Abstract

We report the first application of a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) for calibration- and sampling-free, high-speed, in situ H2O concentration measurements in IC engines using direct TDLAS (tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy). Measurements were performed in a single-cylinder research engine operated under motored conditions with a time resolution down to 100 μs (i.e., 1.2 crank angle degrees at 2000 rpm). Signal-to-noise ratios (1σ) up to 29 were achieved, corresponding to a H2O precision of 0.046 vol.% H2O or 39 ppm·m. The modulation frequency dependence of the performance was investigated at different engine operating points in order to quantify the advantages of VCSEL against DFB lasers.

© 2013 OSA

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2013 (2)

S. A. Kaiser, M. Schild, and C. Schulz, “Thermal stratification in an internal combustion engine due to wall heat transfer measured by laser-induced fluorescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst.34(2), 2911–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef]

B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
[CrossRef]

2012 (2)

S. Karagiannopoulos, E. Cheadle, P. Wright, S. Tsekenis, and H. McCann, “Multiwavelength diode-laser absorption spectroscopy using external intensity modulation by semiconductor optical amplifiers,” Appl. Opt.51(34), 8057–8067 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (2)

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33(2), 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

2010 (3)

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

2009 (3)

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt.48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008 (1)

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (3)

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hagen and S. T. Sanders, “Investigation of multi-species (H2O2 and H2O) sensing and thermometry in an HCCI engine by wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(7), 1992–1998 (2007).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006 (1)

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

2005 (1)

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

2004 (1)

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003 (3)

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt.42(12), 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, and J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentrations in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B51(1), 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

E. E. Whiting, “An empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.8(6), 1379–1384 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M. C.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Amann, M.-C.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Aoyagi, Y.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33(2), 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Awtry, A. R.

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Barbe, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Benner, D. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bernath, P. F.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Bessler, W. G.

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Birk, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Boudon, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Brown, L. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Buchholz, B.

B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Campargue, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Champion, J.-P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chance, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Cheadle, E.

Chen, J.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Cottereau, M. J.

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, and J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentrations in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B51(1), 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Coudert, L. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dana, V.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

De Zilwa, S.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dec, J. E.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Devi, V. M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Dibble, R. W.

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Eberhard, M.

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Ebert, V.

B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

H. Teichert, T. Fernholz, and V. Ebert, “Simultaneous in situ measurement of CO, H2O, and gas temperatures in a full-sized coal-fired power plant by near-infrared diode lasers,” Appl. Opt.42(12), 2043–2051 (2003).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fally, S.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fernholz, T.

Fisher, B. T.

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Flaud, J.-M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Fleck, S.

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Fleming, J. W.

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Gamache, R. R.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Giesemann, C.

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Gisi, M.

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Goldman, A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Gordon, I. E.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Grisch, F.

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, and J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentrations in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B51(1), 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Hagen, C. L.

C. L. Hagen and S. T. Sanders, “Investigation of multi-species (H2O2 and H2O) sensing and thermometry in an HCCI engine by wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(7), 1992–1998 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Hangauer, A.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Hanson, R. K.

D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt.48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hunsmann, S.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

Hwang, W.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Jacquemart, D.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jeffries, J. B.

G. B. Rieker, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Calibration-free wavelength-modulation spectroscopy for measurements of gas temperature and concentration in harsh environments,” Appl. Opt.48(29), 5546–5560 (2009).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Kaiser, S. A.

S. A. Kaiser, M. Schild, and C. Schulz, “Thermal stratification in an internal combustion engine due to wall heat transfer measured by laser-induced fluorescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst.34(2), 2911–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Karagiannopoulos, S.

Kawahara, N.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33(2), 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Klein, A.

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kleiner, I.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Krämer, M.

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
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B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
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M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Lacome, N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
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McCann, H.

Meffert, C.

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Mikhailenko, S. N.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Orphal, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
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Ortwein, P.

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
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P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
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T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
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Rieker, G. B.

Rinsland, C. P.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Rosskopf, J.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Rotger, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
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L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
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Saathoff, H.

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Sanders, S. T.

C. L. Hagen and S. T. Sanders, “Investigation of multi-species (H2O2 and H2O) sensing and thermometry in an HCCI engine by wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(7), 1992–1998 (2007).
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J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Schild, M.

S. A. Kaiser, M. Schild, and C. Schulz, “Thermal stratification in an internal combustion engine due to wall heat transfer measured by laser-induced fluorescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst.34(2), 2911–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Schulz, C.

