Abstract

Based on the complementary V-shaped antenna structure, ultrathin vortex phase plates are designed to achieve the terahertz (THz) optical vortices with different topological charges. Utilizing a THz holographic imaging system, the two dimensional complex field information of the generated THz vortex beam with the topological number l=1 is directly obtained. Its far field propagation properties are analyzed in detail, including the rotation, the twist direction, and the Gouy phase shift of the vortex phase. An analytic Laguerre-Gaussian mode is used to simulate and explain the measured phenomena. The experimental and simulation results overlap each other very well.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (1)

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (1)

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010 (6)

J. Y. Lau and S. V. Hum, “A planar reconfigurable aperture with lens and reflectarray modes of operation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(12), 3547–3555 (2010).

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Jansen, S. Wietzke, O. Peters, M. Scheller, N. Vieweg, M. Salhi, N. Krumbholz, C. Jördens, T. Hochrein, and M. Koch, “Terahertz imaging: applications and perspectives,” Appl. Opt.49(19), E48–E57 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Dual-polarized and polarization-flexible reflective cells with dynamic phase control,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.58(5), 1494–1502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (1)

C. Cheng, B. Lakshminarayanan, and A. Abbaspour-Tamijani, “A programmable lens-array antenna with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(8), 1874–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (3)

A. Redo-Sanchez and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz science and technology trends,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.14(2), 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. Bitzera and M. Waltherb, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

R. X. Zhang, Y. Cui, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Polarization information for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt.47(34), 6422–6427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (2)

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. Hamazaki, Y. Mineta, K. Oka, and R. Morita, “Direct observation of Gouy phase shift in a propagating optical vortex,” Opt. Express14(18), 8382–8392 (2006).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2002 (1)

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental two-photon, three-dimensional entanglement for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 240401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (3)

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. E. Grein, H. A. Haus, L. A. Jiang, and E. P. Ippen, “Action on pulse position and momentum using dispersion and phase modulation,” Opt. Express8(12), 664–669 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. Freund, “Poincaré vortices,” Opt. Lett.26(24), 1996–1998 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (2)

N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: an optical spanner,” Opt. Lett.22(1), 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, “Design of millimeter wave microstrip reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.45(2), 287–296 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature368(6467), 113–119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110(5–6), 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett.17(3), 221–223 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7(6), 1037–7038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett.52(8), 429–431 (1990).

1979 (1)

J. M. Vaughan and D. V. Willetts, “Interference properties of a light beam having a helical wave surface,” Opt. Commun.30(3), 263–267 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci.336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

Abbaspour-Tamijani, A.

C. Cheng, B. Lakshminarayanan, and A. Abbaspour-Tamijani, “A programmable lens-array antenna with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(8), 1874–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Aieta, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Allen, L.

N. B. Simpson, K. Dholakia, L. Allen, and M. J. Padgett, “Mechanical equivalence of spin and orbital angular momentum of light: an optical spanner,” Opt. Lett.22(1), 52–54 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110(5–6), 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Arrebola, M.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Baier, H.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Barnett, S. M.

Bazhenov, V. Y.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett.52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Beijersbergen, M. W.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berns, M. W.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Berry, M. V.

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci.336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Besada-Sanmartín, J. L.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Bitzera, A.

A. Bitzera and M. Waltherb, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, R.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Bongard, F.

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Capasso, F.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.

C. Cheng, B. Lakshminarayanan, and A. Abbaspour-Tamijani, “A programmable lens-array antenna with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(8), 1874–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, S.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Coerwinkel, R. P. C.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Courtial, J.

Cui, Y.

Datashvili, L. S.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Dholakia, K.

Encinar, J. A.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Feng, S. F.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Finer, J. T.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature368(6467), 113–119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franke-Arnold, S.

Freund, I.

Friese, M. E. J.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Futterman, G.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Gaburro, Z.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Genevet, P.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
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Gibson, G.

Golubovic-Niciforovic, R.

