Abstract

We investigate a structure consisting of two parallel GaAs thin membranes with an air-slot type photonic crystal (PhC) nanocavity, which is designed to achieve highly efficient optomechanical coupling. The structure shows a large theoretical optomechanical coupling factor of ~990 GHz/nm. We designed, fabricated, and performed optical characterization of a system consisting of a grating coupler, a PhC waveguide, and a PhC nanocavity, which achieves highly efficient vertical emission using the band folding technique. The experimentally obtained overall efficiency is about 0.3% for a microscope objective lens with a moderate numerical aperture of 0.65. This waveguide coupled air-slot PhC nanocavity with efficient vertical light coupling can be useful for on-chip cavity optomechanical systems.

© 2013 OSA

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, “Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator,” Nature 444(7115), 75–78 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
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  12. M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
    [CrossRef]

2012 (3)

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, “GaAs-based air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity for optomechanical oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5204–5212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2011 (2)

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (5)

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical Device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Zheng, J. Gao, J. Shu, M. S. Aras, and C. W. Wong, “Design of dispersive optomechanical coupling and cooling in ultrahigh-Q/V slot-type photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23844–23856 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, “Optical and mechanical design of a “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3802–3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrie, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 489–493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (3)

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Design of a high-Q air-slot cavity based on a width-modulated line-defect in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13809–13817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2006 (3)

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, “Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator,” Nature 444(7115), 75–78 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

2003 (1)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Abe, H.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Akahane, Y.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Alegre, T. P.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Alegre, T. P. M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Almeida, V. R.

Anetsberger, G.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Arakawa, Y.

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Aras, M. S.

Arcizet, O.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Asano, T.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Aspelmeyer, M.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Assefa, S.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Baba, T.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bagci, T.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Barrios, C. A.

Beveratos, A.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bouwmeester, D.

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, “Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator,” Nature 444(7115), 75–78 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braive, R.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Briant, T.

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R.

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, “Optical and mechanical design of a “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3802–3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Camacho, R. M.

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chan, J.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, “Optical and mechanical design of a “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3802–3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cohadon, P. F.

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Combrie, S.

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrie, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Rossi, A.

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrie, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Eichenfield, M.

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, “Optical and mechanical design of a “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3802–3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gao, J.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Zheng, J. Gao, J. Shu, M. S. Aras, and C. W. Wong, “Design of dispersive optomechanical coupling and cooling in ultrahigh-Q/V slot-type photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23844–23856 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gavartin, E.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Girvin, S. M.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gröblacher, S.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Harris, J. G. E.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heidmann, A.

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hill, J. T.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Iwamoto, S.

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Jayich, A. M.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, X.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Karrai, K.

C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432(7020), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kippenberg, T. J.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kita, S.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleckner, D.

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, “Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator,” Nature 444(7115), 75–78 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kotthaus, J. P.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Krause, A.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kuga, T.

Kumagai, N.

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kuramochi, E.

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Design of a high-Q air-slot cavity based on a width-modulated line-defect in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13809–13817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Lin, Q.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lipson, M.

Liu, J.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Lodahl, P.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, F.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McMillan, J. F.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Melholt Nielsen, B.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Metzger, C. H.

C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432(7020), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mitsugi, S.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Naesby, A.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Narimatsu, M.

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Noda, S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nomura, M.

M. Nomura, “GaAs-based air-slot photonic crystal nanocavity for optomechanical oscillators,” Opt. Express 20(5), 5204–5212 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Notomi, M.

T. Yamamoto, M. Notomi, H. Taniyama, E. Kuramochi, Y. Yoshikawa, Y. Torii, and T. Kuga, “Design of a high-Q air-slot cavity based on a width-modulated line-defect in a photonic crystal slab,” Opt. Express 16(18), 13809–13817 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Ota, Y.

