Abstract

Frequency dynamics of transverse mode instabilities (TMIs) are investigated by testing three 285/100 rod fibers in a single-pass amplifier setup reaching up to ~200W of extracted output power without beam instabilities. The pump power is increased well above the TMI threshold to uncover output dynamics, and allowing a simple method for determining TMI threshold based on standard deviation. The TMI frequency component is seen to appear on top of system noise that may trigger the onset. A decay of TMI threshold with test number is identified, but the threshold is fully recovered between testing to the level of the pristine fiber by thermal annealing the fiber output end to 300°C for 2 h.

© 2013 OSA

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007

2003

2001

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Alkeskjold, T. T.

Baumgartl, M.

Bello Doua, R.

Boullet, J.

Broeng, J.

Brown, D. C.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Cain-Skaff, M.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cardinal, T.

Chatigny, S.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dajani, I.

Dong, L.

Eidam, T.

Ermeneux, S.

Gaida, C.

Guillen, F.

Guyenot, V.

Hansen, K. R.

Hoffman, H. J.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Jansen, F.

Jauregui, C.

Jetschke, S.

Johansen, M. M.

Jørgensen, M. M.

Kirchhof, J.

Lægsgaard, J.

Lapointe, M.-A.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Laurila, M.

Leich, M.

Liem, A.

Limpert, J.

Manek-Hönninger, I.

Maran, J.-N.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J.

Nolte, S.

Otto, H.-J.

Peschel, T.

Piché, M.

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Podgorski, M.

Reichel, V.

Richardson, D. J.

Robin, C.

Röpke, U.

Salin, F.

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Scolari, L.

Smith, A. V.

Smith, J. J.

Stutzki, F.

Tünnermann, A.

Unger, S.

Ward, B.

Wirth, C.

Zellmer, H.

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

D. C. Brown and H. J. Hoffman, “Thermal, stress, and thermo-optic effects in high average power double-clad silica fiber lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.37(2), 207–217 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Express

F. Jansen, F. Stutzki, H.-J. Otto, M. Baumgartl, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The influence of index-depressions in core-pumped Yb-doped large pitch fibers,” Opt. Express18(26), 26834–26842 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Laurila, M. M. Jørgensen, K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability,” Opt. Express20(5), 5742–5753 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. Ward, C. Robin, and I. Dajani, “Origin of thermal modal instabilities in large mode area fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express20(10), 11407–11422 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H.-J. Otto, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, T. Eidam, C. Jauregui, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Temporal dynamics of mode instabilities in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers,” Opt. Express20(14), 15710–15722 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. R. Hansen, T. T. Alkeskjold, J. Broeng, and J. Lægsgaard, “Theoretical analysis of mode instability in high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express21(2), 1944–1971 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Dong, “Stimulated thermal Rayleigh scattering in optical fibers,” Opt. Express21(3), 2642–2656 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. M. Johansen, K. R. Hansen, M. Laurila, T. T. Alkeskjold, and J. Lægsgaard, “Estimating modal instability threshold for photonic crystal rod fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express21(13), 15409–15417 (2013).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jauregui, T. Eidam, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “The impact of modal interference on the beam quality of high-power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(4), 3258–3271 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. T. Alkeskjold, M. Laurila, L. Scolari, and J. Broeng, “Single-mode ytterbium-doped large-mode-area photonic bandgap rod fiber amplifier,” Opt. Express19(8), 7398–7409 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. V. Smith and J. J. Smith, “Mode instability in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(11), 10180–10192 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Eidam, C. Wirth, C. Jauregui, F. Stutzki, F. Jansen, H.-J. Otto, O. Schmidt, T. Schreiber, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Experimental observations of the threshold-like onset of mode instabilities in high power fiber amplifiers,” Opt. Express19(14), 13218–13224 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Limpert, T. Schreiber, A. Liem, S. Nolte, H. Zellmer, T. Peschel, V. Guyenot, and A. Tünnermann, “Thermo-optical properties of air-clad photonic crystal fiber lasers in high power operation,” Opt. Express11(22), 2982–2990 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Manek-Hönninger, J. Boullet, T. Cardinal, F. Guillen, S. Ermeneux, M. Podgorski, R. Bello Doua, and F. Salin, “Photodarkening and photobleaching of an ytterbium-doped silica double-clad LMA fiber,” Opt. Express15(4), 1606–1611 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Leich, U. Röpke, S. Jetschke, S. Unger, V. Reichel, and J. Kirchhof, “Non-isothermal bleaching of photodarkened Yb-doped fibers,” Opt. Express17(15), 12588–12593 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett.

Proc. SPIE

M.-A. Lapointe, S. Chatigny, M. Piché, M. Cain-Skaff, and J.-N. Maran, “Thermal effects in high power cw fiber lasers,” Proc. SPIE7195, 71951U, 71951U-11 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Other

NKT Photonics A/S, “Ytterbium Doped Double Clad Fibers With Large Mode Area,” < http://nktphotonics.com/side5319.html > (2 January 2013). http://nktphotonics.com/side5319.html .

C.-H. Liu, G. Chang, N. Litchinitser, D. Guertin, N. Jacobsen, K. Tankala, and A. Galvanauskas, “Chirally Coupled Core Fibers at 1550-nm and 1064-nm for Effectively Single-Mode Core Size Scaling,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies, OSA Technical Digest Series (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2007), paper CTuBB3.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic illustration of the setup and the 285/100 rod fiber cross section in the lower right corner.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data for FUT1-A2. Fourier transformed normalized spectrogram plotted in dB for the extracted output power as a function of frequency. The standard deviation is plotted on equal power scale to the right.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Data for FUT1-A8. Fourier transformed normalized spectrogram plotted in dB for the extracted output power as a function of frequency. The standard deviation is plotted on equal power scale to the right.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Spectrogram for FUT1-A2, FUT1-A8, and FUT1-A15 plotted together for comparison.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Data for FUT1-C2. Fourier transformed normalized spectrogram plotted in dB for the extracted output power as a function of frequency. The standard deviation is plotted on equal power scale to the right.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Spectrogram for FUT1-C2, FUT1-C8, and FUT1-C15 plotted together for comparison.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Standard deviation as a function of extracted output power for TMI repeat 1 (top) and TMI repeat 2 (bottom). TMI threshold is defined at the level where the standard deviation reaches 0.01 indicated by the dashed line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Measured TMI threshold as function of test number in TMI repeat 1 and 2.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Experimental Procedure for Test Fibers FUT1, FUT2, and FUT3.

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