Abstract

We demonstrate shear stress sensing with a Bragg grating-based microstructured optical fiber sensor embedded in a single lap adhesive joint. We achieved an unprecedented shear stress sensitivity of 59.8 pm/MPa when the joint is loaded in tension. This corresponds to a shear strain sensitivity of 0.01 pm/µε. We verified these results with 2D and 3D finite element modeling. A comparative FEM study with conventional highly birefringent side-hole and bow-tie fibers shows that our dedicated fiber design yields a fourfold sensitivity improvement.

© 2013 OSA

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  57. W. Urbanczyk, E. Chmielewska, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating imprinted in a bow-tie fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 800–804 (2001).
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2013 (1)

2012 (4)

R. Khandan, S. Noroozi, P. Sewell, and J. Vinney, “The development of laminated composite plate theories: a review,” J. Mater. Sci.47(16), 5901–5910 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, ““A review of tactile sensing technologies with applications in biomedical engineering,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys.179, 17–31 (2012).
[CrossRef]

K. Sundara-Rajan, A. Bestick, G. I. Rowe, G. K. Klute, W. R. Ledoux, H. C. Wang, and A. V. Mamishev, “An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(8), 085701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (5)

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

J. Missinne, E. Bosman, B. Van Hoe, G. Van Steenberge, S. Kalathimekkad, P. Van Daele, and J. Vanfleteren, “Flexible shear sensor based on embedded optoelectronic components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 771–773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, N. Lammens, and J. Degrieck, “Strain measurements of composite laminates with embedded fibre bragg gratings: criticism and opportunities for research,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 384–408 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Yousef, M. Boukallel, and K. Althoefer, ““Tactile sensing for dexterous in-hand manipulation in robotics—A review,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys167(2), 171–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

2009 (6)

M. S. Muller, T. C. Buck, H. J. El-Khozondar, and A. W. Koch, “Shear strain influence on fiber Bragg grating measurement systems,” J. Lightwave Technol.27(23), 5223–5229 (2009).
[CrossRef]

M. D. Banea and L. F. M. da Silva, ““Adhesively bonded joints in composite materials: An overview,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. L J,” Mater. Des. Appl.223, 1–18 (2009).

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

L. F. M. da Silva, P. J. C. das Neves, R. D. Adams, A. Wang, and J. K. Spelt, “Analytical models of adhesively bonded joints—Part II: Comparative study,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.29(3), 331–341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. M. G. Pinto, A. G. Magalhães, R. D. S. G. Campilho, M. F. S. F. de Moura, and A. P. M. Baptista, “Single-lap joints of similar and dissimilar adherends bonded with an Acrylic adhesive,” J. Adhes.85(6), 351–376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (4)

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Frazão, J. Santos, F. Araújo, and L. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Mawatari and D. Nelson, “A multi-parameter Bragg grating fiber optic sensor and triaxial strain measurement,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(3), 035033 (2008).
[CrossRef]

H.-K. Lee, J. Chung, S.-I. Chang, and E. Yoon, “Normal and shear force measurement using a flexible polymer tactile sensor with embedded multiple capacitors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(4), 934–942 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (2)

S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia, and S. A. Meftah, “Creep and shrinkage effect on adhesive stresses in RC beams strengthened with composite laminates,” Compos. Sci. Technol.67(6), 933–942 (2007).
[CrossRef]

E. Real, E. Mirambell, and I. Estrada, “Shear response of stainless steel plate girders,” Eng. Struct.29(7), 1626–1640 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (3)

2005 (3)

C. Martelli, J. Canning, N. Groothoff, and K. Lyytikainen, “Strain and temperature characterization of photonic crystal fiber Bragg gratings,” Opt. Lett.30(14), 1785–1787 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W.-C. Wang, W. R. Ledoux, B. J. Sangeorzan, and P. G. Reinhall, “A shear and plantar pressure sensor based on fiber-optic bend loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.42(3), 315–325 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 240–254 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (2)

S. C. Tjin, R. Suresh, and N. Q. Ngo, “Fiber Bragg grating based shear-force sensor: modeling and testing,” J. Lightwave Technol.22(7), 1728–1733 (2004).
[CrossRef]

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct.13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (2)

2002 (1)

J. W. Naughton and M. Sheplak, “Modern developments in shear-stress measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci.38(6-7), 515–570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

2001 (1)

