Abstract

In this paper, we proposed a new type high sensitive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) gas sensor array that is based on the pulse width modulation technique. Four different types of solvatochromic dyes and two different types of polymers, were used to make the five different types of sensing membranes. These were deposited on the five side-polished optical fibers by a spin coater to make the five different sensing elements of the array. In order to ascertain the effectiveness of the sensors, five VOC gases were tested. Finally, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to discriminates different types of VOCs.

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2011 (5)

F. K. C. Harun, A. M. Jumadi, and M. N. Humaimi, “Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose,” IJSER2(11), 1–7 (2011).

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Lin, M. Jang, and K. S. Suslick, “Preoxidation for colorimetric sensor array detection of VOCs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(42), 16786–16789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Murugan, Z. Rinkevicius, and H. Ågren, “Modeling solvatochromism of nile red in water,” Int. J. Quantum Chem.111(7-8), 1521–1530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

H. Yuan, S. H. Yeom, J. W. Lim, and S. W. Kang, “Side-polished optical fiber odor sensor for VOC detection based on solvatochromism,” Sens. Lett.9(1), 87–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (2)

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 392–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (2)

Y. Q. Chen and C. J. Lu, “Surface modification on silver nanoparticles for enhancing vapor selectivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.135(2), 492–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

A. Leunga, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005 (2)

W. Cao and Y. Duan, “Optical fiber-based evanescent ammonia sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.110(2), 252–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004 (3)

S. K. Gorbatsevich and O. Y. Smirnova, “Solvatochromic and thermochromic shifts of electronic spectra of polar solute molecules in a mixture of polar and nonpolar solvent; the role of solvent-solvent interactions,” J. Chem. Phys.120(3), 1369–1374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, H. Zhou, and M. L. Homer, “Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring,” MRS Bull.29(10), 714–719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Suslick, N. A. Rakow, and A. Sen, “Colorimetric sensor arrays for molecular recognition,” Tetrahedron60(49), 11133–11138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (1)

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001 (4)

T. L. S, N. A. George, P. Sureshkumar, P. Radhakrishnan, C. P. Vallabhan, and V. P. Nampoori, “Chemical sensing with microbent optical fiber,” Opt. Lett.26(20), 1541–1543 (2001).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

E. W. Diana, C. Carlos, F. P. Roberto, and F. A. Pedro, “Dynamic solvatochromism in solvent mixtures,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(3), 405–409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1997 (1)

1994 (1)

C. Reichardt, “Solvatochromic dyes as solvent polarity indicators,” Chem. Rev.94(8), 2319–2358 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

D. Noukakis and P. Suppan, “Photophysics of aminophthalimides in solution I. steady-state spectroscopy,” J. Lumin.47(6), 285–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

J. F. Deye, T. A. Berger, and A. G. Anderson, “Nile Red as a solvatochromic dye for measuring solvent strength in normal liquids and mixtures of normal liquids with supercritical and near critical fluids,” Anal. Chem.62(6), 615–622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

E. Buncel and S. Rajagopal, “Solvatochromism and solvent polarity scales,” Acc. Chem. Res.23(7), 226–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem.58(13), 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Ågren, H.

N. A. Murugan, Z. Rinkevicius, and H. Ågren, “Modeling solvatochromism of nile red in water,” Int. J. Quantum Chem.111(7-8), 1521–1530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aleixandre, M.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, A. G.

J. F. Deye, T. A. Berger, and A. G. Anderson, “Nile Red as a solvatochromic dye for measuring solvent strength in normal liquids and mixtures of normal liquids with supercritical and near critical fluids,” Anal. Chem.62(6), 615–622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

Ballantine, D. S.

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem.58(13), 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Belforte, L.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Berger, T. A.

J. F. Deye, T. A. Berger, and A. G. Anderson, “Nile Red as a solvatochromic dye for measuring solvent strength in normal liquids and mixtures of normal liquids with supercritical and near critical fluids,” Anal. Chem.62(6), 615–622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Biancardi, A.