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
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Greulich, K. O.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
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He, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
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H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
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N. R. Heckenberg, R. McDuff, C. P. Smith, and A. G. White, “Generation of optical phase singularities by computer-generated holograms,” Opt. Lett.17(3), 221–223 (1992).
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Hochrein, T.

Hu, D.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Hum, S. V.

J. Y. Lau and S. V. Hum, “A planar reconfigurable aperture with lens and reflectarray modes of operation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(12), 3547–3555 (2010).

Hutter, K. J.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
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Ippen, E. P.

Jansen, C.

Jiang, L. A.

Jördens, C.

Kan, Q.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Kats, M. A.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klar, P. J.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
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Koch, M.

Kristensen, M.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krumbholz, N.

Lakshminarayanan, B.

C. Cheng, B. Lakshminarayanan, and A. Abbaspour-Tamijani, “A programmable lens-array antenna with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(8), 1874–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

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J. Y. Lau and S. V. Hum, “A planar reconfigurable aperture with lens and reflectarray modes of operation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(12), 3547–3555 (2010).

Legay, H.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

McDuff, R.

Mineta, Y.

Molina-Terriza, G.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Monajembashi, S.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Morita, R.

Mosig, J. R.

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Numajiri, Y.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
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J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci.336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
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Oka, K.

Padgett, M. J.

Pas’ko, V.

Perruisseau-Carrier, J.

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Dual-polarized and polarization-flexible reflective cells with dynamic phase control,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.58(5), 1494–1502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Peters, O.

Pozar, D. M.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, “Design of millimeter wave microstrip reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.45(2), 287–296 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Randall, C. M.

Rawcliffe, R. D.

Redo-Sanchez, A.

A. Redo-Sanchez and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz science and technology trends,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.14(2), 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Rubinsztein-Dunlop, H.

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Salhi, M.

Scheller, M.

Scully, M. O.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Seeger, S.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sierra-Castañer, M.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Simmons, R. M.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature368(6467), 113–119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Simpson, N. B.

Smith, C. P.

Soskin, M. S.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett.52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Spreeuw, R. J. C.

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
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Spudich, J. A.

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature368(6467), 113–119 (1994).
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Steubing, R. W.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sun, W.

Sun, W. F.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Syrigos, H. D.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, “Design of millimeter wave microstrip reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.45(2), 287–296 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tamm, C.

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7(6), 1037–7038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Targonski, S. D.

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, “Design of millimeter wave microstrip reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.45(2), 287–296 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tetienne, J. P.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tonouchi, M.

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Torner, L.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres, J. P.

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Sánchez, R.

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

van der Veen, H. E. L. O.

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Vasnetsov, M.

Vasnetsov, M. V.

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett.52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Vaughan, J. M.

J. M. Vaughan and D. V. Willetts, “Interference properties of a light beam having a helical wave surface,” Opt. Commun.30(3), 263–267 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Vaziri, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental two-photon, three-dimensional entanglement for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 240401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vieweg, N.

Waltherb, M.

A. Bitzera and M. Waltherb, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wang, X. K.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weihs, G.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental two-photon, three-dimensional entanglement for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 240401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weiss, C. O.

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7(6), 1037–7038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

White, A. G.

Wietzke, S.

Willetts, D. V.

J. M. Vaughan and D. V. Willetts, “Interference properties of a light beam having a helical wave surface,” Opt. Commun.30(3), 263–267 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Woerdman, J. P.

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfrum, J.

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, W. H.

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ye, J. S.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yu, N.

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Yu, N. F.

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zeilinger, A.

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental two-photon, three-dimensional entanglement for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 240401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, R. X.

Zhang, X. C.

A. Redo-Sanchez and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz science and technology trends,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.14(2), 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz polarization real-time imaging based on balanced electro-optic detection,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A27(11), 2387–2393 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. X. Zhang, Y. Cui, W. Sun, and Y. Zhang, “Polarization information for terahertz imaging,” Appl. Opt.47(34), 6422–6427 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zornoza, J. A.