W. Urbanczyk, E. Chmielewska, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating imprinted in a bow-tie fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 800–804 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1999 (2)

C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, “A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement,” Exp. Mech.39(3), 202–209 (1999).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Schulz, E. Udd, M. Morrell, J. M. Seim, I. M. Perez, and A. Trego, ““Health monitoring of an adhesive joint using a multiaxis fiber grating strain sensor system,” in Proc. SPIE 3586,” Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace HardwareIII, 41–52 (1999).
[CrossRef]

1998 (1)

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

C. Perry, “Plane-shear measurement with strain gages,” Exp. Mech.9(19–N), 22 (1969).

1944 (1)

M. Goland and E. Reissner, J. Appl. Mech. Trans. Am. Soc. Eng.66, A17 (1944).

Adams, R. D.

L. F. M. da Silva, P. J. C. das Neves, R. D. Adams, A. Wang, and J. K. Spelt, “Analytical models of adhesively bonded joints—Part II: Comparative study,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.29(3), 331–341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Adda Bedia, E. A.

S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia, and S. A. Meftah, “Creep and shrinkage effect on adhesive stresses in RC beams strengthened with composite laminates,” Compos. Sci. Technol.67(6), 933–942 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Althoefer, K.

H. Yousef, M. Boukallel, and K. Althoefer, ““Tactile sensing for dexterous in-hand manipulation in robotics—A review,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys167(2), 171–187 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Anuszkiewicz, A.

Araújo, F.

O. Frazão, J. Santos, F. Araújo, and L. Ferreira, “Optical sensing with photonic crystal fibers,” Laser Photon. Rev.2(6), 449–459 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Avdeev, I. V.

Bails, M. M.

Banea, M. D.

M. D. Banea and L. F. M. da Silva, ““Adhesively bonded joints in composite materials: An overview,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. L J,” Mater. Des. Appl.223, 1–18 (2009).

Baptista, A. P. M.

A. M. G. Pinto, A. G. Magalhães, R. D. S. G. Campilho, M. F. S. F. de Moura, and A. P. M. Baptista, “Single-lap joints of similar and dissimilar adherends bonded with an Acrylic adhesive,” J. Adhes.85(6), 351–376 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bartelt, H.

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

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C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
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G. Luyckx, E. Voet, N. Lammens, and J. Degrieck, “Strain measurements of composite laminates with embedded fibre bragg gratings: criticism and opportunities for research,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 384–408 (2011).
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C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
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T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
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S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
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C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
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T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
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J. W. Naughton and M. Sheplak, “Modern developments in shear-stress measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci.38(6-7), 515–570 (2002).
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T. Mawatari and D. Nelson, “A multi-parameter Bragg grating fiber optic sensor and triaxial strain measurement,” Smart Mater. Struct.17(3), 035033 (2008).
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C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, “A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement,” Exp. Mech.39(3), 202–209 (1999).
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T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
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S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
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T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
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T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
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E. Real, E. Mirambell, and I. Estrada, “Shear response of stainless steel plate girders,” Eng. Struct.29(7), 1626–1640 (2007).
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M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, ““A review of tactile sensing technologies with applications in biomedical engineering,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys.179, 17–31 (2012).
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W.-C. Wang, W. R. Ledoux, B. J. Sangeorzan, and P. G. Reinhall, “A shear and plantar pressure sensor based on fiber-optic bend loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.42(3), 315–325 (2005).
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T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
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K. Sundara-Rajan, A. Bestick, G. I. Rowe, G. K. Klute, W. R. Ledoux, H. C. Wang, and A. V. Mamishev, “An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(8), 085701 (2012).
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Sangeorzan, B. J.

W.-C. Wang, W. R. Ledoux, B. J. Sangeorzan, and P. G. Reinhall, “A shear and plantar pressure sensor based on fiber-optic bend loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.42(3), 315–325 (2005).
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W. L. Schulz, E. Udd, M. Morrell, J. M. Seim, I. M. Perez, and A. Trego, ““Health monitoring of an adhesive joint using a multiaxis fiber grating strain sensor system,” in Proc. SPIE 3586,” Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace HardwareIII, 41–52 (1999).
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W. L. Schulz, E. Udd, M. Morrell, J. M. Seim, I. M. Perez, and A. Trego, ““Health monitoring of an adhesive joint using a multiaxis fiber grating strain sensor system,” in Proc. SPIE 3586,” Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace HardwareIII, 41–52 (1999).
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R. Khandan, S. Noroozi, P. Sewell, and J. Vinney, “The development of laminated composite plate theories: a review,” J. Mater. Sci.47(16), 5901–5910 (2012).
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J. W. Naughton and M. Sheplak, “Modern developments in shear-stress measurement,” Prog. Aerosp. Sci.38(6-7), 515–570 (2002).
[CrossRef]

Shimoyama, I.

