Abstract

We have numerically analyzed plasma dispersion effect in a Ge-rich SiGe layer for optical modulator applications. Since strain induces reduction in effective masses of electron and hole, we expect enhanced plasma dispersion effect in a strained Ge-rich SiGe layer. The plasma dispersion effects of Si0.15Ge0.85 on Si0.2Ge0.8 for hole and electron are expected to be approximately 3.0 and 1.5 times larger than those of Si. To realize Ge-rich SiGe-based waveguide optical modulators, we have also investigated the fabrication procedure of SiGe-on-insulator (SGOI) wafers. We have successfully fabricated Ge-rich SGOI wafers without any thick SiGe buffer layers by using Ge condensation in conjunction with the SiGe regrowth technique. We have evaluated the SGOI by Raman spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), reflected high energy electron diffraction (RHEED) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Ge-rich SiGe waveguides have been fabricated on the SGOI wafer. The propagation loss was found to be approximately 13 dB/mm, which can be reduced to be below 2 dB/mm by optimizing the Ge condensation process. We expect that strained SiGe grown on the fabricated SGOI exhibits more than 2.3 times higher plasma dispersion than Si in case of a carrier injection type, suitable for high-performance waveguide optical modulators.

© 2013 OSA

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E35(2), 223–228 (2006).
    [CrossRef]
  2. International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, (2011 Edition). Available: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2011ITRS/2011Chapters/2011Interconnect.pdf
  3. L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  5. F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
    [PubMed]
  6. Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. P. Dong, R. Shafiiha, S. Liao, H. Liang, N.-N. Feng, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “Wavelength-tunable silicon microring modulator,” Opt. Express18(11), 10941–10946 (2010).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(1), 8–16 (2012).
    [CrossRef]
  10. M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. K. C. Saraswat, C. O. Chui, D. Kim, T. Krishnamohan, and A. Pethe, “High mobility materials and novel device structures for high performance nanoscale MOSFETs,” Electron Devices Meeting,2006. IEDM '06. International.
  12. M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  13. T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
    [CrossRef]
  14. T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  15. S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Koh, K. Sawano, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, K. Nakajima, X. Huang, and S. Uda, “Fabrication of p-i-n Si0.5Ge0.5 photodetctors on SiGe-on-Insulator Substrates,” 2004 first IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics.
  18. R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  19. R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
    [CrossRef]
  20. M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  22. F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).
  23. S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  25. N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
    [CrossRef]
  26. Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
    [CrossRef]
  27. J. Humlicek, F. Lukes, and E. Schmidt, “Silicon–germanium alloys (SixGe1−x),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 607–636.
  28. H. J. Stein, “Neutron-and proton-induced defects in SiGe alloys: optical absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.45(5), 1954–1961 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
    [CrossRef]

2012

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[CrossRef]

2010

2009

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

2008

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

2007

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

2006

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

2005

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Y. Gardes, D. J. Thomson, N. G. Emerson, and G. T. Reed, “40 Gb/s silicon photonics modulator for TE and TM polarisations,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[PubMed]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

2004

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

2003

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

2001

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

1996

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1993

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1974

H. J. Stein, “Neutron-and proton-induced defects in SiGe alloys: optical absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.45(5), 1954–1961 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1958

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Asghari, M.

Baba, T.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Balakumar, S.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Balasubramanian, N.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Basak, J.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, G.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Bean, J. C.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Bedell, S. W.

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Bonera, E.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Braunstein, R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Cai, K.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chen, H.

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Chen, S.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Chetrit, Y.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Chrastina, D.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Cohen, R.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Dong, P.

Emerson, N. G.

Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fischetti, M. V.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fogel, K.

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Foo, Y. L.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Franck, T.

Gardes, F. Y.

Grilli, E.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Guzzi, M.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Herman, F.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Hirashita, N.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, D.

Hoe, K. M.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Irisawa, T.

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Isella, G.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Ishikura, N.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Izhaky, N.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Kasper, E.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Keil, U. D.

Kirfel, O.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kumar, R.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Kwong, D. L.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Lai, H.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Lang, D. V.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Laux, S. E.

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Li, C.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Li, G.

Liang, H.

Liao, L.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Liu, A.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lo, G. Q.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Mizuno, T.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Moore, A. R.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Moriyama, Y.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Morse, M.

Nakaharai, S.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, H. C.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Oehme, M.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Paniccia, M.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Peng, S.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

People, R.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Pezzoli, F.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Pradhan, S.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reed, G. T.

