Abstract

This paper explores practical design considerations for selecting Q for an electro-optical earth imaging system, where Q is defined as (λ FN) / pixel pitch. Analytical methods are used to show that, under imaging conditions with high SNR, increasing Q with fixed aperture cannot lead to degradation of image quality regardless of the angular smear rate of the system. The potential for degradation of image quality under low SNR is bounded by an increase of the detector noise scaling as Q. An imaging test bed is used to collect representative imagery for various Q configurations. The test bed includes real world errors such as image smear and haze. The value of Q is varied by changing the focal length of the imaging system. Imagery is presented over a broad range of parameters.

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. J. R. Fienup, “MTF and Integration Time versus Fill Factor for Sparse-Aperture Imaging Systems,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, edited by J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, Proc. SPIE 4091 (2000).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

2001 (1)

R. D. Fiete and T. A. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.40(4), 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (1)

R. D. Fiete, “Image quality and λFN/p for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.38(7), 1229–1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

Bell, R.

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Cochrane, A.

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Field, D. J.

Fiete, R. D.

R. D. Fiete and T. A. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.40(4), 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Fiete, “Image quality and λFN/p for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.38(7), 1229–1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Kendrick, R. L.

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Schulz, K.

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Smith, E.

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Tantalo, T. A.

R. D. Fiete and T. A. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.40(4), 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

R. D. Fiete, “Image quality and λFN/p for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.38(7), 1229–1240 (1999).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Fiete and T. A. Tantalo, “Comparison of SNR image quality metrics for remote sensing systems,” Opt. Eng.40(4), 574–585 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

R. L. Kendrick, A. Cochrane, K. Schulz, R. Bell, and E. Smith, “Image Quality effects due to image plane sampling: Experimental Results,” in Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XV, Proc. SPIE, 8176 (2011).

Other (4)

A. T. Cochrane, G. C. Robins, G. J. Baker, R. M. Bell, V. G. Zarifis, and B. J. Herman, “Practical aspects of image system validation using transillumination,” in Modeling, Systems Engineering, and Project Management for Astronomy II, edited by M. J. Cullum, G. Z. Angeli, Proc. SPIE 6271 (2006).

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Second Edition (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 1996), Chap. 6.

W. H. Press, B. P. Flannery, S. A. Teukolsky, and W. T. Vetterling, Numerical Recipes, The Art of Scientific Computing, Second Edition (Cambridge University Press, 1997), Chap. 13.

J. R. Fienup, “MTF and Integration Time versus Fill Factor for Sparse-Aperture Imaging Systems,” in Imaging Technology and Telescopes, edited by J. W. Bilbro, J. B. Breckinridge, R. A. Carreras, S. R. Czyzak, M. J. Eckart, R. D. Fiete, P. S. Idell, Proc. SPIE 4091 (2000).

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