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Painter, O.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chan, M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, and O. Painter, “Optical and mechanical design of a “zipper” photonic crystal optomechanical cavity,” Opt. Express 17(5), 3802–3817 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Park, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 489–493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pinard, M.

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Polzik, E. S.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Riviere, R.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Robert-Philip, I.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Roels, J.

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical Device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Rosenberg, J.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Safavi-Naeini, A. H.

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Sagnes, I.

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schliesser, A.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Shinya, A.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Shu, J.

Song, B. S.

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stobbe, S.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Taniyama, H.

Thompson, J. D.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torii, Y.

Tran, N.-V.-Q.

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrie, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Unterreithmeier, Q. P.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Usami, K.

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Vahala, K. J.

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Thourhout, D.

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical Device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H.

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 489–493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Watanabe, T.

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Weig, E. M.

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Winger, M.

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wong, C. W.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, J. Zheng, J. Gao, J. Shu, M. S. Aras, and C. W. Wong, “Design of dispersive optomechanical coupling and cooling in ultrahigh-Q/V slot-type photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23844–23856 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, M.-C.

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Xu, Q.

Yamamoto, T.

Yoshikawa, Y.

Zheng, J.

Y. Li, J. Zheng, J. Gao, J. Shu, M. S. Aras, and C. W. Wong, “Design of dispersive optomechanical coupling and cooling in ultrahigh-Q/V slot-type photonic crystal cavities,” Opt. Express 18(23), 23844–23856 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Zwickl, B. M.

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Gao, J. F. McMillan, M.-C. Wu, J. Zheng, S. Assefa, and C. W. Wong, “Demonstration of an air-slot modegap confined photonic crystal slab nanocavity with ultrasmall mode volumes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(5), 051123 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. H. Safavi-Naeini, T. P. Alegre, M. Winger, and O. Painter, “Optomechanics in an ultrahigh-Q two-dimensional photonic crystal cavity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(18), 181106 (2010).
[CrossRef]

E. Kuramochi, M. Notomi, S. Mitsugi, A. Shinya, T. Tanabe, and T. Watanabe, “Ultra-high-Q photonic crystal nanocavities realized by the local width modulation of a line defect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(4), 041112 (2006).
[CrossRef]

M. Narimatsu, S. Kita, H. Abe, and T. Baba, “Enhancement of vertical emission in photonic crystal nanolasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(12), 121117 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Photonics (1)

D. Van Thourhout and J. Roels, “Optomechanical Device actuation through the optical gradient force,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 211–217 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nat. Phys. (4)

K. Usami, A. Naesby, T. Bagci, B. Melholt Nielsen, J. Liu, S. Stobbe, P. Lodahl, and E. S. Polzik, “Optical cavity cooling of mechanical modes of a semiconductor nanomembrane,” Nat. Phys. 8(2), 168–172 (2012).
[CrossRef]

G. Anetsberger, O. Arcizet, Q. P. Unterreithmeier, R. Riviere, A. Schliesser, E. M. Weig, J. P. Kotthaus, and T. J. Kippenberg, “Near-field cavity optomechanics with nanomechanical oscillators,” Nat. Phys. 5(12), 909–914 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y.-S. Park and H. Wang, “Resolved-sideband and cryogenic cooling of an optomechanical resonator,” Nat. Phys. 5(7), 489–493 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Nomura, N. Kumagai, S. Iwamoto, Y. Ota, and Y. Arakawa, “Laser oscillation in a strongly coupled single quantum dot-nanocavity system,” Nat. Phys. 6(4), 279–283 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Nature (8)