S. A. Kaiser, M. Schild, and C. Schulz, “Thermal stratification in an internal combustion engine due to wall heat transfer measured by laser-induced fluorescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst.34(2), 2911–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Schurath, U.

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Schurr, U.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Shau, R.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Shigenaga, M.

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Šimecková, M.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Sjoberg, M.

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Smit, H.

B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
[CrossRef]

Smith, M. A. H.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, J.

D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Steeper, R. R.

D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Strzoda, R.

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

Sung, K.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tashkun, S. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Teichert, H.

Tennyson, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tomita, E.

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33(2), 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Toth, R. A.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Totschnig, G.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Tsekenis, S.

Vandaele, A. C.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vander Auwera, J.

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, R.

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Wagner, S.

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

Wang, J.

J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Whiting, E. E.

E. E. Whiting, “An empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.8(6), 1379–1384 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Winter, F.

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Witzel, O.

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Woiwode, W.

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

Wright, P.

Wunderle, K.

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. B (9)

B. Buchholz, B. Kühnreich, H. Smit, and V. Ebert, “Validation of an extractive, airborne, compact TDL spectrometer for atmospheric humidity sensing by blind intercomparison,” Appl. Phys. B110(2), 249–262 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. A. Rothamer, J. Snyder, R. K. Hanson, and R. R. Steeper, “Optimization of a tracer-based PLIF diagnostic for simultaneous imaging of EGR and temperature in IC engines,” Appl. Phys. B99(1-2), 371–384 (2010).
[CrossRef]

T. Lee, W. G. Bessler, C. Schulz, M. Patel, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “UV planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of hot carbon dioxide in a high-pressure flame,” Appl. Phys. B79(4), 427–430 (2004).
[CrossRef]

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Laser-based measurements of line strength, self- and pressure-broadening coefficients of the H35Cl R(3) absorption line in the first overtone region for pressures up to 1 MPa,” Appl. Phys. B100(2), 341–347 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Chen, A. Hangauer, R. Strzoda, and M.-C. Amann, “VCSEL-based calibration-free carbon monoxide sensor at 2.3 μm with in-line reference cell,” Appl. Phys. B102(2), 381–389 (2011).
[CrossRef]

J. Wang, S. T. Sanders, J. B. Jeffries, and R. K. Hanson, “Oxygen measurements at high pressures with vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Appl. Phys. B72(7), 865–872 (2001).
[CrossRef]

S. Hunsmann, K. Wunderle, S. Wagner, U. Rascher, U. Schurr, and V. Ebert, “Absolute, high resolution water transpiration rate measurements on single plant leaves via tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) at 1.37 μm,” Appl. Phys. B92(3), 393–401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

O. Witzel, A. Klein, S. Wagner, C. Meffert, C. Schulz, and V. Ebert, “High-speed tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy for sampling-free in-cylinder water vapor concentration measurements in an optical IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B109(3), 521–532 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. J. Cottereau, F. Grisch, and J. J. Marie, “CARS measurements of temperature and species concentrations in an IC engine,” Appl. Phys. B51(1), 63–66 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Exp. Fluids (1)

P. Ortwein, W. Woiwode, S. Fleck, M. Eberhard, T. Kolb, S. Wagner, M. Gisi, and V. Ebert, “Absolute diode laser-based in situ detection of HCl in gasification processes,” Exp. Fluids49(4), 961–968 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. (2)

L. S. Rothman, I. E. Gordon, A. Barbe, D. C. Benner, P. F. Bernath, M. Birk, V. Boudon, L. R. Brown, A. Campargue, J.-P. Champion, K. Chance, L. H. Coudert, V. Dana, V. M. Devi, S. Fally, J.-M. Flaud, R. R. Gamache, A. Goldman, D. Jacquemart, I. Kleiner, N. Lacome, W. J. Lafferty, J.-Y. Mandin, S. T. Massie, S. N. Mikhailenko, C. E. Miller, N. Moazzen-Ahmadi, O. V. Naumenko, A. V. Nikitin, J. Orphal, V. I. Perevalov, A. Perrin, A. Predoi-Cross, C. P. Rinsland, M. Rotger, M. Šimečková, M. A. H. Smith, K. Sung, S. A. Tashkun, J. Tennyson, R. A. Toth, A. C. Vandaele, and J. Vander Auwera, “The HITRAN 2008 molecular spectroscopic database,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.110(9-10), 533–572 (2009).
[CrossRef]