K. Noda, K. Hoshino, K. Matsumoto, and I. Shimoyama, ““A shear stress sensor for tactile sensing with the piezoresistive cantilever standing in elastic material,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys127(2), 295–301 (2006).
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S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
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T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
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S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
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C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Spelt, J. K.

L. F. M. da Silva, P. J. C. das Neves, R. D. Adams, A. Wang, and J. K. Spelt, “Analytical models of adhesively bonded joints—Part II: Comparative study,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.29(3), 331–341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Staines, S. E.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct.13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz, G.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Statkiewicz-Barabach, G.

Sugden, K.

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

Sulejmani, S.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

Sundara-Rajan, K.

K. Sundara-Rajan, A. Bestick, G. I. Rowe, G. K. Klute, W. R. Ledoux, H. C. Wang, and A. V. Mamishev, “An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(8), 085701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Suresh, R.

Syngellakis, S.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 857–859 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Szczurowski, M. K.

Szpulak, M.

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Tarnowski, K.

Tatam, R. P.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct.13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Terryn, H.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Thienpont, H.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
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Tiwana, M. I.

M. I. Tiwana, S. J. Redmond, and N. H. Lovell, ““A review of tactile sensing technologies with applications in biomedical engineering,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys.179, 17–31 (2012).
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S. Benyoucef, A. Tounsi, E. A. Adda Bedia, and S. A. Meftah, “Creep and shrinkage effect on adhesive stresses in RC beams strengthened with composite laminates,” Compos. Sci. Technol.67(6), 933–942 (2007).
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W. L. Schulz, E. Udd, M. Morrell, J. M. Seim, I. M. Perez, and A. Trego, ““Health monitoring of an adhesive joint using a multiaxis fiber grating strain sensor system,” in Proc. SPIE 3586,” Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace HardwareIII, 41–52 (1999).
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W. L. Schulz, E. Udd, M. Morrell, J. M. Seim, I. M. Perez, and A. Trego, ““Health monitoring of an adhesive joint using a multiaxis fiber grating strain sensor system,” in Proc. SPIE 3586,” Nondestructive Evaluation of Aging Aircraft, Airports, and Aerospace HardwareIII, 41–52 (1999).
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C. M. Lawrence, D. V. Nelson, E. Udd, and T. Bennett, “A fiber optic sensor for transverse strain measurement,” Exp. Mech.39(3), 202–209 (1999).
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Urbanczyk, W.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
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E. Chmielewska, W. Urbańczyk, and W. J. Bock, “Measurement of pressure and temperature sensitivities of a Bragg grating imprinted in a highly birefringent side-hole fiber,” Appl. Opt.42(31), 6284–6291 (2003).
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W. Urbanczyk, E. Chmielewska, and W. J. Bock, “Measurements of temperature and strain sensitivities of a two-mode Bragg grating imprinted in a bow-tie fibre,” Meas. Sci. Technol.12(7), 800–804 (2001).
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Van Daele, P.

J. Missinne, E. Bosman, B. Van Hoe, G. Van Steenberge, S. Kalathimekkad, P. Van Daele, and J. Vanfleteren, “Flexible shear sensor based on embedded optoelectronic components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 771–773 (2011).
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Van Hoe, B.

J. Missinne, E. Bosman, B. Van Hoe, G. Van Steenberge, S. Kalathimekkad, P. Van Daele, and J. Vanfleteren, “Flexible shear sensor based on embedded optoelectronic components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 771–773 (2011).
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F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

Van Paepegem, W.

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Van Roosbroeck, J.

S. Sulejmani, C. Sonnenfeld, T. Geernaert, P. Mergo, M. Makara, K. Poturaj, K. Skorupski, T. Martynkien, G. Satkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, W. Urbanczyk, C. Caucheteur, K. Chah, P. Mégret, H. Terryn, J. Van Roosbroeck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Control over the pressure sensitivity of Bragg-grating based sensors in highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.24(6), 527–529 (2012).
[CrossRef]

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

Van Steenberge, G.