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bossi, S.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buncel, E.

E. Buncel and S. Rajagopal, “Solvatochromism and solvent polarity scales,” Acc. Chem. Res.23(7), 226–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Burke, C. S.

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cané, C.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Cao, W.

W. Cao and Y. Duan, “Optical fiber-based evanescent ammonia sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.110(2), 252–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Carlos, C.

E. W. Diana, C. Carlos, F. P. Roberto, and F. A. Pedro, “Dynamic solvatochromism in solvent mixtures,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(3), 405–409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. L.

Chen, Y. Q.

Y. Q. Chen and C. J. Lu, “Surface modification on silver nanoparticles for enhancing vapor selectivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.135(2), 492–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cho, K. M.

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Deye, J. F.

J. F. Deye, T. A. Berger, and A. G. Anderson, “Nile Red as a solvatochromic dye for measuring solvent strength in normal liquids and mixtures of normal liquids with supercritical and near critical fluids,” Anal. Chem.62(6), 615–622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Diana, E. W.

E. W. Diana, C. Carlos, F. P. Roberto, and F. A. Pedro, “Dynamic solvatochromism in solvent mixtures,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(3), 405–409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Duan, Y.

W. Cao and Y. Duan, “Optical fiber-based evanescent ammonia sensor,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.110(2), 252–259 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Edrees, H.

L. J. Matthew, H. Edrees, I. Kymissis, and K. L. Shepard, “Integrated VOC vapor sensing on FBAR-CMOS array,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Paris, France, 2012), 846–849.

Fernández, M. J.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flannery, D.

Fletcher, K. A.

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fontecha, J. L.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gao, P.

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

George, N. A.

Gorbatsevich, S. K.

S. K. Gorbatsevich and O. Y. Smirnova, “Solvatochromic and thermochromic shifts of electronic spectra of polar solute molecules in a mixture of polar and nonpolar solvent; the role of solvent-solvent interactions,” J. Chem. Phys.120(3), 1369–1374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Goustouridis, D.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Gracia, I.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gutiérrez, J.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Harun, F. K. C.

F. K. C. Harun, A. M. Jumadi, and M. N. Humaimi, “Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose,” IJSER2(11), 1–7 (2011).

Hendricks, A. E.

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Homer, M. L.

M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, H. Zhou, and M. L. Homer, “Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring,” MRS Bull.29(10), 714–719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Horrillo, M. C.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Humaimi, M. N.

F. K. C. Harun, A. M. Jumadi, and M. N. Humaimi, “Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose,” IJSER2(11), 1–7 (2011).

Innocenti, G.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

James, S. W.

Jang, M.

H. Lin, M. Jang, and K. S. Suslick, “Preoxidation for colorimetric sensor array detection of VOCs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(42), 16786–16789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, S. W.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Janzen, M. C.

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jumadi, A. M.

F. K. C. Harun, A. M. Jumadi, and M. N. Humaimi, “Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose,” IJSER2(11), 1–7 (2011).

Jung, W. G.

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kang, B. H.

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Kang, S. W.

H. Yuan, S. H. Yeom, J. W. Lim, and S. W. Kang, “Side-polished optical fiber odor sensor for VOC detection based on solvatochromism,” Sens. Lett.9(1), 87–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Kerdcharoen, T.

C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 392–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. E.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Kim, E. S.

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Kim, K. J.

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Kim, K. T.

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. H.

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Kim, S. W.

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kwon, D. H.

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Kymissis, I.

L. J. Matthew, H. Edrees, I. Kymissis, and K. L. Shepard, “Integrated VOC vapor sensing on FBAR-CMOS array,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Paris, France, 2012), 846–849.

Lee, Y. H.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Leunga, A.

A. Leunga, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J. W.

H. Yuan, S. H. Yeom, J. W. Lim, and S. W. Kang, “Side-polished optical fiber odor sensor for VOC detection based on solvatochromism,” Sens. Lett.9(1), 87–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Lim, S. J.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lin, H.