E. E. Whiting, “An empirical approximation to the Voigt profile,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf.8(6), 1379–1384 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Meas. Sci. Technol. (3)

M. Lackner, G. Totschnig, F. Winter, M. Ortsiefer, M. C. Amann, R. Shau, and J. Rosskopf, “Demonstration of methane spectroscopy using a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser at 1.68 µm with up to 5 MHz repetition rate,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(1), 101–106 (2003).
[CrossRef]

E. Tomita, N. Kawahara, M. Shigenaga, A. Nishiyama, and R. W. Dibble, “In situ measurement of hydrocarbon fuel concentration near a spark plug in an engine cylinder using the 3.392 µm infrared laser absorption method: discussion of applicability with a homogeneous methane-air mixture,” Meas. Sci. Technol.14(8), 1350–1356 (2003).
[CrossRef]

C. L. Hagen and S. T. Sanders, “Investigation of multi-species (H2O2 and H2O) sensing and thermometry in an HCCI engine by wavelength-agile absorption spectroscopy,” Meas. Sci. Technol.18(7), 1992–1998 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Meteorologische Zeitschrift (1)

A. Mangold, R. Wagner, H. Saathoff, U. Schurath, C. Giesemann, V. Ebert, M. Krämer, and O. Möhler, “Experimental investigation of ice nucleation by different types of aerosols in the aerosol chamber AIDA: implications to microphysics of cirrus clouds,” Meteorologische Zeitschrift14(4), 485–497 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Proc. Combust. Inst. (5)

A. R. Awtry, B. T. Fisher, R. A. Moffatt, V. Ebert, and J. W. Fleming, “Simultaneous diode laser based in situ quantification of oxygen, carbon monoxide, water vapor, liquid water in a dense water mist environment,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 799–806 (2007).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Kaiser, M. Schild, and C. Schulz, “Thermal stratification in an internal combustion engine due to wall heat transfer measured by laser-induced fluorescence,” Proc. Combust. Inst.34(2), 2911–2919 (2013).
[CrossRef]

D. W. Mattison, J. B. Jeffries, R. K. Hanson, R. R. Steeper, S. De Zilwa, J. E. Dec, M. Sjoberg, and W. Hwang, “In-cylinder gas temperature and water concentration measurements in HCCI engines using a multiplexed-wavelength diode-laser system: Sensor development and initial demonstration,” Proc. Combust. Inst.31(1), 791–798 (2007).
[CrossRef]

N. Kawahara, E. Tomita, A. Ohtsuki, and Y. Aoyagi, “Cycle-resolved residual gas concentration measurement inside a heavy-duty diesel engine using infrared laser absorption,” Proc. Combust. Inst.33(2), 2903–2910 (2011).
[CrossRef]

S. Wagner, B. T. Fisher, J. W. Fleming, and V. Ebert, “TDLAS-based in situ measurement of absolute acetylene concentrations in laminar 2D diffusion flames,” Proc. Combust. Inst.32(1), 839–846 (2009).
[CrossRef]

VDI Ber. (1)

S. Hunsmann, S. Wagner, H. Saathoff, O. Möhler, U. Schurath, and V. Ebert, “Messung der Temperaturabhängigkeit der Linienstärken und Druckverbreiterungskoeffizienten von H2O-Absorptions-linien im 1,4 µm-Band,” VDI Ber.1959, 149–164 (2006).

Other (12)

J. H. Lambert, Lamberts Photometrie: Photometria (Sive de mensura et gradibus luminis, Colorum Et Umbrae (1760), Volume 2. Nabu Press, 2010).

J. D. Dymond, R. C. Wilhoit, and K. N. Marsh, Virial Coefficients of Pure Gases and Mixtures (Springer, 2003).

J. J. Moré, “The Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm: Implementation and theory,” in Numerical Analysis, (G. A. Watson, Springer, 1978).

G. P. Merker, Combustion Engines Development: Mixture Formation, Combustion, Emissions and Simulation (Springer, 2012).

R. A. Toth, “Linelists of water vapor parameters from 500 to 8000 cm−1,” see http://mark4sun.jpl.nasa.gov/ h2o.html .

A. A. Quader and R. F. Majkowski, „Cycle-by-cycle mixture strength and residual-gas measurements during cold starting“, SAE Technical Paper 1999-01-1107 (1999).

T. Toda, H. Nohira, and K. Kobashi, „Evaluation of burned gas ratio (BGR) as a predominant factor to NOx“, SAE Technical Paper 760765 (1976).

