Abstract

We propose two designs of nanoscale sub-fF germanium photodiodes which are efficiently integrated with silicon waveguides. The metal-optic cavities are simulated with the finite difference time domain method and optimized using critical coupling concepts. One design is for a metal semiconductor metal photodiode with <200 aF capacitance, 39% external quantum efficiency, and 0.588 (λ/n)3 cavity volume at 1.5µm wavelength. The second design is for a vertical p-i-n photodiode with <100 aF capacitance, 51% external quantum efficiency, and 0.804 (λ/n)3 cavity volume. Both designs make use of CMOS compatible materials germanium and aluminum metal for potential future monolithic integration with silicon photonics.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (5)

2010 (4)

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (4)

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Chen and M. Lipson, “Ultra-low capacitance and high speed germanium photodetectors on silicon,” Opt. Express17(10), 7901–7906 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

2004 (1)

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in Silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits13(1), 180–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Adibi, A.

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ang, K.-W.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bedell, S. W.

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Cassan, E.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Cercus, J.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Chen, L.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Davids, P. S.

de Vries, T.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

de Waardt, H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Deal, M.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

DeRose, C. T.

Ding, K.

Ding, Q.

Dosunmu, O.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Eijkemans, T. J.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Emsley, M.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Fainman, Y.

Fang, A.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, M.

Geluk, E. J.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ghyselen, B.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Halbwax, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Hartmann, J.-M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Heitzmann, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Hill, M. T.

Jones, R.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jongthammanurak, S.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jung, W. S.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Karouta, F.

Kim, M.-K.

Kimerling, L.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Kimerling, L. C.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kocabas, S. E.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Koch, B.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, S.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D.-L.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lakhani, A. M.

Latif, S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Laval, S.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Lee, S.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, Y.-H.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Leong, E. S. P.

Li, Q.

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liang, D.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Liu, L.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Liu, Z. C.

Lo, G.-Q.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lomakin, V.

Ly-Gagnon, D.-S.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Marell, M.

Michel, J.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mizrahi, A.

Ning, C. Z.

Ning, C.-Z.

Notzel, R.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nötzel, R.

Oei, Y.-S.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Okyay, A. K.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Pan, D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Pascal, D.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Plummer, J.

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Ren, F.-F.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ren, S.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rice, P. M.

Roelkens, G.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rouviere, M.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Saraswat, K. C.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Schroder, D. K.

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in Silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits13(1), 180–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Smalbrugge, B.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, M. K.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Soltani, M.

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Starbuck, A. L.

Sun, M.

Swartz, J. C.

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in Silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits13(1), 180–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Tang, L.

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Taubenblatt, M. A.

Thomas, R. N.

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in Silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits13(1), 180–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Topuria, T.

Trotter, D. C.

Turkiewicz, J. P.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Unlu, M.

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

van Otten, F. W. M.

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

van Veldhoven, P. J.

Vivien, L.

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Vlasov, Y. A.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Wang, J.

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Watts, M. R.

Wu, M. C.

Xia, F.

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Assefa, F. Xia, S. W. Bedell, Y. Zhang, T. Topuria, P. M. Rice, and Y. A. Vlasov, “CMOS-integrated high-speed MSM germanium waveguide photodetector,” Opt. Express18(5), 4986–4999 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yegnanarayanan, S.

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yin, L. J.

Yu, H.-Y.

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Yu, M.

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Zhu, Y.

M. T. Hill, M. Marell, E. S. P. Leong, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, M. Sun, P. J. van Veldhoven, E. J. Geluk, F. Karouta, Y.-S. Oei, R. Nötzel, C.-Z. Ning, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metal-insulator-metal sub-wavelength plasmonic waveguides,” Opt. Express17(13), 11107–11112 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Zortman, W. A.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett.89(16), 161115 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

H.-Y. Yu, S. Ren, W. S. Jung, A. K. Okyay, D. A. B. Miller, and K. C. Saraswat, “High-efficiency p-i-n photodetectors on selective-area-grown Ge for monolithic integration,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.30(11), 1161–1163 (2009).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Soltani, S. Yegnanarayanan, Q. Li, and A. Adibi, “Systematic engineering of waveguide-resonator coupling for silicon microring/microdisk/racetrack resonators: theory and experiment,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.46(8), 1158–1169 (2010).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