H. Lin, M. Jang, and K. S. Suslick, “Preoxidation for colorimetric sensor array detection of VOCs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(42), 16786–16789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lozano, J.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lu, C. J.

Y. Q. Chen and C. J. Lu, “Surface modification on silver nanoparticles for enhancing vapor selectivity of localized surface plasmon resonance sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.135(2), 492–498 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ma, W.

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacCraith, B. D.

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maffei, M. E.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Marini, A.

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Matthew, L. J.

L. J. Matthew, H. Edrees, I. Kymissis, and K. L. Shepard, “Integrated VOC vapor sensing on FBAR-CMOS array,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Paris, France, 2012), 846–849.

McDonagh, C.

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mennucci, B.

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mombello, D.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Muñoz-Losa, A.

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murugan, N. A.

N. A. Murugan, Z. Rinkevicius, and H. Ågren, “Modeling solvatochromism of nile red in water,” Int. J. Quantum Chem.111(7-8), 1521–1530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Mutharasan, R.

A. Leunga, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nampoori, V. P.

Noukakis, D.

D. Noukakis and P. Suppan, “Photophysics of aminophthalimides in solution I. steady-state spectroscopy,” J. Lumin.47(6), 285–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pandey, S.

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pantazis, N. A.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Park, S. Y.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Patsis, G. P.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Pedro, F. A.

E. W. Diana, C. Carlos, F. P. Roberto, and F. A. Pedro, “Dynamic solvatochromism in solvent mixtures,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(3), 405–409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Perlo, P.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Pira, N. L.

D. Mombello, N. L. Pira, L. Belforte, P. Perlo, G. Innocenti, S. Bossi, and M. E. Maffei, “Porous anodic alumina for the adsorption of volatile organic compounds,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.137(1), 76–82 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Ponder, J. B.

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Radhakrishnan, P.

Rajagopal, S.

E. Buncel and S. Rajagopal, “Solvatochromism and solvent polarity scales,” Acc. Chem. Res.23(7), 226–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rakow, N. A.

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Suslick, N. A. Rakow, and A. Sen, “Colorimetric sensor arrays for molecular recognition,” Tetrahedron60(49), 11133–11138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Raptis, I.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Reichardt, C.

C. Reichardt, “Solvatochromic dyes as solvent polarity indicators,” Chem. Rev.94(8), 2319–2358 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rinkevicius, Z.

N. A. Murugan, Z. Rinkevicius, and H. Ågren, “Modeling solvatochromism of nile red in water,” Int. J. Quantum Chem.111(7-8), 1521–1530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Roberto, F. P.

E. W. Diana, C. Carlos, F. P. Roberto, and F. A. Pedro, “Dynamic solvatochromism in solvent mixtures,” Pure Appl. Chem.73(3), 405–409 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Ryan, M. A.

M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, H. Zhou, and M. L. Homer, “Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring,” MRS Bull.29(10), 714–719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S, T. L.

Sanopoulou, M.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Sayago, I.

M. J. Fernández, J. L. Fontecha, I. Sayago, M. Aleixandre, J. Lozano, J. Gutiérrez, I. Gŕacia, C. Cané, and M. C. Horrillo, “Discrimination of volatile compounds through an electronic nose based on ZnO SAW sensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.127(1), 277–283 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Sen, A.

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Suslick, N. A. Rakow, and A. Sen, “Colorimetric sensor arrays for molecular recognition,” Tetrahedron60(49), 11133–11138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Seo, G. W.

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shankar, P. M.

A. Leunga, P. M. Shankar, and R. Mutharasan, “A review of fiber-optic biosensors,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.125(2), 688–703 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Shepard, K. L.

L. J. Matthew, H. Edrees, I. Kymissis, and K. L. Shepard, “Integrated VOC vapor sensing on FBAR-CMOS array,” in Proceedings of IEEE Conference on Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (Paris, France, 2012), 846–849.

Shevade, A. V.