Y. Akahane, T. Asano, B. S. Song, and S. Noda, “High-Q photonic nanocavity in a two-dimensional photonic crystal,” Nature 425(6961), 944–947 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, R. Camacho, J. Chan, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “A picogram- and nanometre-scale photonic-crystal optomechanical cavity,” Nature 459(7246), 550–555 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Eichenfield, J. Chan, R. M. Camacho, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Optomechanical crystals,” Nature 462(7269), 78–82 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chan, T. P. M. Alegre, A. H. Safavi-Naeini, J. T. Hill, A. Krause, S. Gröblacher, M. Aspelmeyer, and O. Painter, “Laser cooling of a nanomechanical oscillator into its quantum ground state,” Nature 478(7367), 89–92 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Kleckner and D. Bouwmeester, “Sub-kelvin optical cooling of a micro-mechanical resonator,” Nature 444(7115), 75–78 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. H. Metzger and K. Karrai, “Cavity cooling of a microlever,” Nature 432(7020), 1002–1005 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Thompson, B. M. Zwickl, A. M. Jayich, F. Marquardt, S. M. Girvin, and J. G. E. Harris, “Strong dispersive coupling of a high-finesse cavity to a micromechanical membrane,” Nature 452(7183), 72–75 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Arcizet, P. F. Cohadon, T. Briant, M. Pinard, and A. Heidmann, “Radiation-pressure cooling and optomechanical instability of a micromirror,” Nature 444(7115), 71–74 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (1)

N.-V.-Q. Tran, S. Combrie, and A. De Rossi, “Directive emission from high-Q photonic crystal cavities through band folding,” Phys. Rev. B 79(4), 041101(R) (2009).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

E. Gavartin, R. Braive, I. Sagnes, O. Arcizet, A. Beveratos, T. J. Kippenberg, and I. Robert-Philip, “Optomechanical coupling in a two-dimensional photonic crystal defect cavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 106(20), 203902 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Q. Lin, J. Rosenberg, X. Jiang, K. J. Vahala, and O. Painter, “Mechanical oscillation and cooling actuated by the optical gradient force,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 103(10), 103601 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Science (1)

T. J. Kippenberg and K. J. Vahala, “Cavity optomechanics: back-action at the mesoscale,” Science 321(5893), 1172–1176 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the investigated waveguide coupled air-slot PhC nanocavity system with a vertical input/output light coupling configuration. The system consists of a grating coupler, a PhC line defect waveguide, and a PhC nanocavity with a band folding structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Simulated distribution of the cavity electric field in the air-slot PhC nanocavity structure. The long-term (Q = 4.8 × 106) and localized (V = 0.015λ3) electric field confinement around the air/semiconductor boundary results in extremely strong optomechanical interaction. (b) Color plot of the absolute displacement in the y direction for the investigated fundamental mechanical oscillation mode (95 MHz). (c, d) Simulated distributions of Ey around the grating coupler and the PhC line defect waveguide, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Calculated distribution of Ey and the radius-modulated air holes for band folding. (b, c) Comparison of coupled power and coupling efficiency as a function of N.A. calculated for the cases of Δr = 0 (black squares) and −35 nm (red circles). (d, e) Color plots of the calculated far-field patterns for the cavities with the radius-modulations of Δr = 0 and −35 nm, respectively. The white circle marks points at which N.A. = 0.65.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Scanning electron micrographs of the entire structure, (b) the PhC nanocavity with a band folding structure, and (c) the PhC line defect waveguide with a width of 1.2W0.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Optical image of the investigated structure taken by a phosphor coated CCD camera. (b) Reflectance spectra of the PhC nanocavities for different lattice constants of 500, 510, and 520 nm. (c) Measured (red circles) and simulated (blue squares) peak wavelengths of the PhC nanocavities. The dashed line indicates the linear approximation of the simulated data.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) Simulated spectra for the diffraction efficiency of the grating coupler to the PhC waveguide (upper), the transmission of the PhC line defect waveguide (middle), and the output intensity from the PhC nanocavity with the optimized band folding (bottom). (b) Reflection spectrum of the PhC nanocavity. (c) Spectrum of the output light from the PhC nanocavity with an input from the grating coupler.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Comparison of the collected optical power by an objective having different values of Δr. The values are normalized by the value for the cavity without the radius modulation (Δr = 0).

Metrics