Rieger, M. M.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rubin, D.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

L. Liao, D. Samara-Rubio, M. Morse, A. Liu, D. Hodge, D. Rubin, U. D. Keil, and T. Franck, “High speed silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” Opt. Express13(8), 3129–3135 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sadana, D. K.

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

Sakai, Y.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Samara-Rubio, D.

Sanguinetti, S.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Schmidt, B.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sergent, A. M.

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Shafiiha, R.

Shinkawa, M.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Soref, R. A.

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stangl, J.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Stein, H. J.

H. J. Stein, “Neutron-and proton-induced defects in SiGe alloys: optical absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.45(5), 1954–1961 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Sugiyama, N.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, M.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takagi, S.

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Takenaka, M.

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[CrossRef]

Tezuka, T.

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Thomson, D. J.

Toyoda, E.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S.

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Usuda, K.

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Vogl, P.

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

von Ka¨nel, H.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Werner, J.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Wintersberger, E.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Xu, Q.

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Zheng, X.

Appl. Phys. Express

N. Hirashita, Y. Moriyama, S. Nakaharai, T. Irisawa, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “Deformation induced holes in Ge-rich SiGe-on-insulator and Ge-on-insulator substrates fabricated by Ge condensation process,” Appl. Phys. Express1, 101401 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. W. Bedell, K. Fogel, D. K. Sadana, and H. Chen, “Defects and strain relaxation in silicon-germanium-on-insulator formed by high-temperature oxidation,” Appl. Phys. Lett.85(24), 5869–5871 (2004).
[CrossRef]

D. V. Lang, R. People, J. C. Bean, and A. M. Sergent, “Measurement of the band gap of GexSi1-x/Si strained-layer heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett.47(12), 1333–1335 (1985).
[CrossRef]

S. Nakaharai, T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, Y. Moriyama, and S. Takagi, “Characterization of 7-nm-thick strained Ge-on-insulator layer fabricated by Ge-condensation technique,” Appl. Phys. Lett.83(17), 3516–3518 (2003).
[CrossRef]

S. Balakumar, S. Peng, K. M. Hoe, G. Q. Lo, R. Kumar, N. Balasubramanian, D. L. Kwong, Y. L. Foo, and S. Tripathy, “Fabrication of thick SiGe on insulator (Si0.2Ge0.8OI) by condensation of SiGe/Si superlattice grown on silicon on insulator,” Appl. Phys. Lett.90(19), 192113 (2007).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Surf. Sci.

M. Oehme, J. Werner, O. Kirfel, and E. Kasper, “MBE growth of SiGe with high Ge content for optical applications,” Appl. Surf. Sci.254(19), 6238–6241 (2008).
[CrossRef]

Y. Moriyama, N. Hirashita, K. Usuda, S. Nakaharai, N. Sugiyama, E. Toyoda, and S. Takagi, “Study of the surface cleaning of GOI and SGOI substrates for Ge epitaxial growth,” Appl. Surf. Sci.256(3), 823–829 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

L. Liao, A. Liu, D. Rubin, J. Basak, Y. Chetrit, H. Nguyen, R. Cohen, N. Izhaky, and M. Paniccia, “40 Gbit/s silicon optical modulator for high-speed applications,” Electron. Lett.43(22), 1196–1197 (2007).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Electron Device Lett.

T. Tezuka, S. Nakaharai, Y. Moriyama, N. Sugiyama, and S. Takagi, “High-mobility strained SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with Ge-rich surface channels fabricated by local condensation technique,” IEEE Electron Device Lett.26(4), 243–245 (2005).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

H. C. Nguyen, Y. Sakai, M. Shinkawa, N. Ishikura, and T. Baba, “Photonic crystal silicon optical modulators: carrier-injection and depletion at 10 Gb/s,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron.48(2), 210–220 (2012).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

M. Takenaka and S. Takagi, “Strain engineering of plasma dispersion effect for SiGe optical modulators,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.48(1), 8–16 (2012).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Soref and B. R. Bennett, “Electrooptical effects in silicon,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.23(1), 123–129 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “Ultrathin body SiGe-on-insulator pMOSFETs with high-mobility SiGe surface channels,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev.50(5), 1328–1333 (2003).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

H. J. Stein, “Neutron-and proton-induced defects in SiGe alloys: optical absorption,” J. Appl. Phys.45(5), 1954–1961 (1974).
[CrossRef]

M. V. Fischetti and S. E. Laux, “Band structure, deformation potentials, and carrier mobility in strained Si, Ge, and SiGe alloys,” J. Appl. Phys.80(4), 2234–2252 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc.