J. B. Jeffries, J. M. Porter, S. H. Pyun, R. K. Hanson, K. R. Sholes, K. Shouji, and T. Chaya, “An in-cylinder laser absorption sensor for crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline concentration and temperature,” SAE Technical Paper 2010–01–2251 (2010).
[CrossRef]

J. Wolfrum, T. Dreier, V. Ebert, and C. Schulz, “Laser-based combustion diagnostics,” in Encyclopedia of analytical chemistry, R. A. Meyers, ed. (Chichester, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2006).

C. Schulz, A. Dreizler, V. Ebert, and J. Wolfrum, “Combustion diagnostics,” in Handbook of experimental fluid mechanics, C. Tropea, A. L. Yarin, J. F. Foss, ed. (Springer, 2007).

V. Ebert and J. Wolfrum, “Absorption spectroscopy,” in Optical measurements-techniques and applications (Springer, 2001).

L. de Francqueville, B. Thirouard, and V. Ricordeau, „Measurement of Residual Gas Fraction Using IR Absorption“, SAE Technical Paper 2006-01-3337 (2006).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Temperature and operation current dependence of the static wavelength tuning of the VCSEL for three different temperatures (red lines). Superimposed is the water-vapor absorption spectrum for T = 500 K, p = 0.5 MPa and c[H2O] = 1 vol.%). The orange bar indicates the significantly narrower tuning range of the previously-used DFB laser.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dynamic tuning range versus laser modulation frequency for DFB laser (green) and VCSEL (red). Note the break in the ordinate.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic drawing of laser hygrometer and engine. The function generator modulates the laser-diode current to generate a wavelength scan of the emitted light.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

In situ H2O absorption profiles (measured data [circles] and fitted spectral profile [solid red lines]) measured with the DFB laser in the motored engine at −180 CAD (left) and −50 CAD (right) corresponding to cylinder pressures of 0.054 and 0.312 MPa, respectively.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Spectral H2O absorption profiles measured with the VCSEL at −180, −130, −90, −65, −50, and −45 CAD corresponding to pressures between 0.074 and 0.42 MPa. The organization of each plot is the same as in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

H2O concentration measured within a single engine cycle from −190 to −43 CAD using the VCSEL spectrometer (top). Measured pressure and calculated temperature (bottom).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Scatter plot of individual H2O measurements (colored dots) over 80 compression strokes (at 2000 rpm) from −190 to −43 CAD measured with the DFB laser (A), and the VCSEL for two modulation frequencies (B/C: 4/10 kHz). Bottom: Measured pressure trace and calculated temperature. Shown to the right of each scatter plot is a histogram of the concentration measured over all cycles at −46 CAD. Note the different scaling of the y-axis.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

In-cylinder pressure traces for three throttle positions and hence different intake pressures.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Intra-cycle H2O concentration from −190 to −43 CAD measured with DFB laser (fmod = 4 kHz, left) and VCSEL (fmod = 10 kHz, right) at varying intake pressure.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Ensemble-averaged H2O concentration at −130 (left) and −46 CAD (right) for different intake pressures and pressure-rise rates measured with DFB laser (fmod = 4 kHz, red circles) and VCSEL (fmod = 10 kHz, black rectangles). The error bars correspond to 2σ. The cross-hatched band corresponds to the averaged H2O concentration (over all measurements) with its uncertainty. Noted at the bottom is the pressure-rise rate, which is low early in the compression (−130 CAD) but much higher later in the compression stroke (−46 CAD).

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Engine Specifications; Compression TDC Equals 0 CAD

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Table 2 Average H2O Concentration and Standard Deviation in Each Bin during the Compression Stroke from −190 to −43 CAD for Both Laser Systems and Different Modulation Frequencies

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Table 3 Average H2O Concentration and Single-cycle Precision During the Compression Stroke from the Data Represented in Fig. 9, i.e., Measured with DFB Laser and VCSEL for Different Intake Pressures*

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Table 4 Contributions to the Total Uncertainty in H2O Concentration at −50 CAD

Equations (4)

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I(ν)= I 0 (ν)exp(S(T)g(ν ν 0 )NL)
I(ν)= I 0 (ν)Tr(t)exp(S(T)g(ν ν 0 )NL)+E(t).
N= 1 S(T)L ln( I(ν)E(t) I 0 (ν)Tr(t) ) dν dt dt.
c= k B T S(T)pL ln( I(ν)E(t) I 0 (ν)Tr(t) ) dν dt dt.

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