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

J. Missinne, E. Bosman, B. Van Hoe, G. Van Steenberge, S. Kalathimekkad, P. Van Daele, and J. Vanfleteren, “Flexible shear sensor based on embedded optoelectronic components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 771–773 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Vanfleteren, J.

J. Missinne, E. Bosman, B. Van Hoe, G. Van Steenberge, S. Kalathimekkad, P. Van Daele, and J. Vanfleteren, “Flexible shear sensor based on embedded optoelectronic components,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.23(12), 771–773 (2011).
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Vinney, J.

R. Khandan, S. Noroozi, P. Sewell, and J. Vinney, “The development of laminated composite plate theories: a review,” J. Mater. Sci.47(16), 5901–5910 (2012).
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Voet, E.

C. Sonnenfeld, S. Sulejmani, T. Geernaert, S. Eve, N. Lammens, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, J. Degrieck, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Microstructured optical fiber sensors embedded in a laminate composite for smart material applications,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 2566–2579 (2011).
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G. Luyckx, E. Voet, N. Lammens, and J. Degrieck, “Strain measurements of composite laminates with embedded fibre bragg gratings: criticism and opportunities for research,” Sensors (Basel)11(1), 384–408 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, A.

L. F. M. da Silva, P. J. C. das Neves, R. D. Adams, A. Wang, and J. K. Spelt, “Analytical models of adhesively bonded joints—Part II: Comparative study,” Int. J. Adhes. Adhes.29(3), 331–341 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. C.

K. Sundara-Rajan, A. Bestick, G. I. Rowe, G. K. Klute, W. R. Ledoux, H. C. Wang, and A. V. Mamishev, “An interfacial stress sensor for biomechanical applications,” Meas. Sci. Technol.23(8), 085701 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.-C.

W.-C. Wang, W. R. Ledoux, B. J. Sangeorzan, and P. G. Reinhall, “A shear and plantar pressure sensor based on fiber-optic bend loss,” J. Rehabil. Res. Dev.42(3), 315–325 (2005).
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Webb, D. J.

F. Berghmans, T. Geernaert, S. Sulejmani, H. Thienpont, G. Van Steenberge, B. Van Hoe, P. Dubruel, W. Urbanczyk, P. Mergo, D. J. Webb, K. Kalli, J. Van Roosbroeck, and K. Sugden, “Photonic crystal fiber Bragg grating based sensors: opportunities for applications in healthcare,” in Communications and Photonics Conference and Exhibition, 2011. ACP,” Asia8311, 1–10 (2011).

Wojcik, J.

T. Martynkien, G. Statkiewicz-Barabach, J. Olszewski, J. Wojcik, P. Mergo, T. Geernaert, C. Sonnenfeld, A. Anuszkiewicz, M. K. Szczurowski, K. Tarnowski, M. Makara, K. Skorupski, J. Klimek, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, T. Nasilowski, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Highly birefringent microstructured fibers with enhanced sensitivity to hydrostatic pressure,” Opt. Express18(14), 15113–15121 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Geernaert, M. Becker, P. Mergo, T. Nasilowski, J. Wojcik, W. Urbanczyk, M. Rothhardt, C. Chojetzki, H. Bartelt, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Bragg grating inscription in GeO2-doped microstructured optical fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol.28(10), 1459–1467 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, W. De Waele, J. Dearieck, H. Terryn, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Transversal load sensing with fiber Bragg gratings in microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(1), 6–8 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. Luyckx, E. Voet, T. Geernaert, K. Chah, T. Nasilowski, W. De Waele, W. Van Paepegem, M. Becker, H. Bartelt, W. Urbanczyk, J. Wojcik, J. Degrieck, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Response of FBGs in microstructured and bow tie fibers embedded in laminated composite,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.21(18), 1290–1292 (2009).
[CrossRef]

T. Geernaert, T. Nasilowski, K. Chah, M. Szpulak, J. Olszewski, G. Statkiewicz, J. Wojcik, K. Poturaj, W. Urbanczyk, M. Becker, M. Rothhardt, H. Bartelt, F. Berghmans, and H. Thienpont, “Fiber Bragg gratings in Germanium-doped highly birefringent microstructured optical fibers,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.20(8), 554–556 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuilpart, M.

Ye, C.-C.

E. Chehura, C.-C. Ye, S. E. Staines, S. W. James, and R. P. Tatam, “Characterization of the response of fibre Bragg gratings fabricated in stress and geometrically induced high birefringence fibres to temperature and transverse load,” Smart Mater. Struct.13(4), 888–895 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, E.