O. Dosunmu, D. Cannon, M. Emsley, B. Ghyselen, J. Liu, L. Kimerling, and M. Unlu, “Resonant cavity enhanced Ge photodetectors for 1550 nm operation on reflecting Si substrates,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.10(4), 694–701 (2004).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits (1)

D. K. Schroder, R. N. Thomas, and J. C. Swartz, “Free carrier absorption in Silicon,” IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits13(1), 180–187 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

Y. Liu, M. Deal, and J. Plummer, “Rapid melt growth of Germanium crystals with self-aligned microcrucibles on Si substrates,” J. Electrochem. Soc.152(8), G688–G693 (2005).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and inter-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photon. Rev.4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nano Lett. (1)

F.-F. Ren, K.-W. Ang, J. Ye, M. Yu, G.-Q. Lo, and D.-L. Kwong, “Split Bull’s eye shaped aluminum antenna for plasmon-enhanced nanometer scale germanium photodetector,” Nano Lett.11(3), 1289–1293 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

L. Tang, S. E. Kocabas, S. Latif, A. K. Okyay, D.-S. Ly-Gagnon, K. C. Saraswat, and D. A. B. Miller, “Nanometre-scale germanium photodetector enhanced by a near-infrared dipole antenna,” Nat. Photonics2(4), 226–229 (2008).
[CrossRef]

M. T. Hill, Y.-S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. de Vries, P. J. van Veldhoven, F. W. M. van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. de Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S.-H. Kwon, Y.-H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

S. Assefa, F. Xia, and Y. A. Vlasov, “Reinventing Germanium avalanche photodetector for nanophotonic on-chip optical interconnects,” Nature464(7285), 80–84 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

M. Rouviere, M. Halbwax, J. Cercus, E. Cassan, L. Vivien, D. Pascal, M. Heitzmann, J.-M. Hartmann, and S. Laval, “Integration of germanium waveguide photodetectors for intrachip optical interconnects,” Opt. Eng.44, 075402 (2005).

Opt. Express (6)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sensors (Basel) (1)

J. Wang and S. Lee, “Ge-photodetectors for Si-based optoelectronic integration,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 696–718 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. F. Potter, “Germanium (Ge),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, Palik, E. D., ed. (Academic Press, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 465–478.

H. A. Haus, Waves and Fields in Optoelectronics (Prentice Hall, 1983).

D. Y. Smith, E. Shiles, and M. Inokuti, “The Optical Properties of Metallic Aluminum,” in Handbook of Optical Contstants of Solids, Palik, E. D., ed. (Academic Press, 1985), Vol. 1, pp. 369–406.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) 3-D drawing of the proposed device showing the metal-clad box sitting on the terminated input waveguide. Splitting down the center of the waveguide shows (b) the interior components of the cavity and device can be seen.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) 3-D drawing of the vertical p-i-n photodiode showing aluminum metal totally enclosing the active germanium. (b) A cut down the center of the input waveguide shows the internal cavity with top and bottom silicon contacts, while (c) a slice in the substrate plane reveals the lateral cavity dimensions as well as the side silicon contacts.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Shows the electric energy density of the resonant mode. (b) Electric field profile with completely enclosed metal box. (c) Electric field profile with the metal gap parallel to the waveguide, and (d) perpendicular to the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Simulated quality factors and total quantum efficiency for a variation in the nitride spacer thickness demonstrates the critical coupling effect in this structure.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Simulated quantum efficiency plotted against spacer thickness and metal gap. (b) Resonant wavelength versus the lateral germanium dimensions, showing how the wavelength can be tailored.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Side-profile of the electric energy density in dB scale. (b) Electric energy density slice with electric field vectors showing similar doughnut mode. (c) Electric energy density of slice of the device showing the side silicon waveguide contacts.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Matching the absorption and radiation Q by altering the germanium thickness.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

(a) Simulated quantum efficiency as a function of the silicon contact length dimensions as well as (b) how to tune the resonant wavelength by changing the germanium lateral dimensions.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Summary of key parameters simulated and calculated from the two designs presented.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η abs = 4 Q 2 Q Ge Q rad

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