M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, H. Zhou, and M. L. Homer, “Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring,” MRS Bull.29(10), 714–719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smirnova, O. Y.

S. K. Gorbatsevich and O. Y. Smirnova, “Solvatochromic and thermochromic shifts of electronic spectra of polar solute molecules in a mixture of polar and nonpolar solvent; the role of solvent-solvent interactions,” J. Chem. Phys.120(3), 1369–1374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Storey, I. A.

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suppan, P.

D. Noukakis and P. Suppan, “Photophysics of aminophthalimides in solution I. steady-state spectroscopy,” J. Lumin.47(6), 285–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Sureshkumar, P.

Suslick, K. S.

H. Lin, M. Jang, and K. S. Suslick, “Preoxidation for colorimetric sensor array detection of VOCs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(42), 16786–16789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. S. Suslick, N. A. Rakow, and A. Sen, “Colorimetric sensor arrays for molecular recognition,” Tetrahedron60(49), 11133–11138 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

Tseng, S. M.

Tuantranont, A.

C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 392–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Valamontes, E.

N. A. Pantazis, G. P. Patsis, E. Valamontes, I. Raptis, D. Goustouridis, and M. Sanopoulou, “Capacitive sensor arrays for the real time detection of volatile organic compounds,” in Proceedings of Fifth International Conference on Sensing Technology (Palmerston North, New Zealand, 2011), 422–425.
[CrossRef]

Vallabhan, C. P.

Wang, W.

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wisitsoraat, A.

C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 392–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wohltjen, H.

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem.58(13), 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wongchoosuk, C.

C. Wongchoosuk, A. Wisitsoraat, A. Tuantranont, and T. Kerdcharoen, “Portable electronic nose based on carbon nanotube-SnO2 gas sensors and its application for detection of methanol contamination in whiskeys,” Sens. Actuators B Chem.147(2), 392–399 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Yang, H.

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yao, J.

W. Ma, H. Yang, W. Wang, P. Gao, and J. Yao, “Ethanol vapor sensing properties of triangular silver nanostructures based on localized surface plasmon resonance,” Sensors (Basel)11(12), 8643–8653 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yeom, S. H.

H. Yuan, S. H. Yeom, J. W. Lim, and S. W. Kang, “Side-polished optical fiber odor sensor for VOC detection based on solvatochromism,” Sens. Lett.9(1), 87–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Yoon, J. K.

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Yuan, H.

H. Yuan, S. H. Yeom, J. W. Lim, and S. W. Kang, “Side-polished optical fiber odor sensor for VOC detection based on solvatochromism,” Sens. Lett.9(1), 87–91 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. H. Yeom, H. Yuan, B. H. Kang, K. J. Kim, D. H. Kwon, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “VOC gas detection using solvatochromic dye coated sidepolished optical fiber,” in Proceedings of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (Nuremberg, Germany, 2012), 1454–1457.

Yun, Y. H.

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, H.

M. A. Ryan, A. V. Shevade, H. Zhou, and M. L. Homer, “Polymer-carbon black composite sensors in an electronic nose for air-quality monitoring,” MRS Bull.29(10), 714–719 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Acc. Chem. Res. (1)

E. Buncel and S. Rajagopal, “Solvatochromism and solvent polarity scales,” Acc. Chem. Res.23(7), 226–231 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anal. Chem. (2)

J. F. Deye, T. A. Berger, and A. G. Anderson, “Nile Red as a solvatochromic dye for measuring solvent strength in normal liquids and mixtures of normal liquids with supercritical and near critical fluids,” Anal. Chem.62(6), 615–622 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Ballantine and H. Wohltjen, “Optical waveguide humidity detector,” Anal. Chem.58(13), 2883–2885 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. (1)

N. A. Rakow, A. Sen, M. C. Janzen, J. B. Ponder, and K. S. Suslick, “Molecular recognition and discrimination of amines with a colorimetric array,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.44(29), 4528–4532 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Rev. (2)