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

D. Hu, X. K. Wang, S. F. Feng, J. S. Ye, W. F. Sun, Q. Kan, P. J. Klar, and Y. Zhang, “Ultrathin terahertz planar elements,” Adv. Opt. Mater.1(2), 186–191 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

A. Bitzera and M. Waltherb, “Terahertz near-field imaging of metallic subwavelength holes and hole arrays,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92(23), 231101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

P. Genevet, N. Yu, F. Aieta, J. Lin, M. A. Kats, R. Blanchard, M. O. Scully, Z. Gaburro, and F. Capasso, “Ultra-thin plasmonic optical vortex plate based on phase discontinuities,” Appl. Phys. Lett.100(1), 013101 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry (2)

R. W. Steubing, S. Cheng, W. H. Wright, Y. Numajiri, and M. W. Berns, “Laser induced cell fusion in combination with optical tweezers: the laser cell fusion trap,” Cytometry12(6), 505–510 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Seeger, S. Monajembashi, K. J. Hutter, G. Futterman, J. Wolfrum, and K. O. Greulich, “Application of laser optical tweezers in immunology and molecular genetics,” Cytometry12(6), 497–504 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant. (1)

A. Redo-Sanchez and X. C. Zhang, “Terahertz science and technology trends,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quant.14(2), 1–10 (2008).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag. (3)

D. M. Pozar, S. D. Targonski, and H. D. Syrigos, “Design of millimeter wave microstrip reflectarrays,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.45(2), 287–296 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, “Dual-polarized and polarization-flexible reflective cells with dynamic phase control,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.58(5), 1494–1502 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Encinar, L. S. Datashvili, J. A. Zornoza, M. Arrebola, M. Sierra-Castañer, J. L. Besada-Sanmartín, H. Baier, and H. Legay, “Dual-polarization dual-coverage reflectarray for space applications,” IEEE Trans. Antenn. Propag.54(10), 2827–2837 (2006).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (3)

C. Cheng, B. Lakshminarayanan, and A. Abbaspour-Tamijani, “A programmable lens-array antenna with monolithically integrated MEMS switches,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.57(8), 1874–1884 (2009).
[CrossRef]

J. Y. Lau and S. V. Hum, “A planar reconfigurable aperture with lens and reflectarray modes of operation,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(12), 3547–3555 (2010).

J. Perruisseau-Carrier, F. Bongard, R. Golubovic-Niciforovic, R. Torres-Sánchez, and J. R. Mosig, “Contributions to the modeling and design of reconfigurable reflecting cells embedding discrete control elements,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech.58(6), 1621–1628 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

C. Tamm and C. O. Weiss, “Bistability and optical switching of spatial patterns in a laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B7(6), 1037–7038 (1990).
[CrossRef]

JETP Lett. (1)

V. Y. Bazhenov, M. V. Vasnetsov, and M. S. Soskin, “Laser beams with screw dislocations in their wavefronts,” JETP Lett.52(8), 429–431 (1990).

Nat. Photonics (1)

M. Tonouchi, “Cutting-edge terahertz technology,” Nat. Photonics1(2), 97–105 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nature (1)

J. T. Finer, R. M. Simmons, and J. A. Spudich, “Single myosin molecule mechanics: piconewton forces and nanometre steps,” Nature368(6467), 113–119 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Commun. (5)

S. M. Barnett and L. Allen, “Orbital angular momentum and nonparaxial light beams,” Opt. Commun.110(5–6), 670–678 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, R. P. C. Coerwinkel, M. Kristensen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Helical-wavefront laser beams produced with a spiral phase plate,” Opt. Commun.112(5–6), 321–327 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Vaughan and D. V. Willetts, “Interference properties of a light beam having a helical wave surface,” Opt. Commun.30(3), 263–267 (1979).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Beijersbergen, L. Allen, H. E. L. O. van der Veen, and J. P. Woerdman, “Astigmatic laser mode converters and transfer of orbital angular momentum,” Opt. Commun.96(1–3), 123–132 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. K. Wang, Y. Cui, W. F. Sun, J. S. Ye, and Y. Zhang, “Terahertz real-time imaging with balanced electro-optic detection,” Opt. Commun.283(23), 4626–4632 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

