, “Photonic integration for high-volume, low-cost applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(3), S16–S22 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Corzine, S.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Davis, J. A.

J. D. Meindl, Q. Chen, and J. A. Davis, “Limits on silicon nanoelectronics for terascale integration,” Science293(5537), 2044–2049 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

de Laat, W. J. M.

Dentai, A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Dentai, A. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dominic, V. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Dries, J. C.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, J. C. Dries, and S. R. Forrest, “Monolithic integration of a quantum-well laser and an optical amplifier using an asymmetric twin-waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(8), 1088–1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Dummer, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Epps, G.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Evans, P. W.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Fang, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Forrest, S. R.

F. Xia, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part I - Concepts and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 17–29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part II-devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, J. C. Dries, and S. R. Forrest, “Monolithic integration of a quantum-well laser and an optical amplifier using an asymmetric twin-waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(8), 1088–1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Galarza, M.

Galli, P.

Ganjali, Y.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Garcia, J.

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ntzel, R.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, Y. S. Oei, U. Khalique, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “InP-based photonic circuits: Comparison of monolithic integration techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(4), 135–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y. S.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, Y. S. Oei, U. Khalique, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “InP-based photonic circuits: Comparison of monolithic integration techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(4), 135–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Oei, Y.-S.

Pennypacker, S. C.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Perkins, J.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Peters, F. H.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Pleumeekers, J.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Pleumeekers, J. L.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Poulsen,

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Reffle, D. G.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Romagnoli, M.

Salvatore, R. A.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schlenker, R. K.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, R. P.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schramm, J. E.

J. E. Schramm, D. I. Babic, E. L. Hu, J. E. Bowers, and J. L. Merz, “Fabrication of high-aspect-ratio InP-based vertical-cavity laser mirrors using CH4/H2/O2/Ar reactive ion etching,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B15(6), 2031–2036 (1997).
[CrossRef]

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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, Y. S. Oei, U. Khalique, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “InP-based photonic circuits: Comparison of monolithic integration techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(4), 135–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y.-S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(3), 740–746 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Stamenic, A.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Studenkov, P. V.

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, J. C. Dries, and S. R. Forrest, “Monolithic integration of a quantum-well laser and an optical amplifier using an asymmetric twin-waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(8), 1088–1090 (1998).
[CrossRef]

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A. S. Sudbo, “Numerically stable formulation of the transverse resonance method for vector mode-field calculations in dielectric waveguides,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.5(3), 342–344 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suematsu, Y.

Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada, and K. Hayashi, “Integrated Twin-Guide AlGaAs laser with multiheterostructure,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE11(7), 457–460 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sysak, M.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Tauke-Pedretti, H.

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Taylor, R. B.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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C. Vassallo and J. M. Van Der Keur, “Comparison of a few transparent boundary conditions for finite-difference optical mode-solvers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(2), 397–402 (1997).
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J. J. G. M. Van Der Tol, Y. S. Oei, U. Khalique, R. Ntzel, and M. K. Smit, “InP-based photonic circuits: Comparison of monolithic integration techniques,” Prog. Quantum Electron.34(4), 135–172 (2010).
[CrossRef]

L. M. Augustin, J. J. G. M. van der Tol, R. Hanfoug, W. J. M. de Laat, M. J. E. van de Moosdijk, P. W. L. van Dijk, Y.-S. Oei, and M. K. Smit, “A single etch-step fabrication-tolerant polarization splitter,” J. Lightwave Technol.25(3), 740–746 (2007).
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van Dijk, P. W. L.

Van Leeuwen, J.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Van Thourhout, D.

Vassallo, C.

C. Vassallo and J. M. Van Der Keur, “Comparison of a few transparent boundary conditions for finite-difference optical mode-solvers,” J. Lightwave Technol.15(2), 397–402 (1997).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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Welch, D.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Welch, D. F.

