Abstract

A heterodyne interferometer for highly sensitive vibration measurements in the range 100kHz − 1.3GHz is presented. The interferometer measures absolute amplitude and phase. The signal processing of the setup is analyzed and described in detail to optimize noise suppression. A noise floor of 7.1fm/Hz1/2 at 21MHz was achieved experimentally where the bandwidth is the inverse of all time needed for filter settling and signal sampling. To demonstrate the interferometer, measurements up to 220MHz were performed on arrays of capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs). The measurements provided detailed information e.g. about the frequency response, vibration patterns and array uniformity. Such measurements are highly valuable in the design process of ultrasonic transducers.

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    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  3. G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J.-P. Monchalin, “Heterodyne interferometric laser probe to measure continuous ultrasonic displacements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.56, 543–546 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  5. H. Martinussen, A. Aksnes, and H. E. Engan, “Wide frequency range measurements of absolute phase and amplitude of vibrations in micro- and nanostructures by optical interferometry,” Opt. Express15, 11370–11384 (2007).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  7. T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  8. T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  14. J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996), 3rd ed.
  15. J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits (Prentice Hall, 2001), 6th ed.

2012 (1)

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2011 (1)

E. Leirset and A. Aksnes, “Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80823N (2011)
[CrossRef]

2008 (2)

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007 (1)

2006 (1)

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2001 (2)

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000 (2)

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Knuuttila, P. Tikka, and M. Salomaa, “Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields,” Opt. Lett.25, 613–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

J.-P. Monchalin, “Heterodyne interferometric laser probe to measure continuous ultrasonic displacements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.56, 543–546 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

Aksnes, A.

E. Leirset and A. Aksnes, “Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80823N (2011)
[CrossRef]

H. Martinussen, A. Aksnes, and H. E. Engan, “Wide frequency range measurements of absolute phase and amplitude of vibrations in micro- and nanostructures by optical interferometry,” Opt. Express15, 11370–11384 (2007).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ballandras, S.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Barber, B.

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Breivik, L.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Due-Hansen, J.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Engan, H. E.

Fattinger, G.

G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Fujikura, T.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Gammel, P.

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Gopani, S.

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Graebner, J.

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Greywall, D.

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Hurley, D.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, G.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Kaivola, M.

K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Kessler, E.

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knuuttila, J.

Kokkonen, K.

K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Korpel, A.

Lawall, J.

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Leirset, E.

E. Leirset and A. Aksnes, “Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80823N (2011)
[CrossRef]

Manolakis, D. G.

J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996), 3rd ed.

Martinussen, H.

Masson, J.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, O.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Midtbø, K.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Monchalin, J.-P.

J.-P. Monchalin, “Heterodyne interferometric laser probe to measure continuous ultrasonic displacements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.56, 543–546 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Muroya, T.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Nilsson, J. W.

J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits (Prentice Hall, 2001), 6th ed.

Poppe, E.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Proakis, J. G.

J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996), 3rd ed.

Profunser, D.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Riedel, S. A.

J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits (Prentice Hall, 2001), 6th ed.

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991).

Salomaa, M.

Schjølberg-Henriksen, K.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Sugawara, Y.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Summanwar, A.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tachizaki, T.

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991).

Tikka, P.

G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

J. Knuuttila, P. Tikka, and M. Salomaa, “Scanning Michelson interferometer for imaging surface acoustic wave fields,” Opt. Lett.25, 613–615 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wang, D.

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Whitman, R. L.

Wright, O.

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

J. Graebner, B. Barber, P. Gammel, D. Greywall, and S. Gopani, “Dynamic visualization of subangstrom high-frequency surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.78, 159–161 (2001).
[CrossRef]

G. Fattinger and P. Tikka, “Modified Mach-Zender laser interferometer for probing bulk acoustic waves,” Appl. Phys. Lett.79, 290–292 (2001).
[CrossRef]

K. Kokkonen and M. Kaivola, “Scanning heterodyne laser interferometer for phase-sensitive absolute-amplitude measurements of surface vibrations,” Appl. Phys. Lett.92, 063502 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Fujikura, O. Matsuda, D. Profunser, O. Wright, J. Masson, and S. Ballandras, “Real-time imaging of acoustic waves on a bulk acoustic resonator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.93, 261101 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

J. Due-Hansen, K. Midtbø, E. Poppe, A. Summanwar, G. Jensen, L. Breivik, D. Wang, and K. Schjølberg-Henriksen, “Fabrication process for CMUT arrays with polysilicon electrodes, nanometre precision cavity gaps and through-silicon vias,”J. Micromech. Microeng.22, 074009 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (1)

E. Leirset and A. Aksnes, “Optical vibration measurements of cross coupling effects in capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducer arrays,” Proc. SPIE8082, 80823N (2011)
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (3)

J. Lawall and E. Kessler, “Michelson interferometry with 10 pm accuracy,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.71, 2669–2676 (2000).
[CrossRef]

T. Tachizaki, T. Muroya, O. Matsuda, Y. Sugawara, D. Hurley, and O. Wright, “Scanning ultrafast sagnac interferometry for imaging two-dimensional surface wave propagation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.77, 043713 (2006).
[CrossRef]

J.-P. Monchalin, “Heterodyne interferometric laser probe to measure continuous ultrasonic displacements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum.56, 543–546 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1991).

J. G. Proakis and D. G. Manolakis, Digital Signal Processing (Prentice Hall, 1996), 3rd ed.

J. W. Nilsson and S. A. Riedel, Electric Circuits (Prentice Hall, 2001), 6th ed.

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