L. Allen, M. W. Beijersbergen, R. J. C. Spreeuw, and J. P. Woerdman, “Orbital angular momentum of light and the transformation of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes,” Phys. Rev. A45(11), 8185–8189 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

H. He, M. E. J. Friese, N. R. Heckenberg, and H. Rubinsztein-Dunlop, “Direct observation of transfer of angular momentum to absorptive particles from a laser beam with a phase singularity,” Phys. Rev. Lett.75(5), 826–829 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vaziri, G. Weihs, and A. Zeilinger, “Experimental two-photon, three-dimensional entanglement for quantum communication,” Phys. Rev. Lett.89(24), 240401 (2002).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Molina-Terriza, J. P. Torres, and L. Torner, “Management of the angular momentum of light: Preparation of photons in multidimensional vector states of angular momentum,” Phys. Rev. Lett.88(1), 013601 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci. (1)

J. F. Nye and M. V. Berry, “Dislocations in wave trains,” Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A Math. Phys. Sci.336(1605), 165–190 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

N. F. Yu, P. Genevet, M. A. Kats, F. Aieta, J. P. Tetienne, F. Capasso, and Z. Gaburro, “Light propagation with phase discontinuities: generalized laws of reflection and refraction,” Science334(6054), 333–337 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (1)

A. E. Siegman, Lasers (University Science Books, 1986, Chap. 16).

Supplementary Material (2)

» Media 1: MOV (1414 KB)     
» Media 2: MOV (1270 KB)     

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) A complementary V-shaped antenna phase modulation unit. (b) Eight kinds of complementary V-shaped antenna structures corresponding to phase shifts from −3π/4 to π with a π/4 interval. (c) Photography of the central region of the designed vortex phase plate (VPP) for l = 1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Terahertz (THz) holographic imaging system. (b) and (c) display the measured intensity and phase distribution of the generated THz vortex beam with l = 1 at 0.75THz, respectively. (d) The phase curves with the azimuthal angle α and the radial distance r = 1.5 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Experimental setup for observing the intensity and phase evolutions of the THz vortex beam in the focusing process. (b) Media 1 and (c) Media 2 are the intensity and phase maps of the measured THz vortex beam with Z = −20 mm, −10 mm, 0 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm. (d) Phase distributions of the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) mode with l=1, p=0 at Z = −20 mm, −10 mm, 0 mm, 10 mm, and 20 mm. (e) Correlation coefficients of the basis LG modes in the measured THz vortex beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) and (b) are the phase distributions of lα+ Φ G ( z ) and kz r 2 2( z R 2 + z 2 ) +lα with Z = −20 mm, −10 mm, 0 mm, 10 mm, 20 mm, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) and (b) represent the experimental and theoretical longitudinal intensity distributions of the THz vortex beam on the Y-Z plane, respectively. (c) and (d) are the corresponding longitudinal phase distributions. (e) is the paraxial phase shifts extracted from (c) and (d). The red solid curve and blue squares correspond to the theoretical and experimental results, respectively.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

(a) and (b) are the photographs of the central parts of two designed VPPs with l = 2 and l = 3. (c) and (d) are the measured vortex phase distributions with l = 2, and l = 3. (e) and (f) are the simulated vortex phase distributions with l = 2 and l = 3.

Equations (4)

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E p l ( r,α,z )[ 2 r w( z ) ] L p | l | ( 2 r 2 w ( z ) 2 )exp[ r 2 w ( z ) 2 ]exp[ i kz r 2 2( z R 2 + z 2 ) +ilα+i Φ G ( z ) ],
w( z )= w 0 1+ z 2 / z R 2 .
Φ G ( z )=( 2p+| l |+1 )arctan( z/ z R ).
C p,l = E v ( E p l ) * rdrdα ,

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