Abstract

We use numerical simulations to investigate how the curvature of the fiber core boundary influences the attenuation of hollow antiresonant fibers. We show the importance of a “negative” curvature core boundary in reducing confinement losses and also how, for certain curvatures, optical power is coupled resonantly to cladding modes. We simulate bending losses and find results in agreement with previously-reported experiments.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  2. J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Pla, and A. Docherty, “Antiresonant reflection and inhibited coupling in hollow-core square lattice optical fibres,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5642–5648 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5642 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. F. Gérôme, R. Jamier, J. L. Auguste, G. Humbert, and J. M. Blondy, “Simplified hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 35(8), 1157–1159 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-1441 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
    [Crossref]
  12. J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18470–18478 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-19-18470 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 193–205 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-25-25723 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-10-11153 .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Limits of hollow core negative curvature fiber,” in Proceedings of CLEO 2013, paper CTu2K6.
  18. F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimising the performances of hollow antiresonant fibres,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Mo.2.LeCervin.2.
  19. J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbańczyk, “Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6015–6022 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015&origin=search .
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. K. Saitoh, N. Mortensen, and M. Koshiba, “Air-core photonic band-gap fibers: the impact of surface modes,” Opt. Express 12(3), 394–400 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-394
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

2012 (1)

2011 (4)

2010 (2)

2009 (1)

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

2003 (1)

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1998 (1)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1986 (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Allan, D. C.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Anthony, J.

Antonopoulos, G.

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Argyros, A.

Astapovich, M. S.

Atkin, D. M.

Auguste, J. L.

Beaudou, B.

Benabid, F.

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Biriukov, A. S.

Birks, T. A.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blondy, J. M.

Broeng, J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Churbanov, M. F.

Couny, F.

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

Cregan, R. F.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

Docherty, A.

Duguay, M. A.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Février, S.

Gérôme, F.

Hand, D. P.

Humbert, G.

Jamier, R.

Knight, J. C.

A. Urich, R. R. J. Maier, F. Yu, J. C. Knight, D. P. Hand, and J. D. Shephard, “Flexible delivery of Er:YAG radiation at 2.94 µm with negative curvature silica glass fibers: a new solution for minimally invasive surgical procedures,” Biomed. Opt. Express 4(2), 193–205 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-10-11153 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Koch, T. L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Kosolapov, A. F.

Leonhardt, R.

Leon-Saval, S. G.

Light, P. S.

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

Maier, R. R. J.

Mangan, B. J.

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N.

Olszewski, J.

Pfeiffer, L.

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Pla, J.

Plotnichenko, V. G.

Pryamikov, A. D.

Roberts, P. J.

Y. Y. Wang, N. V. Wheeler, F. Couny, P. J. Roberts, and F. Benabid, “Low loss broadband transmission in hypocycloid-core Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Opt. Lett. 36(5), 669–671 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. S. J.

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, and D. M. Atkin, “All-silica single-mode optical fiber with photonic crystal cladding,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1547–1549 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Saitoh, K.

Semjonov, S. L.

Shephard, J. D.

Shiryaev, V. S.

Snopatin, G. E.

Szpulak, M.

Urbanczyk, W.

Urich, A.

Viale, P.

Wadsworth, W. J.

Wang, Y. Y.

Wheeler, N. V.

Yu, F.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. A. Duguay, Y. Kokubun, T. L. Koch, and L. Pfeiffer, “Antiresonant reflecting optical waveguides in SiO2Si multilayer structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(1), 13–15 (1986).
[Crossref]

Biomed. Opt. Express (1)

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

F. Benabid, P. J. Roberts, F. Couny, and P. S. Light, “Light and gas confinement in hollow-core photonic crystal fibre based photonic microcells,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09004 (2009), https://www.jeos.org/index.php/jeos_rp/article/view/09004 .
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

J. Anthony, R. Leonhardt, S. G. Leon-Saval, and A. Argyros, “THz propagation in kagome hollow-core microstructured fibers,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18470–18478 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-19-18470 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Argyros, S. G. Leon-Saval, J. Pla, and A. Docherty, “Antiresonant reflection and inhibited coupling in hollow-core square lattice optical fibres,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5642–5648 (2008), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-16-8-5642 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Février, B. Beaudou, and P. Viale, “Understanding origin of loss in large pitch hollow-core photonic crystal fibers and their design simplification,” Opt. Express 18(5), 5142–5150 (2010), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-18-5-5142 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Olszewski, M. Szpulak, and W. Urbańczyk, “Effect of coupling between fundamental and cladding modes on bending losses in photonic crystal fibers,” Opt. Express 13(16), 6015–6022 (2005), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-13-16-6015&origin=search .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Saitoh, N. Mortensen, and M. Koshiba, “Air-core photonic band-gap fibers: the impact of surface modes,” Opt. Express 12(3), 394–400 (2004), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-12-3-394
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. F. Kosolapov, A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, V. S. Shiryaev, M. S. Astapovich, G. E. Snopatin, V. G. Plotnichenko, M. F. Churbanov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of CO2-laser power delivery through chalcogenide-glass fiber with negative-curvature hollow core,” Opt. Express 19(25), 25723–25728 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-25-25723 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Yu, W. J. Wadsworth, and J. C. Knight, “Low loss silica hollow core fibers for 3-4 μm spectral region,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11153–11158 (2012), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-20-10-11153 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Pryamikov, A. S. Biriukov, A. F. Kosolapov, V. G. Plotnichenko, S. L. Semjonov, and E. M. Dianov, “Demonstration of a waveguide regime for a silica hollow-core microstructured optical fiber with a negative curvature of the core boundary in the spectral region > 3.5 μm,” Opt. Express 19(2), 1441–1448 (2011), http://www.opticsinfobase.org/oe/abstract.cfm?URI=oe-19-2-1441 .
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Science (4)

J. C. Knight, J. Broeng, T. A. Birks, and P. S. J. Russell, “Photonic band gap guidance in optical fibers,” Science 282(5393), 1476–1478 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. St. J. Russell, “Photonic Crystal Fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. F. Cregan, B. J. Mangan, J. C. Knight, T. A. Birks, P. St. J. Russell, P. J. Roberts, and D. C. Allan, “Single-mode photonic band gap guidance of light in air,” Science 285(5433), 1537–1539 (1999).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Benabid, J. C. Knight, G. Antonopoulos, and P. St. J. Russell, “Stimulated Raman scattering in hydrogen-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber,” Science 298(5592), 399–402 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (2)

F. Yu and J. C. Knight, “Limits of hollow core negative curvature fiber,” in Proceedings of CLEO 2013, paper CTu2K6.

F. Poletti, J. R. Hayes, and D. J. Richardson, “Optimising the performances of hollow antiresonant fibres,” in Proceedings of ECOC 2011, paper Mo.2.LeCervin.2.

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