Y. Zhang, K. Cai, C. Li, S. Chen, H. Lai, and J. Kang, “Strain relaxation in ultrathin SGOI substrates fabricated by multistep Ge condensation method,” J. Electrochem. Soc.156(2), H115–H118 (2009).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

T. Tezuka, N. Sugiyama, T. Mizuno, M. Suzuki, and S. Takagi, “A Novel fabrication of ultrathin and relaxed SiGe buffer layers with high Ge fraction for sub-100 nm strained silicon-on-insulator MOSFETs,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.40(Part 1, No. 4B), 2866–2874 (2001).
[CrossRef]

Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.

F. Pezzoli, E. Bonera, E. Grilli, M. Guzzi, S. Sanguinetti, D. Chrastina, G. Isella, H. von Ka¨nel, E. Wintersberger, J. Stangl, and G. Bauer, “Raman spectroscopy determination of composition and strain in Si1-xGex/Si heterostructures,” Mat. Sci. in Semi. Proc.11, 279–284 (2008).

Nature

Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, S. Pradhan, and M. Lipson, “Micrometre-scale silicon electro-optic modulator,” Nature435(7040), 325–327 (2005).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Opt. Express

Phys. Rev.

R. Braunstein, A. R. Moore, and F. Herman, “Intrinsic optical absorption in germanium-silicon alloys,” Phys. Rev.109(3), 695–710 (1958).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter

M. M. Rieger and P. Vogl, “Electronic-band parameters in strained Si1-xGex alloys on Si1-yGey substrates,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter48(19), 14276–14287 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Physica E

A. Liu and M. Paniccia, “Advances in silicon photonic devices for silicon-based optoelectronic applications,” Physica E35(2), 223–228 (2006).
[CrossRef]

Other

International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, (2011 Edition). Available: http://www.itrs.net/Links/2011ITRS/2011Chapters/2011Interconnect.pdf

J. Humlicek, F. Lukes, and E. Schmidt, “Silicon–germanium alloys (SixGe1−x),” in Handbook of Optical Constants of Solids II, E. D. Palik, Ed. (Academic, 1991), pp. 607–636.

S. Koh, K. Sawano, Y. Shiraki, N. Usami, K. Nakajima, X. Huang, and S. Uda, “Fabrication of p-i-n Si0.5Ge0.5 photodetctors on SiGe-on-Insulator Substrates,” 2004 first IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics.

K. C. Saraswat, C. O. Chui, D. Kim, T. Krishnamohan, and A. Pethe, “High mobility materials and novel device structures for high performance nanoscale MOSFETs,” Electron Devices Meeting,2006. IEDM '06. International.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Conductivity effective masses of Si1-xGex on Si0.2Ge0.8 as a function of Ge mole fraction. (b) Enhancement factors of change in refractive index of Si1-xGex on Si0.2Ge0.8 as a function of Ge mole fraction.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Length required π-phase shift as a function of carrier density.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Fabrication flow of Ge-rich SGOI by Ge condensation and SiGe regrowth technique: (a) Growth of Si0.7Ge0.3 on SOI, (b) Ge condensation by thermal annealing (c) Formation of 11-nm-thick Si0.2Ge0.8-on-insulator structure by Ge condensation, and (d) Regrowth of Si0.19Ge0.1 (175 nm) on SGOI substrate by MBE.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Raman spectra of SGOI (Ge = 28, 56, 65, and 80%) during Ge condensation and SGOI (Ge = 81%) after SiGe regrowth.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Surface roughness of three samples measured by AFM and RHEED patterns of (a) and (d) as-grown Si0.7Ge0.3-OI, (b) and (e) Ge-condensed Si0.2Ge0.8-OI, and (c) and (f) Regrown Si0.2Ge0.8-OI.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Cross-sectional TEM images of SGOI formed by Ge condensation and SiGe regrowth.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Propagation loss of straight waveguides fabricated on SGOI. SGOI waveguides with the width of 1 μm and with the length of 0.7 - 2.0 mm. Here, the propagation loss was estimated using the wavelength of 1.55 μm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Hole concentrations of the Ge-condensed SiGe layer, and the Ge-condensed SiGe + regrown SiGe layers, and the regrown SiGe layer evaluated by Hall measurement.

Equations (1)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn= e 2 λ 2 8 π 2 c 2 ε 0 n ( Δ N e m * ce + Δ N h m * ch )

Metrics