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
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V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part II-devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
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F. Xia, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part I - Concepts and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 17–29 (2005).
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Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada, and K. Hayashi, “Integrated Twin-Guide AlGaAs laser with multiheterostructure,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE11(7), 457–460 (1975).
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A. Yariv, “Coupled-mode theory for guided-wave optics,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE9(9), 919–933 (1973).
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R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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D. Liang and J. E. Bowers, “Photonic integration: Si or InP substrates?” Electron. Lett.45(12), 578–581 (2009).
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C. Cole, B. Huebner, and J. E. Johnson, “Photonic integration for high-volume, low-cost applications,” IEEE Commun. Mag.47(3), S16–S22 (2009).
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Y. Suematsu, M. Yamada, and K. Hayashi, “Integrated Twin-Guide AlGaAs laser with multiheterostructure,” IEEE J Quantum Electron QE11(7), 457–460 (1975).
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IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (5)

F. Xia, V. M. Menon, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part I - Concepts and theory,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 17–29 (2005).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Menon, F. Xia, and S. R. Forrest, “Photonic integration using Asymmetric Twin-Waveguide (ATG) technology: Part II-devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 30–42 (2005).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, C. H. Joyner, R. P. Schneider, J. S. Bostak, T. Butrie, A. G. Dentai, V. G. Dominic, P. W. Evans, M. Kato, M. Kauffman, D. J. H. Lambert, S. K. Mathis, A. Mathur, R. H. Miles, M. L. Mitchell, M. J. Missey, S. Murthy, A. C. Nilsson, F. H. Peters, S. C. Pennypacker, J. L. Pleumeekers, R. A. Salvatore, R. K. Schlenker, R. B. Taylor, M. F. Huan-Shang Tsai, J. Van Leeuwen, M. Webjorn, D. Ziari, J. Perkins, S. G. Singh, M. S. Grubb, D. G. Reffle, F. A. Mehuys, Kish, and D. F. Welch, “Large-scale photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.11(1), 50–65 (2005).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Blumenthal, J. Barton, N. Beheshti, J. E. Bowers, E. Burmeister, L. A. Coldren, M. Dummer, G. Epps, A. Fang, Y. Ganjali, J. Garcia, B. Koch, V. Lal, E. Lively, J. Mack, M. Mašanović, N. McKeown, K. Nguyen, S. C. Nicholes, B. Hyundai Park, A. Stamenic, H. Tauke-Pedretti, Poulsen, and M. Sysak, “Integrated photonics for low-power packet networking,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.17(2), 458–471 (2011).
[CrossRef]

R. Nagarajan, M. Kato, J. Pleumeekers, P. Evans, S. Corzine, S. Hurtt, A. Dentai, S. Murthy, M. Missey, R. Muthiah, R. A. Salvatore, C. Joyner, R. Schneider, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “InP photonic integrated circuits,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.16(5), 1113–1125 (2010).
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IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

P. V. Studenkov, M. R. Gokhale, J. C. Dries, and S. R. Forrest, “Monolithic integration of a quantum-well laser and an optical amplifier using an asymmetric twin-waveguide structure,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(8), 1088–1090 (1998).
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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic drawing of the proposed new integration approach. The insets show the field distribution of the propagation modes in each section.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Layer structure of the vertically phase matched cores. (b) Refractive index and normalized mode profiles of the even and odd supermodes of the structure. Φe and Φo are respectively, the even and odd mode profiles of the structure. (c) Transverse structure of the waveguides in each region of the device.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Schematic representation of the coupled waveguides system in the active region A, formed by a rib waveguide over a slab one. (b) Modal field distribution of the fundamental eigenmode of the structure. (c) Modal field distribution of the first order eigenmode of the structure.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Three dimensional representation of the proposed integration approach with a passive waveguide, a resonant coupler and a bent active waveguide. ρ represents the bending radius of the active waveguide. (b) Cross-section of the simulated structure and detail of the boundaries used in the simulation: PMC stands for perfect magnetic conductor.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Calculated loss for the first order supermode of the structure as a function of bend radius for different rib widths and TE polarization.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Imaginary part of the effective index as a function of the bending radius and rib width (TE polarization).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Total propagation loss (bend and leaky) as a function rib width variations for the optimum loss working points shown in Table 1 (TE polarization).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Coupling efficiency between the upper and lower core (TE polarization).

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Coupler efficiency as a function of width variations for each target waveguide width and its corresponding optimal coupler length. (TE polarization).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Coupling efficiency as a function of waveguide refractive index variations. The target quaternary refractive index is 3.297 (TE polarization).

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Minimum leaky and bending loss radius for each rib width

Equations (1)

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Φ e (z)= 1 2 | ( 1 δ S ) 1 2 ( 1+ δ S ) 1 2 | e i β e z , Φ o (z)= 1 2 | ( 1+ δ S ) 1 2 + ( 1 δ S ) 1 2 | e i β o z

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