Abstract

High-brightness p-side up AlGaInP-based red light emitting diodes (LEDs) with dot-patterned GaAs contact layer and surface rough structure are presented in this article. Initial LED structure of p-GaP/AlGaInP/GaAs is epitaxially grown using metal organic chemical vapor deposition technique. Using novel twice transferring process, the p-GaP layer is remained at the top side as both the current spreading and-window layer. Dot patterned GaAs contact dots are formed between main structure and rear mirror to improve light reflection and current spreading. Moreover, the surface of p-GaP window is further textured by nano-sphere lithography technique for improving the light extraction. Significant improvement in output power is found for AlGaInP LEDs with GaAs contact dots and roughened p-GaP window as compared with those of LEDs with traditional n-side up and p-side up structures without roughened surfaces.

© 2013 OSA

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  1. R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  2. E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  10. S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
    [CrossRef]
  11. R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  14. R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
    [CrossRef]

2012

J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2010

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2008

R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2004

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

2000

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

1999

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chang, K. H.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. W.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, E. I.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Chiou, S. W.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Chiu, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Craford, M. G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dohler, G. H.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Harbers, G.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Hofler, G. E.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Horng, R. H.

R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Hsu, S. C.

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Huang, C. K.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J. W.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Huang, M. F.

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Huang, S. H.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Jang, E.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jang, H.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jiang, Y. Z.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Jun, S.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kim, B.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kish, F. A.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Krames, M. R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Kung, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. E.

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. P.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. S.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. T.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. Y.

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lien, Y. C.

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Lim, J.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lin, K. C.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Liu, J. S.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Liu, P. H.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Mueller, G. O.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mueller-Mach, R.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Ostentowski, T. D.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Peng, W. C.

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Pliquett, U.

J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schoberth, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Seieh, C. H.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Shchekin, O. B.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Su, J. Y.

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Tan, I. H.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Tsai, S. J.

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tsal, S. J.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Tseng, C. Y.

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Vanderwater, D. A.

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wei, S. C.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Wessels, J. T.

J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Wouters, F. S.

J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wu, T. M.

R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wuu, D. S.

R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Yang, U. Z.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater.

E. Jang, S. Jun, H. Jang, J. Lim, B. Kim, and Y. Kim, “White-light-emitting diodes with quantum dot color converters for display backlights,” Adv. Mater.22(28), 3076–3080 (2010).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and C. Y. Chiu, “AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes with vertical electrodes by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.82(23), 4011–4013 (2003).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with mirror substrates fabricated by wafer bonding,” Appl. Phys. Lett.75(20), 3054–3056 (1999).
[CrossRef]

Cytometry A

J. T. Wessels, U. Pliquett, and F. S. Wouters, “Light-emitting diodes in modern microscopy: from David to Goliath?” Cytometry A81A(3), 188–197 (2012).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.

C. T. Lee, U. Z. Yang, C. S. Lee, and P. S. Chen, “White light emission of monolithic carbon-implanted InGaN-GaN light-emitting diodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.18(19), 2029–2031 (2006).
[CrossRef]

S. C. Hsu, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Lee, J. Y. Su, and R. H. Horng, “High efficiency 1-mm2 AlGaInP LEDs sandwiched by ITO omni-directional reflector and current-spreading layer,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett.19(7), 492–494 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Dohler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

S. W. Chiou, C. P. Lee, C. K. Huang, and C. W. Chen, “Wide angle distributed Bragg reflectors for 590 nm amber AlGaInP light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys.87(4), 2052–2054 (2000).
[CrossRef]

J. Disp. Technol.

M. R. Krames, O. B. Shchekin, R. Mueller-Mach, G. O. Mueller, L. Zhou, G. Harbers, and M. G. Craford, “Status and future of high-power light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting,” J. Disp. Technol.3(2), 160–175 (2007).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

R. H. Horng, T. M. Wu, and D. S. Wuu, “Improved light extraction in AlGaInP-based LEDs using a roughened window layer,” J. Electrochem. Soc.155(10), H710–H715 (2008).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron. Mater.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, C. H. Seieh, W. C. Peng, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsal, and J. S. Liu, “Water bonding of 50-mm-diameter mirror substrates to AlGaInP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.30(8), 907–910 (2001).
[CrossRef]

I. H. Tan, D. A. Vanderwater, J. W. Huang, G. E. Hofler, F. A. Kish, E. I. Chen, and T. D. Ostentowski, “Wafer bonding of 75 mm diameter GaP to AlGaInP-GaP light-emitting diode wafers,” J. Electron. Mater.29(2), 188–194 (2000).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

R. H. Horng, D. S. Wuu, S. C. Wei, C. Y. Tseng, M. F. Huang, K. H. Chang, P. H. Liu, and K. C. Lin, “Wafer-bonded AlGaInP/Au/AuBe/SiO2/Si light-emitting diodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.39(Part 1, No. 4B), 2357–2359 (2000).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, Y. C. Lien, W. C. Peng, D. S. Wuu, C. Y. Tseng, C. H. Seieh, M. F. Huang, S. J. Tsai, and J. S. Liu, “High-brightness wafer-bonded indium-tin oxide/light-emitting diode/mirror/Si,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2747–2751 (2001).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, C. E. Lee, C. Y. Kung, S. H. Huang, and D. S. Wuu, “High-power AlGaInP light-emitting diodes with patterned copper substrates by electroplating,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(No. 4B), L576–L578 (2004).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Horng, S. H. Huang, D. S. Wuu, and Y. Z. Jiang, “Characterization of large-area AlGaInP/mirror/Si light-emitting diodes fabricated by wafer bonding,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.43(5A), 2510–2514 (2004).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of a p-side up AlGaInP-based LED with dot-patterned GaAs Ohmic contact and surface texturing structure.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagrams of fabrication process for p-side up thin AlGaInP-based LED with dot-patterned n-GaAs contact layer and roughening p-GaP layer.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top-view FE-SEM image of dot-patterned GaAs on n-cladding surface for the thin AlGaInP-based LED after GaAs substrate removing.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

I-V curves of AlGaInP-based LEDs for PLED-I (line with square), PLED-II (line with circle), PLED-III (line with triangle), and NLED-IV (line with down triangle).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

AFM images of (a) original and (b) textured p-GaP surface for the thin p-side up AlGaInP-based LED.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output powers of AlGaInP-based LEDs for PLED-I (line with square), PLED-II (line with circle), PLED-III (line with triangle), and NLED-IV (line with down triangle).

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Efficiencies of four types LEDs. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) is considered to be 90% for all thin-film LEDs.

Metrics