C. McDonagh, C. S. Burke, and B. D. MacCraith, “Optical chemical sensors,” Chem. Rev.108(2), 400–422 (2008).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Reichardt, “Solvatochromic dyes as solvent polarity indicators,” Chem. Rev.94(8), 2319–2358 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Green Chem. (1)

K. A. Fletcher, I. A. Storey, A. E. Hendricks, S. Pandey, and S. Pandey, “Behavior of the solvatochromic probes Reichardt’s dye pyrene, dansylamide, nile red and 1-pyrenecarbaldehyde within the room-temperature ionic liquid bmimPF6,” Green Chem.3(5), 210–215 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (3)

J. K. Yoon, G. W. Seo, K. M. Cho, E. S. Kim, S. H. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “Controllable in-line UV sensor using a side-polished fiber coupler with photo-functional polymer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.15(6), 837–839 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. W. Jang, Y. H. Yun, D. E. Kim, S. J. Lim, S. Y. Park, Y. H. Lee, and S. W. Kang, “Refractive index change by photoinduction of a UV-sensitive SMF-to-PWG coupler,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(1), 220–222 (2006).
[CrossRef]

W. G. Jung, S. W. Kim, K. T. Kim, and S. W. Kang, “High-sensitivity temperature sensor using a side-polished single-mode fiber covered with the polymer planar waveguide,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.13(11), 1209–1211 (2001).
[CrossRef]

IJSER (1)

F. K. C. Harun, A. M. Jumadi, and M. N. Humaimi, “Carbon black polymer composite gas sensor for electronic nose,” IJSER2(11), 1–7 (2011).

Int. J. Quantum Chem. (1)

N. A. Murugan, Z. Rinkevicius, and H. Ågren, “Modeling solvatochromism of nile red in water,” Int. J. Quantum Chem.111(7-8), 1521–1530 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

H. Lin, M. Jang, and K. S. Suslick, “Preoxidation for colorimetric sensor array detection of VOCs,” J. Am. Chem. Soc.133(42), 16786–16789 (2011).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. K. Gorbatsevich and O. Y. Smirnova, “Solvatochromic and thermochromic shifts of electronic spectra of polar solute molecules in a mixture of polar and nonpolar solvent; the role of solvent-solvent interactions,” J. Chem. Phys.120(3), 1369–1374 (2004).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Lumin. (1)

D. Noukakis and P. Suppan, “Photophysics of aminophthalimides in solution I. steady-state spectroscopy,” J. Lumin.47(6), 285–295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

A. Marini, A. Muñoz-Losa, A. Biancardi, and B. Mennucci, “What is solvatochromism?” J. Phys. Chem. B114(51), 17128–17135 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MRS Bull. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the side-polished optical fiber with a sensing membrane.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

SEM image of the V-groove in the quartz block.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Molecular structures of the solvatochromic dyes: (a) Nile red, (b) Reichardt’s dye, (c) 4-Amino-N-Methylphthalimide, and (d) 4-Aminophthalimide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Photograph of the fabricated side-polished fiber-optic device (a) before and (b) after depositing the sensing membrane.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup of the array sensor system for VOCs detection.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Waveform response: (a) sensing and reference signal, (b) variation of the sensing signal’s pulse width with respect to reference signal’s pulse width, and (c) corresponding change in the DC sensing voltage with respect to the reference voltage.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Response of sensing elements of the array with respect to different species of gas and their concentrations: (a) dimethylamine, (b) ethanol, (c) benzene, (d) toluene, and (e) acetic acid.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polar plot of responses of the five side-polished fiber-optic sensing elements.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Response of the sensor array: (a) average gas-sensing response of dimethylamine, ethanol, and benzene and (b) PCA plots of the response to the three different VOCs.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 The composition of each sensing solution of the sensor array

Equations (3)

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E( z )= E 0 exp( z/ d p ),
d p = λ 2π n 1 { sin 2 θ ( n 2 / n 1 ) 2 } 0.5 ,
T 0 = t γCL ,

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