Abstract

Optoelectronic oscillators (OEOs) are hybrid RF-photonic devices that promise to be environmentally robust high-frequency RF sources with very low phase noise. Previously, we showed that Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in optical fibers coupled with amplitude-to-phase noise conversion in photodetectors and amplifiers leads to fiber-length-dependent noise in OEOs. In this work, we report on two methods for the suppression of this fiber-length-dependent noise: altering the amplitude-dependent phase delay of the OEO loops and suppressing the Rayleigh-scattering-induced noise in optical fibers. We report a 20 dB reduction in the flicker phase noise of a 6 km OEO via these suppression techniques.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  2. X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. O. Okusaga, W. Zhou, E. Levy, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Non-ideal loop-length-dependence of phase noise in OEOs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CFB3.
    [CrossRef]
  4. P. A. Williams, W. C. Swann, and N. R. Newbury, “High-stability transfer of an optical frequency over long fiber-optic links,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B25(8), 1284–1293 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Volyanskiy, Y. K. Chembo, L. Larger, and E. Rubiola, “Contribution of laser frequency and power fluctuations to the microwave phase noise of optoelectronic oscillators,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(18), 2730–2735 (2010).
    [CrossRef]
  6. O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, W. Zhou, A. Docherty, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optical scattering induced noise in in RF-photonic systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 1−6.
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, 2008), Chap. 9.
  9. O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, W. Zhou, and C. R. Menyuk, “Guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 683–685 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. A. Docherty, O. Okusaga, C. R. Menyuk, W. Zhou, and G. M. Carter, “Theoretical investigation of length-dependent noise flicker-phase noise in opto-electronic oscillators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFM1.
    [CrossRef]
  11. J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Okusaga, W. Zhou, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, and C. R. Menyuk, “Fiber-induced degradation in RF-over-fiber links,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2012), pp. 1−5.
  13. F. Quinlan, C. Williams, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Self-stabilization of the optical frequencies and the pulse repetition rate in a coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2571–2577 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (1)

2008 (2)

2007 (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1996 (2)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Arcizet, O.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cahill, J.

Cahill, J. P.

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Chembo, Y. K.

Cundiff, S. T.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Datta, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Del’Haye, P.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Delfyett, P. J.

Diddams, S.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Diddams, S. A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Docherty, A.

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, W. Zhou, and C. R. Menyuk, “Guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 683–685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gee, S.

Hall, J. L.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hati, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Holzwarth, R.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jones, D. J.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Joshi, A.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Kippenberg, T. J.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Larger, L.

Maleki, L.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Menyuk, C. R.

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, W. Zhou, and C. R. Menyuk, “Guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 683–685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nelson, C.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, N. R.

Okusaga, O.

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, W. Zhou, and C. R. Menyuk, “Guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 683–685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ozharar, S.

Quinlan, F.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

F. Quinlan, C. Williams, S. Ozharar, S. Gee, and P. J. Delfyett, “Self-stabilization of the optical frequencies and the pulse repetition rate in a coupled optoelectronic oscillator,” J. Lightwave Technol.26(15), 2571–2577 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Ranka, J. K.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubiola, E.

Schliesser, A.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stentz, A.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Swann, W. C.

Taylor, J.

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Volyanskiy, K.

Wilken, T.

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williams, C.

Williams, P. A.

Windeler, R. S.

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, X. S.

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic microwave oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B13(8), 1725–1735 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, W.

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, W. Zhou, and C. R. Menyuk, “Guided entropy mode Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett.37(4), 683–685 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. S. Yao and L. Maleki, “Optoelectronic oscillator for photonic systems,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.32(7), 1141–1149 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. J. (2)

A. Docherty, C. R. Menyuk, J. P. Cahill, O. Okusaga, and W. Zhou, “Rayleigh-scattering-induced RIN and amplitude-to-phase conversion as a source of length-dependent phase noise in OEOs,” IEEE Photon. J.5(2), 5500514 (2013).
[CrossRef]

J. Taylor, S. Datta, A. Hati, C. Nelson, F. Quinlan, A. Joshi, and S. Diddams, “Characterization of power-to-phase conversion in high-speed P-I-N photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. J.3(1), 140–151 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nature (1)

P. Del’Haye, A. Schliesser, O. Arcizet, T. Wilken, R. Holzwarth, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Optical frequency comb generation from a monolithic microresonator,” Nature450(7173), 1214–1217 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Science (1)

D. J. Jones, S. A. Diddams, J. K. Ranka, A. Stentz, R. S. Windeler, J. L. Hall, and S. T. Cundiff, “Carrier-envelope phase control of femtosecond mode-locked lasers and direct optical frequency synthesis,” Science288(5466), 635–639 (2000).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (5)

O. Okusaga, W. Zhou, J. Cahill, A. Docherty, and C. R. Menyuk, “Fiber-induced degradation in RF-over-fiber links,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2012), pp. 1−5.

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Elsevier, 2008), Chap. 9.

A. Docherty, O. Okusaga, C. R. Menyuk, W. Zhou, and G. M. Carter, “Theoretical investigation of length-dependent noise flicker-phase noise in opto-electronic oscillators,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper CFM1.
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, W. Zhou, E. Levy, M. Horowitz, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Non-ideal loop-length-dependence of phase noise in OEOs,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2009), paper CFB3.
[CrossRef]

O. Okusaga, J. Cahill, W. Zhou, A. Docherty, G. M. Carter, and C. R. Menyuk, “Optical scattering induced noise in in RF-photonic systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Frequency Control (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, New York, 2011), pp. 1−6.
[CrossRef]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Phase noise plots of 10 GHz single-loop OEOs with varying fiber lengths.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical intensity noise plots of 1550 nm laser signals transmitted over various lengths of optical fiber.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RF gain and phase shift for a 10 GHz RF signal transmitted through a photodetector.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

RF gain and phase shift for a 10 GHz RF signal transmitted through an amplifier block.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase noise plots from a 10 GHz OEO with a 6 km fiber delay with and without optical attenuation before the photodetector.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Phase noise plots from a 10 GHz OEO with a 6 km fiber delay with and without optical attenuation before the second stage amplifier.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Phase noise plots from a 10 GHz OEO with a 6 km fiber delay with and without GEMRS suppression via laser frequency modulation.

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