H.-K. Lee, J. Chung, S.-I. Chang, and E. Yoon, “Normal and shear force measurement using a flexible polymer tactile sensor with embedded multiple capacitors,” J. Microelectromech. Syst.17(4), 934–942 (2008).
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H. Yousef, M. Boukallel, and K. Althoefer, ““Tactile sensing for dexterous in-hand manipulation in robotics—A review,” Sens,” Actuator A-Phys167(2), 171–187 (2011).
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Zervas, M. N.

J. R. Clowes, S. Syngellakis, and M. N. Zervas, “Pressure sensitivity of side-hole optical fiber sensors,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.10(6), 857–859 (1998).
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Zhu, F.

R. Guan, F. Zhu, Z. Gan, D. Huang, and S. Liu, “Stress birefringence analysis of polarization maintaining optical fibers,” Opt. Fiber Technol.11(3), 240–254 (2005).
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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The butterfly MOF-FBG sensor has an asymmetric air hole topology which induces large deformations in the core region and its GeO2 doped inclusion during fiber fabrication [34]. The contours of the air holes, doped region and cladding are reconstructed in a 2D geometry for FEM simulations in Abaqus.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Configuration of the tested and modeled SLJ with an optical fiber embedded in the centre (x = y = 0) of the adhesive layer. The boundary and loading conditions used for 2D and 3D FEM analyses are indicated. Perfect bonding is assumed at every interface. (b) Shear and peel stress profile along the adhesive bond line (y = 0) in a SLJ according to Goland-Reissner analysis and obtained with 2D FEM modeling of a SLJ configuration as shown in (a). The addition of spacer tabs (which is not considered in the Goland-Reissner model) has a small influence on the stress profile near the edges of the adhesive overlap. (c) The evolution of the shear and peel stress in the centre of the adhesive layer due to tensile loading is nearly linear (R2 > 0.999 and R2 > 0.998, respectively).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Sample 1B: (a) SMF-FBG reflection spectra before and after embedding the sensor in the SLJ show minor deformations and a shift toward longer wavelengths due to axial pre-strain. (b) Results from experiments and 3D FEM modeling demonstrate a transverse contraction due to tensile loading of the adhesive layer which transfers a negative axial strain on the fiber. Since the axial strain sensitivity of SMF-FBG sensors is known to be 1.2 pm/µε, we find a good match between 3D FEM results and experiments.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Sample 2A: (a) Butterfly MOF-FBG sensor reflection spectra before and after embedding the sensor in the SLJ show minor deformations and a shift toward longer wavelengths due to axial prestrain. (b) The individual Bragg peaks shift towards lower wavelengths due to tensile loading of the SLJ. From linear fitting the results up to a load of 2 kN, we find that their sensor response is respectively −136.0 pm/kN and −63.5 pm/kN for the Bragg peak 1 and Bragg peak 2. (c) The Bragg peak separation increases due to tensile loading with a sensor response of 67.4 pm/kN. Results from 2D FEM modeling of a SLJ similar to sample 2A are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Picture of the SLJ sample placed in the tensile test machine. The optical fiber is also visible.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Overview of the experimental and 2D FEM results for SMF-FBG and butterfly MOF-FBG sensors embedded in SLJs. For SMF-FBG sensors, the sensor response to a tensile load corresponds to the shift of the individual Bragg peak wavelength. In case of the butterfly MOF-FBG sensors, this response corresponds to the shift of the Bragg peak wavelength separation.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Results of a 2D FEM comparative study of the shear stress sensitivity of different highly birefringent FBG sensors. For completeness, we also present an overview of earlier reported (experimental) sensitivities for the sensitivity to temperature and hydrostatic pressure of these fibers and their transverse strain sensitivity when embedded in a laminated composite material. Sensitivities indicated with * are derived from the polarimetric sensitivity.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

n i =n( x,y )+Δ n i ( x,y )
Δ n x ( x,y )= C 1 σ 1 ( x,y )+ C 2 [ σ 2 ( x,y )+ σ 3 ( x,y ) ]
Δ n y ( x,y )= C 1 σ 2 ( x,y )+ C 2 [ σ 1 ( x,y )+ σ 3 ( x,y ) ]
σ 1,2 = ( σ x + σ y )± ( σ x σ y ) 2 +4 τ xy 2 2

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