Abstract

Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based metal-insulator-semiconductor-insulator-metal nanoring resonators through photogeneration of free-carriers using two-photon absorption is presented 3-D through finite difference time domain simulations. In a compact device footprint of only 1.4µm2, a 13.1dB modulation amplitude was obtained with a switching time of only 2ps using a modest pump pulse energy of 16.0pJ. The larger bandwidth associated with more compact nanorings is shown to result in increased modulation amplitude.

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    [CrossRef]
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2013 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (2)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. N. Caspers, N. Rotenberg, and H. M. van Driel, “Ultrafast silicon-based active plasmonics at telecom wavelengths,” Opt. Express18(19), 19761–19769 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2009 (5)

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Elezzabi, Z. Han, S. Sederberg, and V. Van, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic devices,” Opt. Express17(13), 11045–11056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Kekatpure and M. L. Brongersma, “Near-infrared free-carrier absorption in silicon nanocrystals,” Opt. Lett.34(21), 3397–3399 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

2006 (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1987 (2)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Atwater, H. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Berini, P.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bouhelier, A.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Brongersma, M. L.

Caspers, J. N.

Charbonneau, R.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chi, C. C.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Colas des Francs, G.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

De Vlaminck, I.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dereux, A.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Diest, K.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dinu, M.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Doany, F. E.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Driedger, D.

Elezzabi, A. Y.

Garcia, H.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Grandidier, J.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Grischkowsky, D.

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Han, Z.

Jettè-Charbonneau, S.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Kekatpure, R. D.

Kwong, D. L.

Lagae, L.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lahoud, N.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lin, Q.

Liow, T. Y.

Lo, G. Q.

MacDonald, K. F.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Markey, L.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Massenot, S.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Mattiussi, G.

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Neutens, P.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Nielsen, M.

Ozbay, E.

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Painter, O. J.

Pawlewicz, W. T.

Premaratne, M.

Quochi, F.

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rotenberg, N.

Rukhlenko, I. D.

Sámson, Z. L.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sederberg, S.

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stockman, M. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Suzukim, N.

Sweatlock, L. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Traylor Kruschwitz, J. D.

Van, V.

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

A. Y. Elezzabi, Z. Han, S. Sederberg, and V. Van, “Ultrafast all-optical modulation in silicon-based nanoplasmonic devices,” Opt. Express17(13), 11045–11056 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Van Dorpe, P.

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

Weeber, J.-C.

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, S.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

S. Sederberg, V. Van, and A. Y. Elezzabi, “Monolithic integration of plasmonic waveguides into a complimentary metal-oxide-semiconductor- and photonic-compatible platform,” Appl. Phys. Lett.96(12), 121101 (2010).
[CrossRef]

F. E. Doany, D. Grischkowsky, and C. C. Chi, “Carrier lifetime versus ion-implantation dose in silicon on sapphire,” Appl. Phys. Lett.50(8), 460–462 (1987).
[CrossRef]

M. Dinu, F. Quochi, and H. Garcia, “Third-order nonlinearities in silicon at telecom wavelengths,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(18), 2954–2956 (2003).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Berini, R. Charbonneau, S. Jettè-Charbonneau, N. Lahoud, and G. Mattiussi, “Long-range surface plasmon-polariton waveguides and devices in lithium niobate,” J. Appl. Phys.101(11), 113114 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Nano Lett. (1)

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett.9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Sámson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[CrossRef]

P. Neutens, P. Van Dorpe, I. De Vlaminck, L. Lagae, and G. Borghs, “Electrical detection of confined gap plasmons in metal-insulator-metal waveguides,” Nat. Photonics3(5), 283–286 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (7)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (2)

J. Grandidier, S. Massenot, G. Colas des Francs, A. Bouhelier, J.-C. Weeber, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides: figures of merit and mode characterization by image and Fourier plane leakage microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B78(24), 245419 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

E. Ozbay, “Plasmonics: merging photonics and electronics at nanoscale dimensions,” Science311(5758), 189–193 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

E. D. Palik, Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids, (Academic Press, 1998).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagrams and broadband spectral response with pump and probe pulse resonances for (a) Device A, (b) Device B, and (c) Device C. Electric field intensity distribution for the fundamental TE modes of the MISIM waveguides for (a) Device A and (b) Devices B and C.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Intensity plots for Device A with the 400fs FWHM probe pulse centered at 1.53µm (a) ‘on’ resonance and (b) after the pump pulse has turned it ‘off’ resonance at 16.0pJ. (c) Average carrier concentration in the nanoring for Device A at pump pulse energies of 31.3pJ (green solid line), 16.0pJ (red dashed line), and 5.8pJ (blued dotted line).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Ultrafast response of the devices as a function of the signal delay between pump and probe pulses for (a) Device A, (b) Device B, and (c) Device C at pump pulse energies of 31.3pJ (green solid line), 16.0pJ (red dashed line), and 5.8pJ (blued dotted line).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Effect of increased pump pulse energies up to 64pJ for Device A (blue diamonds and solid line), Device B (red squares and dashed line), and Device C (green triangles and dotted line) on (a) modulation amplitude, (b) maximum carrier concentration in the nanoring, (c) maximum resonance shift, and (d) switching time for the respective probe pulses.

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

χ TPA =i c 0 n 0 β TPA ω I= c 0 2 ε 0 n 0 2 β TPA iω | E | 2 ,
χ TPA n+1 = χ TPA n c 0 2 ε 0 n 0 2 β TPA Δt 2 | E n+1/2 | 2 χ TPA n c 0 2 ε 0 n 0 2 β TPA Δt 4 [ | E n+1 | 2 + | E n | 2 ],
d N f dt = 1 2ω ( dI dz ) N f τ r = c 0 2 ε 0 2 n 0 2 β TPA 8ω | E | 4 N f τ r ,
N f n+1/2 = 2 τ r Δt 2 τ r +Δt N f n1/2 + τ r Δt 2 τ r +Δt c 0 2 ε 0 2 n 0 2 β TPA 4ω | E n | 4 ,
P FCA =i ε 0 ε iFCA E= c 0 ε 0 n 0 σ FCA N f iω E,
P plasma = ε 0 ε rPlasma E= ε 0 2 n 0 Δ n plasma E,
D ˜ =D P Linear = ε 0 E[ 2 n 0 Δ n plasma c 0 n 0 σ FCA N f iω c 0 2 ε 0 n 0 2 β TPA 2iω | E | 2 ]
E n+1 = g ( E n+1 ) g + ( E n+1 ) E n + D ˜ n+1 D ˜ n ε 0 g + ( E n+1 ) ,
g ± ( E n+1 )=2 n 0 Δ n plasma ( E n+1 )± c 0 n 0 σ FCA N f n+1/2 Δt 2 ± c 0 2 ε 0 n 0 2 β TPA Δt[ | E n+1 | 2 + | E n | 2 ] 8 .

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